How Childhood Trauma
Effects Learning
Developed by:
Rhonda Best & Mitch Kremer
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Northern Illinois University
Center for Child Welfare and Education
The Center for Child Welfare and
Education (CCWE)
A Partnership Between Northern Illinois
University and the Illinois Department of
Children and Family Services
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“Each of us must come to care about everyone else’s children.
We must recognize that the welfare of our children and
grandchildren is intimately linked to the welfare of all
other people’s children.
After all, when one of our children needs lifesaving surgery,
someone else’s child will perform it.
If one of our children is threatened or harmed by violence,
someone else’s child will be responsible for the violent act.
The good life for your own children can be secured only if a
good life is also secured for all other people’s children.”
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Lillian Katz
Training Overview
 What is childhood trauma?
 What are the implications for education?
 What is needed for recovery?
 Educational interventions
 Secondary trauma
 Resources
 Plan development
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Outcomes
 Understand the nature of childhood trauma
 Recognize the impact of trauma on development
 Understand the impact of trauma on learning
 Gain knowledge of appropriate interventions
 Understand the impact of secondary trauma
 Develop a plan to address the needs of traumatized children
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Lisa’s
911
Call
Childhood Trauma
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Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)
Growing up in a household with:
 Recurrent physical, sexual or emotional abuse
 Emotional or physical neglect
 Domestic violence between parents
 An alcohol or drug abuser
 An incarcerated household member
 Someone who is chronically depressed, suicidal,
institutionalized or mentally ill
 One or no biological parents
(2004, http://www.acestudy.org/)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Consequences Of Unresolved Trauma
(2004, http://www.acestudy.org/)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Importance of the Adverse Childhood
Experiences Study
 ACEs are surprisingly common – 44% of 13,494 adults
reported physical, psychological or sexual abuse as children.
 They happen even in “the best of families”.
 They can have long-term, damaging consequences for
children and society.
(2004, http://www.acestudy.org/)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Discussion Questions
How does this reflect what you’re seeing?
1.


2.
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ACE’s
School violence
What are the unique demographic or social factors in your
community that may increase or decrease prevalence?
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Trauma and Development
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What is Stress?


