AP Psychology
NCVPS
Consciousness
As a general term, consciousness means
awareness of yourself and your environment,
including internal and external stimuli.
There is more than one type of awareness
Sensory awareness – conscious or aware of things
outside yourself
Direct inner awareness – being aware of things inside
you
Sense of self – aware of ourselves and our existence
AP Psychology
NCVPS
Psychologists also
refer to different
levels of
consciousness:
Conscious mind –
also referred to as
waking
consciousness,
those things of
which we are
immediately aware.
http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg
Psychologists also
refer to different
levels of
consciousness:
Preconscious mind
ex. Memory of a
favorite toy as a
child, awareness of
those things we
can access if
needed.
http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg
Psychologists also
refer to different
levels of
consciousness:
Subconscious
mind ex. Freudian
slip, daydreaming,
road hypnosis.
http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg
Psychologists also
refer to different
levels of
consciousness:
Subconscious
mind ex. Freudian
slip, daydreaming,
road hypnosis.
http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg
Psychologists also
refer to different
levels of
consciousness:
Nonconscious
mind ex.
Breathing,
digestion.
Those things
which our bodies
do automatically,
without thought.
http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg
Psychologists also
refer to different
levels of
consciousness:
Nonconscious
mind ex.
Breathing,
digestion.
Those things
which our bodies
do automatically,
without thought.
http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg
Psychologists also
refer to different
levels of
consciousness:
Unconscious mind
ex. Id, ego,
superego, dreams,
hypnosis.
Those things
which our bodies
do , of which we
are unaware.
http://members.shaw.ca/rgtonks/IntroB/Personality/iceberg.jpg
Consciousness
Our bodies pass
through each of these
levels multiple times
a day.
AP Psychology
NCVPS
The daily cycle our
bodies experience each
day is know as the
circadian rhythm.
As part of our circadian
rhythm, we experience
varying levels of
alertness over a
roughly 24 hour period
of time.
http://saypeople.com/2012/02/18/circadian-rhythm-has-an-important-effecton-immunity-research/#axzz1vk6PP1Rd
Your circadian rhythm
influences the time
you wake, eat, are
most alert, and go to
sleep, among many
other daily activities.
http://saypeople.com/2012/02/18/circadian-rhythm-has-an-important-effecton-immunity-research/#axzz1vk6PP1Rd
We are also influenced by other biological rhythms.
Ultradian rhythms are
less than a day in length.
• They influence
urination,
daydreaming, or
hunger.
• They also effect
periods of light and
deep sleep.
http://saypeople.com/2012/02/18/circadian-rhythm-has-an-important-effecton-immunity-research/#axzz1vk6PP1Rd
Infradian rhythms are
greater than one day.
• The best example
of this rhythm is
the menstrual
cycle,
approximately 28
days in length.
http://www.care2.com/greenliving/the-history-of-biorhythms.html
Circannual rhythms last for about one year or more
Two examples are:
• Hibernation
• Seasonal Affective
Disorder (SAD)
• Severe depression
during the winter
months
• Seasonal variation
in the production
of melatonin
http://www.workingmansdiary.com/2011/12/huffington-posts-7-ways-to-stay-happy.html
AP Psychology
NCVPS
Sleep is the most well-known biological cycle.
Scientists have explored this rhythm in depth
and have tried to ask the questions:
 How do we sleep?
 Why do we sleep?
 Why do we dream?
Sleep (and alertness) are
triggered by brain
structures in the limbic
system and the brainstem:
 Levels of the hormone
melatonin are influenced
by the suprachiasmatic
nucleus of the
hypothalamus and the
pineal gland.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Circadian_rhythm_labeled.jpg
Sleep (and alertness) are
triggered by brain
structures in the limbic
system and the brainstem:
• The reticular formation is
believed to activate
higher regions of the
brain, causing period of
REM sleep and other
periods of alertness.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Circadian_rhythm_labeled.jpg

One primary reason
◦ Restorative theory:
recuperate from the
wear and tear of the
day.
◦ Sleep is needed for
optimal physical and
mental functioning.
http://www.crmc.org/services/sleepapnea/default.aspx

Another primary reason
◦ Evolutionary theory:
keep us protected from
the dangers of the night
◦ Sleep patterns adapt to
our individual needs.
http://www.nativeremedies.com/blog/tag/sleep/
The amount of sleep
needed each day varies by
age and by individual.
https://new.edu/resources/sleeping-and-dreaming-revitalize-us-for-action
Sleep deprivation
can cause
physical, sensory
and cognitive
disruptions, and in
animal studies,
has been shown to
lead to death.
http://www.magnecare.co.uk/Insomnia/html/sleep_deprivation.html
A person
passes
through
varying stages
of alertness,
measurable by
different brain
wave patterns.
http://www.younggunstrading.com/2011/05/to-psychologist-sleep.html
Measured by an EEG
(electroencephalogram),
the changes in brain
wave patterns reinforce
scientists’ theories of
changes in
consciousness.
http://www.rtmagazine.com/issues/articles/2003-06_03.asp

http://1800mattressblog.com/2011/05/rem-and-we%E2%80%99re-not-referring-to-the90%E2%80%99s-punk-alternative-band/
Stages 1 - 4
are considered
N-REM (nonREM sleep)


http://1800mattressblog.com/2011/05/rem-and-we%E2%80%99re-not-referring-to-the90%E2%80%99s-punk-alternative-band/

