AP Psychology NCVPS Consciousness As a general term, consciousness means awareness of yourself and your environment, including internal and external stimuli. There is more than one type of awareness Sensory awareness – conscious or aware of things outside yourself Direct inner awareness – being aware of things inside you Sense of self – aware of ourselves and our existence AP Psychology NCVPS Psychologists also refer to different levels of consciousness: Conscious mind – also referred to as waking consciousness, those things of which we are immediately aware. http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg Psychologists also refer to different levels of consciousness: Preconscious mind ex. Memory of a favorite toy as a child, awareness of those things we can access if needed. http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg Psychologists also refer to different levels of consciousness: Subconscious mind ex. Freudian slip, daydreaming, road hypnosis. http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg Psychologists also refer to different levels of consciousness: Subconscious mind ex. Freudian slip, daydreaming, road hypnosis. http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg Psychologists also refer to different levels of consciousness: Nonconscious mind ex. Breathing, digestion. Those things which our bodies do automatically, without thought. http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg Psychologists also refer to different levels of consciousness: Nonconscious mind ex. Breathing, digestion. Those things which our bodies do automatically, without thought. http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg Psychologists also refer to different levels of consciousness: Unconscious mind ex. Id, ego, superego, dreams, hypnosis. Those things which our bodies do , of which we are unaware. http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg Consciousness Our bodies pass through each of these levels multiple times a day. AP Psychology NCVPS The daily cycle our bodies experience each day is know as the circadian rhythm. As part of our circadian rhythm, we experience varying levels of alertness over a roughly 24 hour period of time. http://saypeople.com/2012/02/18/circadian-rhythm-has-an-important-effecton-immunity-research/#axzz1vk6PP1Rd Your circadian rhythm influences the time you wake, eat, are most alert, and go to sleep, among many other daily activities. http://saypeople.com/2012/02/18/circadian-rhythm-has-an-important-effecton-immunity-research/#axzz1vk6PP1Rd We are also influenced by other biological rhythms. Ultradian rhythms are less than a day in length. • They influence urination, daydreaming, or hunger. • They also effect periods of light and deep sleep. http://saypeople.com/2012/02/18/circadian-rhythm-has-an-important-effecton-immunity-research/#axzz1vk6PP1Rd Infradian rhythms are greater than one day. • The best example of this rhythm is the menstrual cycle, approximately 28 days in length. http://www.care2.com/greenliving/the-history-of-biorhythms.html Circannual rhythms last for about one year or more Two examples are: • Hibernation • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) • Severe depression during the winter months • Seasonal variation in the production of melatonin http://www.workingmansdiary.com/2011/12/huffington-posts-7-ways-to-stay-happy.html AP Psychology NCVPS Sleep is the most well-known biological cycle. Scientists have explored this rhythm in depth and have tried to ask the questions: How do we sleep? Why do we sleep? Why do we dream? Sleep (and alertness) are triggered by brain structures in the limbic system and the brainstem: Levels of the hormone melatonin are influenced by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and the pineal gland. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Circadian_rhythm_labeled.jpg Sleep (and alertness) are triggered by brain structures in the limbic system and the brainstem: • The reticular formation is believed to activate higher regions of the brain, causing period of REM sleep and other periods of alertness. