Optimizing the Team
Through Supervision
Presenter:
James Schepper PhD, LPC, CAADC, CCS, CSOTS
Livingston County Catholic Charities
Clinical Director
Functions of a Clinical Supervisor
As Described by TIP 52
Teacher: Assist in the development of knowledge and
skills by identifying learning needs, determining
strengths, promoting self-awareness, and transmitting
knowledge for practical use and professional growth.
Functions of a Clinical Supervisor
As Described by TIP 52
Teacher: Assist in the development of knowledge and skills by identifying learning needs, determining
strengths, promoting self-awareness, and transmitting knowledge for practical use and professional
growth.
Consultant: Provide alternative case conceptualizations,
oversight of work to achieve mutually agreed upon
goals, and professional gatekeeping for the
organization and discipline.
Functions of a Clinical Supervisor
As Described by TIP 52
Teacher: Assist in the development of knowledge and skills by identifying learning needs, determining
strengths, promoting self-awareness, and transmitting knowledge for practical use and professional
growth.
Consultant: Provide alternative case conceptualizations, oversight of work to achieve mutually agreed
upon goals, and professional gatekeeping for the organization and discipline.
Coach: In this supportive role, supervisors provide
morale building, assess strengths and needs, suggest
varying clinical approaches, model, cheerlead, and
prevent burnout.
Functions of a Clinical Supervisor
As Described by TIP 52
Teacher: Assist in the development of knowledge and skills by identifying learning needs, determining
strengths, promoting self-awareness, and transmitting knowledge for practical use and professional growth.
Consultant: Provide alternative case conceptualizations, oversight of work to achieve mutually agreed
upon goals, and professional gatekeeping for the organization and discipline.
Coach: In this supportive role, supervisors provide morale building, assess strengths and needs,
suggest varying clinical approaches, model, cheerlead, and prevent burnout.
Mentor/Role Model: The experienced supervisor mentors
and teaches the supervisee through role modeling,
facilitates the counselor’s overall professional
development and sense of professional identity, and
trains the next generation of supervisors.
Functions of a Clinical Supervisor
As Described by TIP 52
Teacher: Assist in the development of knowledge and skills by identifying learning needs, determining
strengths, promoting self-awareness, and transmitting knowledge for practical use and professional
growth.
Consultant: Provide alternative case conceptualizations, oversight of work to achieve mutually agreed
upon goals, and professional gatekeeping for the organization and discipline.
Coach: In this supportive role, supervisors provide morale building, assess strengths and needs,
suggest varying clinical approaches, model, cheerlead, and prevent burnout.
Mentor/Role Model: The experienced supervisor mentors and teaches the supervisee through role
modeling, facilitates the counselor’s overall professional development and sense of professional
identity, and trains the next generation of supervisors.
With the advent of ROSC (Recovery Oriented
System of Care), supervisory responsibilities
are expanding!
Growing Realm of Supervision
Growing Realm of Supervision
Therapists
Growing Realm of Supervision
Therapists
Case Managers
Growing Realm of Supervision
Therapists
Case Managers
Peer Coaches
COMPETENCIES FOR
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
TREATMENT CLINICAL
SUPERVISORS
Tobi Russell LPC, LLP, NCC, CAADC, CCS-M, BCETS
Director, Rochester Hills Counseling
Competencies Covered
 Understand the role of clinical supervision as the principal
method for monitoring and ensuring the quality of clinical
services
 Understand the multiple roles of the clinical supervisor,
including consultant, mentor, teacher, team member,
evaluator, administrator
 Be able to articulate one’s model of supervision
 Be familiar with modalities of clinical supervision
 Be familiar with adult learning theory and learning styles
Ask yourself these questions
 Can I use clinical supervision models to explain what I do in
supervision?
 Am I comfortable in the multiple roles of evaluator, administrator,
mentor, teacher, and consultant?
 Do I model seeking and giving feedback to improve skills and
performance?
 Do I have established boundaries and effective strategies for conflict
resolution with supervisees?
 Are you able to have difficult conversations addressing job
performance and/or clinical issues?
 Are you able to manage your time to meet expectations and
deadlines?
What is Clinical Supervision?
 Ideally it is:
 A social influence process that occurs over time, in which the
supervisor participates with supervisees to ensure quality clinical
care.”
