Presented to the Child Development Initiative
By Sheila Hayes
Nov 2010
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: BA., H. Dip. Ed., Dip. Counselling, M. Ed. & Counselling, Member I.A.C.P. www.Attachment.ie
1



Clinical Counsellor since 1996
Member IACP
Masters in Educational Guidance and
Counselling from Trinity College
◦ Masters Dissertation on Attachment Theory
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
2


Attachment Theory: Background and
History
John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
◦ Key Elements of Attachment Relationships



Harlow & Ainsworth: Further Research and
Vindication
Attachment Styles
Application of the theory
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
3

Has always been a key question in
Psychoanalysis
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
4


Developed the Oedipus
Complex
Maintained
Psychological problems
arose as a result of lack
of resolution of the
Oedipus Complex.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
5

Mother Child bond arose due
to feeding
◦ Kleinian Dependency Theory

Psychological problems arose
◦ Not from lack of resolution of
the Oedipus Complex
◦ But from the act of weaning

The Freud / Klein view of the
Mother-Child relationship
was predominant up to the
1960s
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
6




Konrad Lorenz
Studied goslings and
ducklings who fed themselves
Proposed that a bond could
develop without the
intermediary of food.
Developed the term
Imprinting
◦ Where a duckling or gosling can
attach itself to almost anything.

Received a Nobel prize in
1973
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
7
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
8
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
9


Attachment Theory: Background and
History
John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
◦ Key Elements of Attachment Relationships



Harlow & Ainsworth: Further Research and
Vindication
Attachment Styles
Application of the theory
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
10

Qualified as a Child Psychiatrist
in 1940
◦ Eventually became Director of Child
Psychology at Tavistock clinic


Interested in the treatment of
disturbed children
Joined British Psychoanalytical
Society as they controlled the
thinking on the treatment of
disturbed children
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
11



Observed inter-generational transmission of
Neurosis
Psychoanalytic society focussed on the
Child’s unconscious
Bowlby felt that environment and
relationships, particularly, with the mother
were important
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
12


1951
Wrote a report for WHO on the impact on
children during the second world war.
◦ Maternal Care and Mental Health
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
13



1947 – A Peril in
Infancy
1952 - A Two Year
Old Goes to Hospital
Highlighted the
impact on infants of
parental separation.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
14

“The Nature of the Child’s Tie to his Mother”
◦ Addressed issues such as
 Anger, Trauma, Defence, Isolation, Early Child
Development
 Child has an inbuilt propensity to respond well to
people
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
15


It was dominated by the Freud / Klein View
Uproar
◦ Received very critically
◦ He left the society

Was unable to effect change in how children
were treated in hospitals due to opposition
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
16

Attachment Theory is concerned with how a
personality develops through the relationship
with a child's primary carer.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
17

Developed in Three Books
◦ 1969:
◦ 1972:
◦ 1980:
Attachment,
Separation: Anxiety and Anger
Loss: Sadness and Depression
1982 :
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
Update to Attachment
18


Attachment Theory: Background and
History
John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
◦ Key Elements of Attachment Relationships



Harlow & Ainsworth: Further Research and
Vindication
Attachment Styles
Application of the theory
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
19

Features of a healthy attachment relationship
◦
◦
◦
◦
Secure Base
Safe Haven
Proximity Maintenance
Separation Distress
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
20

Bowlby stated that even if there is a long
separation between the child and the mother
after the bond has been formed, the bond will
still be there and be recognisable in the
child’s behaviour towards the mother.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
21

A child has two unconscious working models
(or mental maps). They govern
◦ How the child views himself
◦ How he views the world


Development of the working models is
determined by the attachment relationship
with his primary carer
Models can be
◦ Positive
◦ Negative
◦ Multiple / Conflicting
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
22



Bowlby maintained these were at the roof of
Psychopathologies.
e.g. I’m afraid Dad will leave and I hope Dad
will leave
Bowlby posited that working models were at
the root of intergenerational Transmission of
Neurosis.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
23

Thinking shaped behaviour
◦ Bandura, Skinner, Piaget
◦ Attachment theory linked thoughts, feelings and
behaviour
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
24

Not to pick up a crying child as that would
reinforce the crying-spoilt child.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
25


Attachment Theory: Background and
History
John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
◦ Key Elements of Attachment Relationships



Harlow & Ainsworth: Further Research and
Vindication
Attachment Styles
Application of the theory
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
26


Harry Harlow had been researching Rhesus
Monkeys
See Video
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
27

See Video
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
28

Monkeys removed from parents at birth
showed abnormalities in parenting behaviour.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
29

