at crossings without traffic controls Gene Bourquin, Rob Wall, Dona Sauerburger What conditions cause drivers to yield: vests, flags, and cane, oh my? Why drivers yield? Social theories and empirical research indicate that dependency cues influence drivers Harrell (1993) Drivers yielded more readily to individuals perceived to be dependent: mothers with a carriage, people thought to have a physical disability, or people who are blind. (Bake & Reitz, 1978) What drivers see Attentional capture: a stimulus that alters attention away from the prevailing focus…which draw a attention without that person’s volition. (Hughes, Vachon, & Jones, 2005) What’s in your attention set? (Mack, Pappas, Silverman, & Gay, 2002) Inattentional Blindness: the phenomenon when items not expected, not of interest, or not meaningful are not perceived by the visual system. (Ramachandran & Rogers-Ramachandran, 2005) Conditions are likely to be noticed and understood when attentional capture is high and inattentional blindness in minimized. What we knew about drivers’ yielding driver yielding for pedestrians approaching crosswalk at a roundabout: no white cane: 52% drivers with white cane: 63% drivers (Geruschat and Hassan, 2005) driver yielding for pedestrians standing at roundabout crosswalks with a visible long white cane or dog (Ashmead, Guth, Wall, Long, & Ponchillia, 2005) Entry lanes (slower): No cane / dog: 20% With cane / dog: 36.4% Exit lanes (faster): No cane / dog: 0% With cane / dog: 9% (Ashmead, Guth, Wall, Long, & Ponchillia, 2005) driver yielding for pedestrians standing at crosswalk with a visible long white cane or dog (Guth, Ashmead, Long, Wall, & Ponchillia, 2005) mid-block campus crossing: no cane/dog: 80% trials with cane/dog: 96% trial (Guth, Ashmead, Long, Wall, & Ponchillia, 2005) Uncontrolled crossing at downtown intersection (stop sign on intersecting street): no cane/dog: 5% trials with cane/dog: 7% trials (Guth, Ashmead, Long, Wall, & Ponchillia, 2005) What we did What we found C2 X P C1 375 trials Control yielding rate: Flag Vest Cane Cane waive Cane waive vest 0.41 0.62 0.49 0.87 0.89 0.91 The main differences seen in yielding were across the crossing conditions Secondarily, vehicle approach speed most critically impacted yielding This study, along with previous studies, indicate a general principle that using a cane will improve safety. A long cane is a well-known symbol that reduces inattention blindness through its visibility and meaningfulness. Mack, A., Pappas, Z., Silverman, M., & Gay, R. (2002). What we see: Inattention and the capture of attention by meaning. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (2002) 488–506, 2002(11). Ashmead, D. H., Guth, D., Wall, R. S., Long, R. G., & Ponchillia, P. E. (2005). Street Crossing by Sighted and Blind Pedestrians at a Modern Roundabout. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 131(11), 812-821. Baker, L. D., & Reitz, H. J. (1978). Altruism toward the blind: effects of sex of helper and dependency of victim. Journal of Social Psychology, 104(1), 19. Guth, D., Ashmead, D., Long, R., Wall, R., & Ponchillia., P. (2005). Blind and Sighted Pedestrians' Judgments of Gaps in Traffic at Roundabouts. Human Factors, 47(2), 134(118). Harrell, W. A. (1993). The Impact of Pedestrian Visibility and Assertiveness on Motorist Yielding. [Article]. Journal of Social Psychology, 133(3), 353-360. Hughes, R. W., Vachon, F., & Jones, D. M. (2005). Auditory Attentional Capture During Serial Recall: Violations at Encoding of an Algorithm-Based Neural Model? Journal of Experimental Psychology / Learning, Memory & Cognition, 31(4), 736-749. Ramachandran, V. S., & Rogers-Ramachandran, D. (2005). How Blind Are We? Scientific American Mind, 16(2), 96-95.