 Effective supervisors observe, mentor, coach, evaluate, inspire, and
create an atmosphere that promotes self-motivation, learning, and
professional development. They build teams, create cohesion,
resolve conflict, and shape agency culture, while attending to
ethical and diversity issues in all aspects of the process.
 Such supervision is key to both quality improvement and the
successful implementation of consensus and evidence-based
practices (CSAT, 2007, p. 3.)
The Need for Balance
Three Levels of Supervisor Development
Level 1 Supervisor
 Is anxious regarding their role
 Is naïve about assuming the role of supervisor
 Is focused on doing the “right” thing
 May overly respond as an “expert”
 Is uncomfortable providing direct feedback
Three Levels of Supervisor Development
Level 2 Supervisor
 Shows confusion and conflict
 Sees supervision as complex and multidimensional
 Needs support to maintain motivation
 May fall back to being a therapist with the counselor
 Overfocused on counselor’s deficits and perceived
resistance
Three Levels of Supervisor Development
Level 3 Supervisor
 Is highly motivated
 Can provide an honest self-appraisal of strengths and
weaknesses as supervisor
 Is comfortable with evaluation process
 Provides thorough, objective feedback
Supervision Development Questions
 How much do you know about supervision?
 How much experience have you had supervising counselors?
 How much supervision have you received?
 What types of supervision did you receive?
 How much experience do you have supervising counselors?
 Experiences as supervisor and supervisee: amount and type
 What has that supervision consisted of?
What is your supervision style? Influential Dimension
Affective
Cognitive
What is your supervision style? Symbolic Dimension
Latent
Manifest
What is your supervision style? Structural Dimension
Reactive
Proactive
What is your supervision style? Replicative Dimension
Parallel
Discrete
What is your supervision style? Counselor-in-treatment dimension
Related
Unrelated
What is your supervision style? Information-gathering Dimension
Indirect
Direct
What is your supervision style? Relationship Dimension
Facilitative
Hierarchical
What is your supervision style? Strategy Dimension
Theory
Technique
What is your supervision model?
Caption
Psychodynamic Model
Cognitive and Behavioral Model
Blended Model
Psychodynamic Model
Focus is on the dynamics of the supervisee's relationships and
on his or her self-awareness of these dynamics. The supervisor’s role
may be like that of a “therapist” who encourages insight, selfexploration and reality testing.
Transference & countertransference are addressed to help the
supervisee understand reactions to the client and to the client’s
transference.
Influence of client-counselor reactions on the course of therapy
are examined.
Psychodynamic Model
Unresolved personal conflicts – Supervision is therapeutic in that
issues such as internal conflicts are explored as they relate to clinical
work.
Parallel process – Counselor interactions with the supervisor that
parallels the client’s behavior with the counselor are addressed. By
exploring these parallels the counselor may gain an understanding of
the role personal issues play in the supervisory relationship.
Cognitive and Behavioral Model
Challenges cognitions and misperceptions
Identifies cognitive distortions, irrational assumptions, and selfdefeating patterns.
Sets goal of modifying cognition, focus on beliefs and thoughts
and how they affect emotions and behavior
Assumes that both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are
learned and maintained through their consequences
Cognitive and Behavioral Model
Adult learning theory
Recognizes everyone’s potential to learn; supervisor becomes a
teacher
Focuses on how a counselor’s cognitive picture of his or her own
skills affects his or her ability as a counselor
Supervisee becomes familiar with cognitive-behavioral concepts
and techniques and learns how to apply them with clients
Adult Learning Theory
 Tend to self-direct their learning.
 Are generally motivated to learn due to for their own internal factors,
rather than external forces.
 Have many roles to play in life that affect the time and energy they
devote to learning.
 Have life experiences that can serve as resources for new learning.
 Have a task- or problem-centered approach (seek to learn or
understand something because they need/want to use it
immediately).
 Have a unique learning style
Learning Styles
 Adult learners each have different ways in which they
perceive, organize and process information
 One way of categorizing learning styles is:
 Auditory: listening (likes lectures, CD-roms, and videos)
 Visual- seeing (likes demonstrations, videos, and reading
assignments)
 Kinesthetic- doing (likes role-play exercises and practices)
Assessing Learning Style
 Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire (ILS)
 Learning Style Inventory
 What’s Your Learning Style?