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Circadian_rhythm_labeled.jpg One primary reason ◦ Restorative theory: recuperate from the wear and tear of the day. ◦ Sleep is needed for optimal physical and mental functioning. http://www.crmc.org/services/sleepapnea/default.aspx Another primary reason ◦ Evolutionary theory: keep us protected from the dangers of the night ◦ Sleep patterns adapt to our individual needs. http://www.nativeremedies.com/blog/tag/sleep/ The amount of sleep needed each day varies by age and by individual. https://new.edu/resources/sleeping-and-dreaming-revitalize-us-for-action Sleep deprivation can cause physical, sensory and cognitive disruptions, and in animal studies, has been shown to lead to death. http://www.magnecare.co.uk/Insomnia/html/sleep_deprivation.html A person passes through varying stages of alertness, measurable by different brain wave patterns. http://www.younggunstrading.com/2011/05/to-psychologist-sleep.html Measured by an EEG (electroencephalogram), the changes in brain wave patterns reinforce scientists’ theories of changes in consciousness. http://www.rtmagazine.com/issues/articles/2003-06_03.asp http://1800mattressblog.com/2011/05/rem-and-we%E2%80%99re-not-referring-to-the90%E2%80%99s-punk-alternative-band/ Stages 1 - 4 are considered N-REM (nonREM sleep) http://1800mattressblog.com/2011/05/rem-and-we%E2%80%99re-not-referring-to-the90%E2%80%99s-punk-alternative-band/ Breathing is slowed and brain waves become irregular. It is easy to wake the person, who will insist they are not asleep. Rarely lasts longer than 5 minutes http://1800mattressblog.com/2011/05/rem-and-we%E2%80%99re-not-referring-to-the90%E2%80%99s-punk-alternative-band/ Brain wave cycle slows. First time through stage 2 lasts about 20 minutes. http://1800mattressblog.com/2011/05/rem-and-we%E2%80%99re-not-referring-to-the90%E2%80%99s-punk-alternative-band/ Slow wave sleep First time through stage 4 is about 30 minutes Rejuvenating sleep Rapid eye movement (REM Sleep) as eyes move quickly back and forth Pulse and breathing quickens Brain wave patterns are similar to waking patterns Vivid dreaming occurs in REM sleep REM sleep is sometimes called paradoxical sleep ◦ One’s bodily processes are close to that of being awake ◦ However, the brainstem blocks all muscle movement (Muscle Atonia) One cycle= ~90minutes Awake= Beta waves/ Alert Stage 1= Alpha waves (hypnogogic hallucinations may occur) Stage 2= Theta waves (sleep spindles) Stage 3 & 4= Delta waves REM= Beta waves REM: NREM: Paralysis (acetylcholine cut off); Lack Somnambulism (sleep walking, of muscle tone (cataplexy); eyes dart talking, eating, killing, etc.) back and forth Night terrors (also called incubus Dreams, Nightmares attacks) Pulse rate and breathing are Snoring, Sleep apnea irregular Increases with each sleep cycle Decreases with each sleep cycle REM only; REM rebound when sleep Stages 1-4 (everything else!) deprived Beta Waves Alpha Waves Theta Waves Delta Waves Adrenaline and blood pressure goes Body temperature, blood pressure up down Narcolepsy Insomnia AP Psychology NCVPS REM Sleep is when most dreaming occurs. Everyone dreams, although almost 95% of dreams are forgotten. ◦ The quality of the dream varies vastly. http://telling-secrets.blogspot.com/2012/01/dream-little-dream-with-me.html There are a number of theories as to WHY we dream, but all psychologists agree that we NEED to dream. http://telling-secrets.blogspot.com/2012/01/dream-little-dream-with-me.html Information-Processing Theory ◦ Research suggests REM sleep helps memory storage. ◦ Dreams serve an function by sorting and sifting through the day’s experiences http://wwwcdn.net/ev/assets/images/vectors/afbig/open-file-cabinet-clip-art.jpg http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/803/822654/images/f04_p139.gif ActivationSynthesis Theory ◦ Dreams are the mind’s attempt to make sense of random neural activity in the brain as one sleeps. Freud’s wish-fulfilment theory ◦ Dreamers dream of repressed desires ◦ Manifest content is the literal content of the dream ◦ Latent content is the disguised meaning of the dream http://www.freud-sigmund.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/11/The-Interpretation-ofDreams1.jpg Cognitive Development Theory ◦ Dreams part of the maturation process ◦ Reflection of normal cognitive development http://health.howstuffworks.com/pregnancy-andparenting/baby-health/newborndevelopment/understanding-cognitive-and-socialdevelopment-in-a-newborn-ga1.htm Other theories include: ◦ Problem-solving theory Webb and Cartwright (1978) problem-solving after sleep—“sleep on it” manifest content is the real content ◦ Survival strategy theory Winson (1997) memories of new experiences are placed close together with older memories to form a strategy for survival AP Psychology NCVPS http://www.provhosp.org/sleepDI.htm Many people suffer disturbed sleep patterns periodically. Others suffer from a variety of sleep disorders that can have serious physical and psychological effects. Recurring problems falling asleep or staying asleep Affects about 10% of the population http://healthewoman.org/medical-practice/services/anxiety-and-depression/ Sleeping pills tend to inhibit or suppress REM sleep; worsen the problem Sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakening. Disrupts circadian rhythms