Breathing is
slowed and brain
waves become
irregular.
It is easy to wake
the person, who
will insist they are
not asleep.
Rarely lasts longer
than 5 minutes


http://1800mattressblog.com/2011/05/rem-and-we%E2%80%99re-not-referring-to-the90%E2%80%99s-punk-alternative-band/
Brain wave cycle
slows.
First time through
stage 2 lasts
about 20 minutes.



http://1800mattressblog.com/2011/05/rem-and-we%E2%80%99re-not-referring-to-the90%E2%80%99s-punk-alternative-band/
Slow wave sleep
First time through
stage 4 is about
30 minutes
Rejuvenating sleep




Rapid eye movement (REM Sleep) as eyes
move quickly back and forth
Pulse and breathing quickens
Brain wave patterns are similar to waking
patterns
Vivid dreaming occurs in REM sleep

REM sleep is sometimes called paradoxical
sleep
◦ One’s bodily processes are close to that of
being awake
◦ However, the brainstem blocks all muscle
movement (Muscle Atonia)






One cycle= ~90minutes
Awake= Beta waves/ Alert
Stage 1= Alpha waves (hypnogogic
hallucinations may occur)
Stage 2= Theta waves (sleep spindles)
Stage 3 & 4= Delta waves
REM= Beta waves
REM:
NREM:
Paralysis (acetylcholine cut off); Lack Somnambulism (sleep walking,
of muscle tone (cataplexy); eyes dart talking, eating, killing, etc.)
back and forth
Night terrors (also called incubus
Dreams, Nightmares
attacks)
Pulse rate and breathing are
Snoring, Sleep apnea
irregular
Increases with each sleep cycle
Decreases with each sleep cycle
REM only; REM rebound when sleep Stages 1-4 (everything else!)
deprived
Beta Waves
Alpha Waves
Theta Waves
Delta Waves
Adrenaline and blood pressure goes Body temperature, blood pressure
up
down
Narcolepsy
Insomnia
AP Psychology
NCVPS


REM Sleep is when
most dreaming
occurs.
Everyone dreams,
although almost 95%
of dreams are
forgotten.
◦ The quality of the
dream varies vastly.
http://telling-secrets.blogspot.com/2012/01/dream-little-dream-with-me.html

There are a number
of theories as to
WHY we dream, but
all psychologists
agree that we NEED
to dream.
http://telling-secrets.blogspot.com/2012/01/dream-little-dream-with-me.html

Information-Processing
Theory
◦ Research suggests
REM sleep helps
memory storage.
◦ Dreams serve an
function by sorting
and sifting through
the day’s experiences
http://wwwcdn.net/ev/assets/images/vectors/afbig/open-file-cabinet-clip-art.jpg

http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/803/822654/images/f04_p139.gif
ActivationSynthesis Theory
◦ Dreams are the
mind’s attempt to
make sense of
random neural
activity in the
brain as one
sleeps.

Freud’s wish-fulfilment
theory
◦ Dreamers dream of
repressed desires
◦ Manifest content is
the literal content of
the dream
◦ Latent content is the
disguised meaning of
the dream
http://www.freud-sigmund.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/11/The-Interpretation-ofDreams1.jpg

Cognitive Development
Theory
◦ Dreams part of the
maturation process
◦ Reflection of normal
cognitive development
http://health.howstuffworks.com/pregnancy-andparenting/baby-health/newborndevelopment/understanding-cognitive-and-socialdevelopment-in-a-newborn-ga1.htm

Other theories include:
◦ Problem-solving theory
 Webb and Cartwright (1978)
 problem-solving after sleep—“sleep on it”
 manifest content is the real content
◦ Survival strategy theory
 Winson (1997)
 memories of new experiences are placed
close together with older memories to
form a strategy for survival
AP Psychology
NCVPS


http://www.provhosp.org/sleepDI.htm
Many people suffer
disturbed sleep
patterns periodically.
Others suffer from a
variety of sleep
disorders that can
have serious physical
and psychological
effects.