 A Learning Style Survey for College
 What are My Learning Strengths?
 Learning Styles
Adult Learning Theory
 Knowles' assumptions
 The need to know — adult learners need to know why they need to learn something
before undertaking to learn it.
 Learner self-concept —adults need to be responsible for their own decisions and to be
treated as capable of self-direction
 Role of learners' experience —adult learners have a variety of experiences of life which
represent the richest resource for learning. These experiences are however imbued with
bias and presupposition.
 Readiness to learn —adults are ready to learn those things they need to know in order
to cope effectively with life situations.
 Orientation to learning —adults are motivated to learn to the extent that they perceive
that it will help them perform tasks they confront in their life situations.
based on Knowles 1990:57
Cognitive and Behavioral Model
Modeling and observation Supervisor demonstrates cognitive-behavioral methods in the
supervisory relationship
Assignments /homework is given by supervisor
Supervision is structured, focused, and educational
Supervision parallels counseling with a client
Blended Model
Blends insight and behavioral change – Supervision combines
understanding of why something works with learning how to do it
(blends skills and theory)
Change is a constant and inevitable – Everyone changes at his or
her own pace, but everyone does change
Developmental needs–Acknowledgment of the stages of counselor
development to build a supervisory relationship based on unique
needs
Blended Model
Context plays a role – When deciding an approach to take in
supervision context must be taken into account
Individualized approach used– Everyone has unique needs and
responds best to interventions that meet those specific needs
Explores solutions, not causes – Focuses on the salient issues to
avoid dwelling on the problem, resulting in higher self-efficacy and
esteem
Resources and References
 Bernard,J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2004). Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision (3rd
Ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
 Borders, L.D., & Leddick, G.R. (1987). Handbook of Counseling Supervision,
Alexandria,VA: Association for Counselor Education and Supervision
 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) (2009). Clinical Supervision and
Professional Development of the Substance Abuse Counselor. Treatment
Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 52. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 09-4435.
Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
 Durham,T. (2006). Clinical Supervision: A 5-Day Course. Silver Spring, MD: Danya
International.
 Durham,T. & Landry, M. (2004). Clinical supervision: A five day course –Participant
workbook. Silver Spring, MD: Danya International.
Resources and References
 Read more: Knowles' andragogy: an angle on adult learning
http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/knowlesa.htm#ixzz2bmgP4kJg
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives
 Knowles,M. (1975). Self-Directed Learning. Chicago: Follet.
 Knowles,M. (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (3rd Ed.). Houston,
TX:Gulf Publishing.
 Leach,M., Stoltenberg, C., McNeill B.& Eichenfield G. (1997). Self efficacy and
counselor development:Testing the integrated developmental model. Counselor
Education and Supervision,37(2), 115. Retrieved September 16,2010, from Alumni ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 23593422).
 Lindbloom, G., Ten Eyck, T.G., & Gallon, S.L. (2005). Clinical supervision I: Building
clinical supervision skills (3rd ed.). Salem, OR:Northwest Frontier ATTC.
Resources and References
 Marini,I, and Stebnicki, M.A. (2009). The Professional Counselor’s Desk Reference. NY:
Springer Publishing.
 Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center. (2005, July). Counselor as
educator-Part 1: How do adults learn? Addiction Messenger, 8 (7).
 Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center. (2005, August). Counselor as
educator-Part 2: Learning styles-teaching styles. Addiction Messenger, 8 (8).
 Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center. (2005, December). Clinical
supervision-Part 3: Creating a learning environment. Addiction Messenger, 8 (12).
 Porter,J. & Gallon, S. (2006). Clinical Supervision II: Addressing Supervisory Problems in
Addictions Treatment. Salem, OR: Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer
Center.
Resources and References
 Powell,D.J. & Brodsky, A. (2004). Clinical Supervision in Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Counseling: Principles, Models, Methods (Rev.Ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
 Powell, D. J. (2004). Clinical supervision in alcohol and drug abuse counseling:
Principles, models, methods (2nd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 Stiehl,R. and Bessey, B. (1994). The green thumb myth: Managing learning in high
performance organizations – A successful strategy for trainers and managers. (2nd
Ed.) Corvallis, OR: The Learning Organization.
