Outcomes Based
TM
Accountability
"TURNING THE CURVE"
The Fiscal Policy Studies Institute
Websites
raguide.org
resultsaccountability.com
Book - DVD Orders
amazon.com
resultsleadership.org
SIMPLE
COMMON SENSE
PLAIN LANGUAGE
MINIMUM PAPER
USEFUL
Outcomes-Based Accountability
is made up of two parts:
Population Accountability
about the well-being of
WHOLE POPULATIONS
For Communities – Cities – Counties – States - Nations
Performance Accountability
about the well-being of
CUSTOMER POPULATIONS
For Services – Agencies – and Service Systems
Outcome-Based Accountability
COMMON LANGUAGE
COMMON SENSE
COMMON GROUND
THE LANGUAGE TRAP
Too many terms. Too few definitions. Too little discipline
Benchmark
Outcome
Result
Modifiers
Indicator
Measurable Core
Urgent
Qualitative
Priority
Programmatic
Targeted
Performance
Incremental Strategic
Systemic
Measure
Goal
Objective
Target
CoreYour
qualitative
made
upsystemic
jargonobjectives
here
Measurable
urgentstrategic
indicators
Lewis Carroll Center for Language Disorders
DEFINITIONS
OUTCOME or RESULT
1. A condition of well-being for
Population
children, adults, families or communities.
Children born healthy
healthy, Children ready for school,
school
Safe communities,
Environment, Prosperous Economy
communities Clean Environment
INDICATOR or BENCHMARK
2. A measure which helps quantify the achievement
of an outcome.
Rate of low-birthweight babies
babies, Percent ready at K entry
entry,
rate air quality index,
index unemployment rate
crime rate,
Performance
PERFORMANCE MEASURE
3. A measure of how well a program, agency or service
system is working.
1. How much did we do?
Three types: 2. How well did we do it?
3. Is anyone better off? = Customer Outcome
From Ends to Means
From Talk
Talk to
From
toAction
Action
Population
OUTCOME
ENDS
Performance
INDICATOR
PERFORMANCE
MEASURE
Customer outcome = Ends
Service delivery = Means
MEANS
POPULATION
ACCOUNTABILITY
For Whole Populations
in a Geographic Area
Fiscal Policy Studies Institute
Santa Fe, New Mexico
www.resultsaccountability.com
www.raguide.org
Community Outcomes
for Christchurch, NZ
1. A Safe City
2. A City of Inclusive and Diverse Communities
3. A City of People who Value and Protect the Natural
Environment
4. A Well-Governed City
5. A Prosperous City
6. A Healthy City
7. A City for Recreation, Fun and Creativity
8. City of Lifelong Learning
9. An Attractive and Well-Designed City
Every Child Matters – Children Act
Outcomes for Children and Young People
Being Healthy: enjoying good physical and mental health and living a
healthy lifestyle.
Staying Safe: being protected from harm and neglect and growing up able
to look after themselves.
Enjoying and Achieving: getting the most out of life and developing
broad skills for adulthood.
Making a Positive Contribution: to the community and to society
and not engaging in anti-social or offending behaviour.
Economic Well-being: overcoming socio-economic disadvantages to
achieve their full potential in life.
City of London
Ontario, Canada
Priority Results
● A Strong Economy
● A Vibrant Diverse Community
● A Green and Growing City
● A Reliable Infrastructure
● A Safe City
Source:
Draft Strategic Plan Sept 2011
New Zealand
Santa Cruz, CA
Halton Ontario
Coventry, UK
Leaking Roof
(Outcomes thinking in everyday life)
Experience
Inches of Water
BASELINE
Measure
Not OK
? Fixed
Turning the Curve
Story behind the baseline (causes)
Partners
What Works
Action Plan #2
Outcomes
Indicators
Baseline & Story
Rebound
Newcastle, UK
20.00%
18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
10.00%
8.00%
6.00%
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Ncle 14.5 14.5 16.8 14.5
Revised 9 Nov 2007
17
15
11.9 10.6
9.5
9.3
Nov 08 –
Jan 09
8.5
Source: Connexions Tyne and Wear, UK
Christchurch, New Zealand
Number of Graffiti Sites
FY 2002 to FY 2010
no. of Tagged Sites visited
2002/03
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2007/08
2008/09
20
01
/0
20 2
02
/0
20 3
03
/0
20 4
04
/0
20 5
05
/0
20 6
06
/0
20 7
07
/0
20 8
08
/0
20 9
09
/1
0
no. of sites
2001/02
year
2009/10
Hull, UK
"Woundings"
Performance
Accountability
For Services, Agencies and
Service Systems
Fiscal Policy Studies Institute
Santa Fe, New Mexico
www.resultsaccountability.com
www.raguide.org
“All Performance Measures
that have ever existed
for any service
in the history of the universe
involve answering two sets of
interlocking questions.”