Recurring problems
falling asleep or
staying asleep
Affects about 10% of
the population
http://healthewoman.org/medical-practice/services/anxiety-and-depression/
Sleeping pills tend to inhibit or suppress
REM sleep; worsen the problem


Sleep disorder
characterized by
temporary cessations
of breathing during
sleep and consequent
momentary
reawakening.
Disrupts circadian
rhythms and REM sleep
http://www.knowabouthealth.com/wpcontent/uploads/2010/12/Symptoms_of-sleep-apnea.jpg



Sleep disorder
characterized by
uncontrollable sleep
attacks
Person may lapse
directly into REM
sleep
Also may
experience sudden
loss of muscular
control



Starts in the deep
stages of N-REM
sleep
Person may be able to
talk, walk, or
complete other
activities
Rarely has any
memory of the event
http://our-health-info.blogspot.com/2009/09/sleepwalking-somnambulism.html




Characterized by
high arousal and
appearance of
being terrified
Happens during
stage 4 sleep;
mostly in children
The individual
seldom remembers
the event.
NOT a nightmare.
http://www.fullydomesticated.com/post/7085793855/night-terrors-vs-nightmares



Bruxism – teeth grinding
Enuresis – bed wetting
Myoclonus – sudden jerk of a body part
occurring during stage 1 sleep
◦ Everyone has occasional episodes of
myoclonus
AP Psychology
NCVPS
 The
process of creating a trance-like
state
◦ Some argue that it is a distinctly separate
state of consciousness
◦ Different from sleeping, daydreaming, or
other states
◦ Seems real to the person who experiences
the state

Hypnotic trances
include:
◦ Heightened
suggestibility
◦ Dissociation
◦ Vivid imagery
◦ Enhanced memory
◦ Posthypnotic
suggestibility
http://www.hypno4success.com/about-hypnosis/



Also known as Role Play
This theory notes that a
person’s physiological
state does not change
under hypnosis.
Social factors influence
people to believe hypnosis
will work and act
accordingly.



During hypnosis,
consciousness splits with
one part susceptible to the
hypnotic state. (Hilgard)
The other part, known as
the Hidden Observer,
retains awareness of reality
Theory advocates hypnosis
is an altered state of
consciousness
http://www.scribd.com/doc/38593980/Psych-Ch-3-Ppt-2



Differences in the
ability of people to
become hypnotized
Varies from person
to person
Varies from
situation to
situation
http://www.csh.umn.edu/modules/images/hypnosis/HP0024.jpg


Hypnosis can lead
people to certain
behaviors, but does
not cause behaviors.
Hypnotic suggestions
usually involve
sensations, thoughts,
emotions, and a wide
variety of behaviors.
http://www.news.wisc.edu/10633
AP Psychology
NCVPS

Psychoactive Drugs are chemical
substances that affect the CNS, impacting
cognition, emotion, and behavior.
◦ Can cause physical dependence or addiction
 physiological need for a drug
 marked by unpleasant withdrawal
symptoms
◦ Can also cause psychological dependence
 a psychological need to use a drug
 for example, to relieve negative emotions

Scientists typically categorize psychoactive
drugs into four types:
 Depressants
 Stimulants
 Hallucinogens
 Opiates

Drugs that reduce neural activity
 alcohol, barbiturates
 slow body functions
 Give people a sense
of euphoria, but can
have negative effects
 Slows reactions
 Impairs memory
 Inhibits judgment
http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/alcohol/jump-in-hospitalizations-for-drugand-alcohol-overdoses-among-young-adults

http://odlarmed.com/?p=1909
Drugs that excite neural
activity
 caffeine, nicotine,
amphetamines, cocaine
 speed up body
functions

Nicotine
◦ Found in tobacco leaves,
structurally similar to
acetylcholine
◦ Binds to nerve receptors and
makes nerve cells fire more
frequently.
◦ Causes the heart rate to
increase
◦ Extremely addictive
http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/medicati
on/drug-pictures.htm

Amphetamines
 Stimulate neural activity,
causing accelerated body
functions
 Associated with energy and
mood changes
 Help people stay awake and
reduce appetite
 Extremely addictive
http://www.ambrosiatreatmentcenter.com/
amphetamines.php

Cocaine
 produces feeling of
pleasure, reduces
hunger, deadens pain,
and boosts selfconfidence
 effects depend on
dosage, form,
expectations,
personality and
situation
http://www.neurosoup.com/schedule1/cocaine.htm

http://odlarmed.com/?p=1909
Drugs that excite neural
activity
 caffeine, nicotine,
amphetamines, cocaine
 speed up body
functions
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/hallucinogens-dissociative-drugs

Distort perceptions and
induce sensory images in
the absence of sensory
input
 Psychedelic (mindmanifesting)
 LSD
 MDMA (Ecstasy)
 THC
 PPC

Opium and its derivatives
(morphine, codeine, methadone and
heroin)
 Serve as agonists for endorphins
 Depress neural activity, lessening
pain and anxiety
 Elevate mood
 Highly addictive

Tolerance
 Diminishing
effect with
regular use
 A higher dose
of the drug may
be required to
attain the
desired effect.
http://www.kyumh.org/Story_Laura.htm

http://www.drug-alcohol-addictionrecovery.com/signs-symptoms.html
Withdrawal
 discomfort and
distress that follow
discontinued use
 Can include headache,
dehydration, sweating,
among other
symptoms.
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Chapter 6 Consciousness