 Stoltenberg,C. (1993). Supervising consultants in training: An application of a model
of supervision. Journal of Counseling & Development, 72(2),131-138. Retrieved
9/8/2010 from Academic Search Alumni Edition database.
Resources and References
 Stoltenberg,C. D. (1997). The integrated developmental model of supervision:
Supervision across levels. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 16, 59-69.
 Stoltenberg,C.D., McNeill, B. and Delworth, U. (1998) IDM supervision: An integrated
developmental model of supervising counselors and therapists. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
FUN
Practical Activities to Encourage, Support, and Train Staff
Benefits of FUN Group Supervision Group Activity:
1.Provides Staff to enhance their professional skills,
2.Allows for Staff to interact and build teamwork,
3.It helps the Supervisor with identifying Staff skills.
EXAMPLE: Trait Theory Exercise
Trait Theory Exercise
Materials: use the trait test and result description.
These can be obtained from http://ciosmail.cios.org:3375/readbook/cal/cal.pdf
Communication, Affect & Learning in the Classroom:
Virginia Peck Richmond, Jason S. Wrench, Joan Gorham. Chapter 14.
Benefits of the exercise:
1. Develops an understanding of a staff members processing skills.
2. Develops understanding of differences between staff members.
3. Helps teach staff concerning: FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
The belief that everyone relates to the world the same
way I do.
Or the administrative fallacy of “If I can do it, everyone can
do it.”
Trait Theory Exercise
PROCESS:
1. Have Staff complete the test, score it and identify their temperament.
2. Have Staff group together according to temperaments and discuss together.
3. Have each group prepare to share 3 things concerning their group:
a. Describe the strengths of their temperament,
b. Share one area that deeply stresses their temperament, and
c. What animal or pet best describes their temperament and why.
4. As Supervisor discuss the benefits of a team and how different temperaments
enhance the mission of the agency.
Melancholy
Positives
Not-so-positive
 Philosophical
 Moody & Depressed
 Thoughtful
 Isolative & Withdrawn
 Analytical
 Sensitive to guilt
 Serious and Purposeful
 Skeptical & critical
 Self-sacrificing to close friends
 Easily hurt (martyr)
 High Standards
 Trusts few people
 Faithful & Devoted
 Dislikes groups
 Compassionate
 Organized
CHOLERIC
Positives
Not-so-positive
 Natural leader
 Bossy & Controlling
 Not easily discouraged
 Quick-tempered (anger)
 Independent & Self-sufficient
 Unsympathetic
 Motivates
 Little Tolerance & Demanding
 Goal Oriented
 Manipulates
 Organized
 Micro-manager
 Thrives on competition/opposition
 Impatient toward perceived
inadequacies
 Utilizes relationships
 Relationally selectively ranked
SANGUINE
Positive
Not-so-positive
 Cheerful and Bubbly
 Compulsive Talker
 Life of the party
 Undisciplined
 Great sense of humor
 Capricious Priorities
 Talkative & likes stories
 Decisions based on feelings
 Sincere & Enthusiastic
 Easily distracted
 Always Active
 Shifting emotions
 Creative and colorful
 Despises being alone
 Inspires others to join
 Interrupts & doesn't listen
 Lots of friends & Loves people
 Forgetful & makes excuses
 Spontaneous
PHLEGMATIC
Positives
Not-so-positive
 Easy going and relaxed
 Avoids responsibility
 Consistent
 Indecisive
 Sympathetic & Kind
 Not goal oriented
 Competent & Steady
 Lacks self-motivation
 Avoids Conflict
 Careless/Indifferent to the point of Lazy
 Pleasant with a dry sense of humor
 Resists Change
 Good listener
 Quiet & unengaged
 Has good number of friends
 Resents being pushed
 Doesn't get upset easily
JAMES SCHEPPER PHD, LPC, CAADC, CCS, CSOTS
LIVINGSTON COUNTY CATHOLIC CHARITIES
JAMES@LIVINGSTONCATHOLICCHARITIES.ORG
Tobi Russell LPC, LLP, NCC, CAADC, CCS-M, BCETS
Director, Rochester Hills Counseling
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Optimizing the Team Through Supervision - MI-PTE