Mary Salter-Ainsworth
◦ 1913 – 1999





Canadian / American who
became a doctor in Canadian
Army
Studied under John Bowlby in
the Tavistock Clinic
Observed parenting in Uganda
Returned to America
Developed the Strange
Situation Experiment at 18
months.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
30
Child’s Chair Heaped
with Toys
Stranger’s Chair
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
Mother’s Chair
31



Originally conducted in 1968 in Baltimore
USA
100 Middle class children
Defined protocol
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
32
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
33

Identified Attachment styles
◦ One Secure
◦ Two Insecure
◦ One Uncategorised (13%)

Results have been replicated in dozens of
studies around the world since
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
34


Attachment Theory: Background and
History
John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
◦ Key Elements of Attachment Relationships



Harlow & Ainsworth: Further Research and
Vindication
Attachment Styles
Application of the theory
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
35




Secure
Insecure Avoidant
Insecure Resistant or Ambivalent
Insecure Disorganised / Disoriented
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
36

Explores room and toys with interest in preseparation episodes. Show signs of missing
parent during separation, often crying by
second separation. Obvious preference for
parent over stranger. Greets parent actively,
usually initiating physical contact.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
37

Fails to cry on separation from parent.
Actively avoids and ignores parent on reunion
(i.e.. by moving away, turning away, or
leaning our arms when picked up). Little or
no proximity seeking, no distress and no
anger. Response to parent seems
unemotional. Focuses on toys or environment
throughout the process.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
38

May be wary or distressed prior to separation,
with little exploration. Preoccupied with
parent throughout procedure; may seem
angry or passive. Fails to settle and take
comfort in parent on reunion, and usually
continues to focus on parent and cry. Fails to
return to exploration after reunion.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
39


Not classified in 1968
The infant displays disorganised and / or
disoriented behaviours in the parent’s
presence, suggesting a temporary collapse of
behavioural strategy. For example, the infant
may freeze with a trance-like expression,
hands in air; may rise at parent’s entrance,
then fall prone and huddled on the floor; or
may cling while crying and leaning away with
gaze averted.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
40


Follow up longitudinal study in Berkeley
Developed the Adult Attachment Interview
◦ Protocol

Identified four attachment styles
◦ One secure
◦ Three Insecure


The adult styles were similar to the child
styles.
This work classified the third insecure style
for children
◦ Insecure disorganised
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
41


There was an 80% chance that a child had a
similar attachment style to that of their
parent.
Confirmed Bowlby’s intergenerational
transmission of neurosis hypothesis.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
42

Later identified by Mary Main
◦ Where an insecure attachment can become secure
through
 Positive relationships e.g. Teachers, coaches,
 Intimate relationships
 Counselling / Psychotherapy
◦ Ideally occurs before adolescence
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
43

Maladaptive behaviors
◦ E.G. Aggression, Grandiosity

Thinking that attachment styles are due to
genetics
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
44





Secure
Insecure Avoidant
Insecure Resistant or Ambivalent
Insecure Disorganised / Disoriented
Earned Secure
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
45
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
46


Attachment Theory: Background and
History
John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
◦ Key Elements of Attachment Relationships



Harlow & Ainsworth: Further Research and
Vindication
Attachment Styles
Application of the theory
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
47

1985 – The Dublin Child Development Study
(DCDS).
 Trinity College & Harvard
 100 Dyads
 80% secure
 No Insecure: Disorganised found

2005 – 2009
◦ Mary Mercer Centre Tallaght
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
48

2000
◦ The Circle of Security®
◦ www.circleofsecurity.org
◦ Glen Cooper, Kent Hoffman, Robert Marvin and Bert
Powell
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
49
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
50



Mother-child bond saw role of father as
supportive one
The Feminist Movement
Role of genetics
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
51

www.attachment.ie
◦ My website
◦ This presentation can be downloaded
◦ Other resources and videos

www.johnbowbly.com
◦ State University of New York at Stonybrook

www.circleofsecurity.org
◦ Background and material on the Circle of Security
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
52
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: BA., H. Dip. Ed., Dip. Counselling, M. Ed. & Counselling, Member I.A.C.P. www.Attachment.ie
53

Bretherton (1992)
◦ ... If the attachment figure has acknowledged the
infant’s needs for comfort and protection while
simultaneously respecting the infant’s need for
independent exploration of the environment, the
child is likely to develop an internal working model
of self as valued and reliable.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
54

Bretherton (1992)
◦ Conversely, if the parent has frequently rejected the
infant’s bids for comfort or for exploration, the
child is likely to construct an internal working
model of self as unworthy or incompetent. With the
aid of working models, children predict the
attachment figure’s likely behaviour and plan their
own responses. What type of model they construct
is therefore of great consequence.
(c) 2009. Sheila Hayes: www.Attachment.ie
55
Download

PowerPoint - Childhood Development Initiative