and REM sleep http://www.knowabouthealth.com/wpcontent/uploads/2010/12/Symptoms_of-sleep-apnea.jpg Sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks Person may lapse directly into REM sleep Also may experience sudden loss of muscular control Starts in the deep stages of N-REM sleep Person may be able to talk, walk, or complete other activities Rarely has any memory of the event http://our-health-info.blogspot.com/2009/09/sleepwalking-somnambulism.html Characterized by high arousal and appearance of being terrified Happens during stage 4 sleep; mostly in children The individual seldom remembers the event. NOT a nightmare. http://www.fullydomesticated.com/post/7085793855/night-terrors-vs-nightmares Bruxism – teeth grinding Enuresis – bed wetting Myoclonus – sudden jerk of a body part occurring during stage 1 sleep ◦ Everyone has occasional episodes of myoclonus AP Psychology NCVPS The process of creating a trance-like state ◦ Some argue that it is a distinctly separate state of consciousness ◦ Different from sleeping, daydreaming, or other states ◦ Seems real to the person who experiences the state Hypnotic trances include: ◦ Heightened suggestibility ◦ Dissociation ◦ Vivid imagery ◦ Enhanced memory ◦ Posthypnotic suggestibility http://www.hypno4success.com/about-hypnosis/ Also known as Role Play This theory notes that a person’s physiological state does not change under hypnosis. Social factors influence people to believe hypnosis will work and act accordingly. During hypnosis, consciousness splits with one part susceptible to the hypnotic state. (Hilgard) The other part, known as the Hidden Observer, retains awareness of reality Theory advocates hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness http://www.scribd.com/doc/38593980/Psych-Ch-3-Ppt-2 Differences in the ability of people to become hypnotized Varies from person to person Varies from situation to situation http://www.csh.umn.edu/modules/images/hypnosis/HP0024.jpg Hypnosis can lead people to certain behaviors, but does not cause behaviors. Hypnotic suggestions usually involve sensations, thoughts, emotions, and a wide variety of behaviors. http://www.news.wisc.edu/10633 AP Psychology NCVPS Psychoactive Drugs are chemical substances that affect the CNS, impacting cognition, emotion, and behavior. ◦ Can cause physical dependence or addiction physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms ◦ Can also cause psychological dependence a psychological need to use a drug for example, to relieve negative emotions Scientists typically categorize psychoactive drugs into four types: Depressants Stimulants Hallucinogens Opiates Drugs that reduce neural activity alcohol, barbiturates slow body functions Give people a sense of euphoria, but can have negative effects Slows reactions Impairs memory Inhibits judgment http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/alcohol/jump-in-hospitalizations-for-drugand-alcohol-overdoses-among-young-adults http://odlarmed.com/?p=1909 Drugs that excite neural activity caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine speed up body functions Nicotine ◦ Found in tobacco leaves, structurally similar to acetylcholine ◦ Binds to nerve receptors and makes nerve cells fire more frequently. ◦ Causes the heart rate to increase ◦ Extremely addictive http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/medicati on/drug-pictures.htm Amphetamines Stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions Associated with energy and mood changes Help people stay awake and reduce appetite Extremely addictive http://www.ambrosiatreatmentcenter.com/ amphetamines.php Cocaine produces feeling of pleasure, reduces hunger, deadens pain, and boosts selfconfidence effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation http://www.neurosoup.com/schedule1/cocaine.htm http://odlarmed.com/?p=1909 Drugs that excite neural activity caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine speed up body functions http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/hallucinogens-dissociative-drugs Distort perceptions and induce sensory images in the absence of sensory input Psychedelic (mindmanifesting) LSD MDMA (Ecstasy) THC PPC Opium and its derivatives (morphine, codeine, methadone and heroin) Serve as agonists for endorphins Depress neural activity, lessening pain and anxiety Elevate mood Highly addictive Tolerance Diminishing effect with regular use A higher dose of the drug may be required to attain the desired effect. http://www.kyumh.org/Story_Laura.htm http://www.drug-alcohol-addictionrecovery.com/signs-symptoms.html Withdrawal discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use Can include headache, dehydration, sweating, among other symptoms.