Service Performance Measures
Quantity
Quality
How
Much
How
Well
did we do?
did we do it?
(#)
(%)
Service Performance Measures
Effort
How hard did we try?
Effect
Is anyone better off?
Service Performance Measures
Effort
How
Much
How
Well
Effect
Quantity
Quality
Input
Effort
How much
service did
we deliver?
How well
did we
deliver it?
Output
Effect
Service Performance Measures
How much
change / effect
did we produce?
What quality of
change / effect
did we produce?
Effect
Effort
Service Performance Measures
Quantity
Quality
How much
did we do?
How well
did we do it?
Is anyone
better off?
#
%
Effort
Education
Quantity
Quality
How much did we do?
How well did we do it?
Number of
students
Student-teacher
ratio
Effect
Is anyone better off?
Number of 16 olds
with 5 A to C
GCSE’s
Percent of 16 yr olds
with 5 A to C
GCSE’s
Number of fixed
term exclusions
Rate of fixed
term exclusions
Effort
Pediatric Practice
Quantity
Quality
How much did we do?
How well did we do it?
Number of
patients
treated
Percent of
patients treated
in less than
1 hour
Effect
Is anyone better off?
#
children
fully
immunized
%
children
fully
immunized
(in the practice)
(in the practice)
Effort
Drug/Alcohol Treatment Program
Quantity
Quality
How much did we do?
How well did we do it?
Number of
persons
treated
Percent of
staff with
training/
certification
Effect
Is anyone better off?
Number of clients Percent of clients
off of alcohol &
off of alcohol &
drugs
drugs
- at exit
- 12 months after exit
- at exit
- 12 months after exit
Effort
Fire Department
Quantity
Quality
How much did we do?
How well did we do it?
Number of
responses
Response
Time
Effect
Is anyone better off?
# of fires
kept to
room of origin
% of fires
kept to
room of origin
Effort
Not All Performance Measures Are Created Equal
Quantity
Quality
Quality
How much did we do?
How well did we do it?
Least
Also
Very Important
Important
Effect
Is anyone better off?
Most
Important
Effort
The Matter of Control
Quantity
Quality
How much did we do?
How well did we do it?
Most
Control
Effect
Is anyone better off?
Least
Control
PARTNERSHIPS
Performance Accountability
Types of Measures found in each Quadrant
How much did we do?
How well did we do it?
# Clients/customers
served
% Common measures
# Activities (by type
of activity)
% Activity-specific
measures
e.g. client staff ratio, workload ratio, staff
turnover rate, staff morale, % staff fully
trained, % clients seen in their own language,
worker safety, unit cost
e.g. % timely, % clients completing activity,
% correct and complete, % meeting standard
Is anyone better off?
% Skills / Knowledge
#
#
#
#
Point in Time
vs.
2 Point
Comparison
#
(e.g. parenting skills)
% Attitude / Opinion
%
(e.g. toward drugs)
% Behavior
(e.g.school attendance)
% Circumstance
(e.g. working, in stable housing)
Primary v.
Secondary
Direct v.
Indirect
Internal v.
External
LR
UR
Baseline & Story
How
Population
&
Performance
Accountability
FIT TOGETHER
THE LINKAGE Between POPULATION and PERFORMANCE
POPULATION ACCOUNTABILITY
Healthy Births
Rate of low birth-weight babies
POPULATION
RESULTS
Stable Families
Rate of child abuse and neglect
Children Ready for School
Percent fully ready per K-entry assessment
PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY
Child Protective Services
# of
investigations
completed
% initiated
within 24 hrs
of report
# repeat
Abuse/Neglect
% repeat
Abuse/Neglect
CUSTOMER
RESULTS
Contribution
relationship
Alignment
of measures
Appropriate
responsibility
OBA in a Nutshell
2–3-7
2 - kinds of accountability plus language discipline
Population accountability
Performance accountability
Outcomes & Indicators
Performance measures
3 - kinds of performance measures.
How much did we do?
How well did we do it?
Is anyone better off?
7 - questions from ends to means in less than
an hour. Baselines and Turning the Curve
“If you do what you
always did,
you will get what
you always got.”
Kenneth W. Jenkins
President, Yonkers NY NAACP
THANK YOU !
Websites
raguide.org
resultsaccountability.com
------Book - DVD Orders-----amazon.com
resultsleadership.org