Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften
Professur für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie
Implications of work stress models for
entrepreneurship
Dominika Dej
Today‘s agenda
• Importance of work for human beings
• Film
• Work stress models
• Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ)
• Your Job Fit
• What is good work?
Importance of work for human beings
We spend half of our adult life at work
• It can be a joy or a chore
• A source of…
Meaning, purpose, satisfaction,
solace, inspiration, connection
OR
Frustration, dissatisfaction, alienation
The importance of work
What do psychologists say?
“Work will always matter to people … they will
always love it and hate it … society should
help people love it more than hate it.”
Warr & Wall (1975, p. 11)
What is good work?
Specialization and simplification
• Your reflection about the film…
• Past or maybe future?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CYbsBcPDVQM
Specialization and simplification
Old way: Assembly at individual stations
People hate simplified work
• Importance of social relationships/ social connection
New way:
?
Health, learning, personality development
Work stress models: Basic definitions
Definition of job demands
“The degree to which the environment contains
stimuli that peremptorily require attention and response.
Demands are the ‘things that have to be done.’’
Jones & Fletcher (1996, p. 34)
“Job demands are those physical, psychological, social, or
organizational aspects of the job that require sustained physical
and/or psychological (i.e., cognitive or emotional) effort and are
therefore
associated
with
certain
physiological
and/or
psychological costs.
Although job demands are not necessarily negative, they may turn
into job stressors when meeting those demands requires high
effort and is therefore associated with high costs that elicit
negative responses such as depression, anxiety, or burnout.“
Schaufeli & Bakker (2004, p. 296)
Work stress models: Basic definitions
Definition of job resources
“Job resources refer to those physical, psychological, social, or
organizational aspects of the job that either/or
(1) reduce job demands and the associated physiological and psychological
costs
(2) are functional in achieving work goals
(3) stimulate personal growth, learning and development.
Schaufeli & Bakker (2004, p. 296)
Hence, resources are not only necessary to deal with job demands and to
‘get things done,’ but they also are important in their own right“
(Hobfoll, 2002).
Work stress models: Exercise
emotional
cognitive
physical
others
Job
resources
-
-
-
-
Job
demands
-
-
-
-
Definition: Job Demands and Job Resources
Job
demands are those physical, psychological, social, or
organizational aspects of the job that require sustained physical
and/or psychological (i.e., cognitive or emotional) effort and are
therefore associated with certain physiological and/or psychological
costs. Although job demands are not necessarily negative, they
may turn into job stressors when meeting those demands requires
high effort and is therefore associated with high costs that elicit
negative responses such as depression, anxiety, or burnout.“
Job resources refer to those physical, psychological, social, or
organizational aspects of the job that either/or
(1) reduce job demands and the associated physiological and
psychological costs
(2) are functional in achieving work goals
(3) stimulate personal growth, learning and development.
Vitamin Model (Warr, 1994)
•
Mental health is affected by environmental psychological features (e.g.,
job characteristics) in a way that is analogous to the effects that vitamins
are supposed to have on physical health
•
There are 9 vitamins = job characteristics that influence the psychological
work-related health
Vitamin Model (Warr, 1994)
6 vitamins (job characteristics) have curvilinear effects on health, i.e.
both lack of and excess of such features will affect mental health
negatively:
1. Opportunity for control
2. Opportunity for interpersonal contact
3. Opportunity for skills use
4. Externally generated goals
5. Variety
6. Environmental clarity.
3 vitamins have a linear effect on health, i.e. the higher such a job
characteristic, the higher the level of mental health will be:
1. Availability of money
2. Physical security
3. Valued social position.
Vitamin Model (Warr, 1994)
•
Affective well-being is a principal indicator for job-related mental
health. Job-related affective well-being has generally been studied in
terms of job satisfaction, job-related anxiety, or tension, occupational
burnout, and depression. Warr proposes three dimensions for this
purpose: displeasure-to-pleasure, anxiety-to-comfort, and depressionto-enthusiasm.
•
Three categories of individual characteristics are viewed as
moderators: values, abilities, and baseline mental health
 “concept of match“ for job characteristics, individual
characteristics, and mental health (e.g., the relationship of job control
and satisfaction will be higher for a person with a high preference for
autonomy than for one with a low preference for autonomy)
Question:
Is there a linear relationship between job characteristics and mental
health?
Vitamin Model (Warr, 1994)
Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ)
Identified 18 dimensions; 4 major categories
–Task
–Knowledge
–Social
–Contextual
• Measured work characteristics with 540 job incumbents across 243
different jobs
What is the relationship between a diverse set of
work features and outcomes?
What is the relationship between a diverse set of
work features and outcomes?
What is the relationship between a diverse set of
work features and outcomes?
What is good work?
Where is the person in this?
• Fit for the work
– Demands-abilities
– Needs-supplies
– Satisfaction of preferences/ values
What is good work?
The Status of “Good Work”?
• This is a complicated thing
• Good for who?
• Good for what?
– Satisfaction, stress, performance, OCB
• Too much of a good thing?
How to Foster Good Work?
Workers can play a central role in “sculpting” or “crafting” their
jobs
– They enact their roles in slightly different ways, expanding it
beyond formal boundaries
– Individuals as active job (re) designers…
• What are the antecedents of different forms of role
expansion?
Who is Responsible for Good Work?
Many responsible parties
– Workers: Be open and proactive
– Leaders: Understand worker needs, help design work, allow
variation where possible
– Organizations: Culture, supportive systems
– Society: Laws, regulations, activists, social organizations
• Bad work is often the result of a flawed assumption about the
purpose of organizations
The pursuit of economic outcomes is not necessarily the primary
goal of business
The Purpose of Organizations
“I think many people assume, wrongly, that a company exists
simply to make money. While this is an important result of a
company’s existence, we have to go deeper and find the real
reasons for our being…we inevitably come to the conclusion
that a group of people get together and exist as a company
so that they are able to accomplish something collectively
that they could not accomplish separately–they make a
contribution to society, a phrase which sounds trite but is
fundamental.”
David Packard, Founder, HP
We have a responsibility as psychologists to help ensure good work…
Thank you!
My thanks to Prof. Fred Morgeson for the use of certain slides from his
presentation “Who is Responsible for Good Work?“ (EAWOP 2011)
Certain images sourced from Google Images.
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