Stress is the set of changes in the body
and the brain that are set into motion
when there are overwhelming threats to
physical or psychological well-being.
Under threat, the limbic system engages
and the frontal lobes disengage. When
safety returns, the limbic chemical
reaction stops and the frontal lobes reengage.
(van der Kolk, B., 2005)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Three Types of Stress
Stressful events can be beneficial, tolerable, or harmful:
 Positive stress: moderate, short-lived stress responses.
 Tolerable stress: more intense stress responses that allow
enough time to recover, or occur in a relatively safe
environment with the presence of supportive adults.
 Toxic stress: strong, frequent or prolonged activation of the
body’s stress management system, without access to
supportive adults in a safe environment.
(National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2005)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Bimodal Response to Stress
Hyperarousal
Dissociation
(Externalizing behaviors, more common in
males)
Fight
Flight
Hypervigilant
Reactive
Alarm response
Tachycardia
(Internalizing behaviors, more common in
females)
Freezing
Fainting
Somatoform dissociation
Numbing
Compliance
Derealization (depersonalization)
The response that is most adaptive for the individual becomes
that individual’s automatic response to subsequent stress.
(Adapted from Perry, Child Trauma Academy, 2002)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
The Stress Response Cycle
What is Trauma?
Trauma arises from an inescapable stressful event that overwhelms an
individuals’ coping mechanisms
(van der Kolk & Fisler, 1995).
Childhood Trauma:
Experience or witnessing
of an event that involves:
* Actual or threatened death or
serious injury to self or others
* Threat to psychological or
physical integrity of self or
others
(Zero to Three, 2004)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Isolated Trauma Versus Complex Trauma
Isolated traumatic incidents tend to produce
discrete conditioned behavioral and biological
responses to reminders of the trauma (as in
PTSD)
Complex (chronic) trauma interferes with
neurobiological development and the capacity
to integrate sensory, emotional and cognitive
information into a cohesive whole.
(van der Kolk, B., 2005)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Responses to Complex Trauma
The trauma response is bimodal: hyper-reactivity to stimuli
and traumatic reexperiencing coexist with psychic numbing,
avoidance and amnesia (van der Kolk, 2004)
1.
Stimulus generalization
2.
Triggered pattern of repeated dysregulation in
response to trauma cues
3.
Anticipatory organization of behavior to
prevent the recurrence of the trauma effects
(van der Kolk, B., 2005)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Early Brain Development
Use-dependent modification is a core principle of
neurodevelopment
 Brain cells (neurons) that are
stimulated mature and connections
(synapses) develop between
neurons.
 Synapses that are used become a
permanent part of the brain.
 Synapses that are not used
frequently are eliminated.
(Perry, 1998)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Traumatic Stress and Critical Windows of
Brain Development
Cortex
Limbic Brain
Mid Brain
Brain Stem
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
cognitive functioning:
12 months - 48 months
emotional functioning:
6 months - 30 months
motor functioning:
first year
state regulation:
pre-birth - 8 months
(Adapted from: Perry, 2002)
What are the Long-Term Effects of
Traumatic Stress?
 The automatic response to trauma or trauma cues, involves
the production of toxic amounts of stress hormones (primarily
cortisol) which affect:
 brain function
 all major body systems
 social functioning
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Lasting Effects of Trauma
 Effects on brain development and functioning are often
global
 Physiological effects
 Physical effects
 Emotional effects
 Social effects
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Possible Long Term Effects on Brain
Functioning
 These brain functions may be diminished or lost:
 language, especially spoken language
 expressing words for feelings
 sense of meaning and connection
 empathy
 impulse control
 mood regulation
 short term memory
 capacity for joy
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Physiological Effects
 Perpetual extreme levels of stress arousal may lead to:
 hypervigilance and loss of ability to concentrate
 altered vision and hearing
 hyperactivity or dissociation
 avoidance of potential triggers to trauma
 altered sleep patterns
 altered eating patterns
 compulsive self harm
 attempts to self medicate with substances
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Physical Effects
 Continued stress arousal may lead to:
 headaches
 digestive disorders
 respiratory disorders
 other psychosomatic illnesses
 muscle tension
 aching joints
 clumsiness
 altered spatial awareness
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Emotional Effects
 Inability to process emotions through language
 Diminished capacity for empathy
 Hypersensitivity to trauma in others
 Diminished range of emotions: terror or rage
 Diminished aesthetic and spiritual experiences
 Feelings of worthlessness and shame
 Traumatic stress takes over core identity
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Social Effects
 May become socially isolated or member of deviant peer group
due to:
 Extreme reactions of terror or rage
 Diminished empathy limits social connectedness
 Survival mode restricts motivation to be sociable
 Avoidance restricts capacity to connect to others
 Diminished language restricts social accountability
 Traumatic identity leads to persistent victim or aggressor
behaviour
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Discussion Questions
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1.
Does the research presented on childhood trauma help
you to look at children in your classrooms or schools
differently?
2.
How might this information help you to better meet
children’s needs?
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Resiliency and Recovery
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Shaping the Early Brain
 Dr. Bruce Perry, Texas Children’s Hospital, a leading researcher in
early brain development and childhood trauma:
 “Children are not resilient, they are malleable.”
 Resilient: “Able to recover readily from misfortune”
 Malleable: “Capable of being shaped or formed”
 “Childhood experiences define the adult by shaping the
developing brain.”
NATURE VS. AND NURTURE
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
What is Resiliency?
Resilience describes an individual’s positive functioning despite
experiencing adverse circumstances.
 Resiliency is influenced by vulnerability factors,
compensatory factors, and protective factors, operating at
the individual, family and community levels.
 Should NOT be considered an individual character trait
(Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Factors that Influence Recovery
 The child’s personality
 Strong social competence – the ability to be empathetic, caring
& responsive
 Creative thinking - problem solving, resourcefulness
 Autonomy – strong self-esteem, ability to separate self from
dysfunctional environment
 Sense of purpose – optimism, persistence toward achieving
goals, hopeful outlook for future
(Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Factors that Influence Recovery
 The type of trauma
 Children who experience an isolated trauma, such as a
natural disaster, will more quickly gain a sense of control
because the stressful event comes to an end.
 Children who experience complex trauma (violent
neighborhood, abuse, domestic violence) have more
difficulty with recovery because they can’t separate from the
stressful environment.
(Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Factors that Influence Recovery
 Strong support systems - the majority of children that are
provided with strong support systems overcome
developmental damage and actually use the challenges from
their lives to develop strength and confidence
 Individualized intervention strategy, that includes
 Therapeutic support
 Family support
 School support
 Community support
(Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Discussion Questions
There is a correlation between resiliency and recovery and the quality
of supports surrounding a child.
What supports are already available in your

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School?
Community?
What supports need to be developed?
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Let’s Take
A Break!
Back in 10?
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Effects of Trauma on Learning
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“Most of them (learners at risk) are very tough and
tenacious in confronting the challenges life presents to
them. Despite the difficulties they face, they continue
to respond with the best they can draw out of their
personal resources and experience. If their responses are
less than fully competent, or even maladaptive, this is
the result of faulty knowledge rather than lack of
effort.”
Frank H. Wood
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Opportunity for Intervention
Source: Thompson, UCLA Laboratory of Neuroimaging, &
Giedd, National Institutes for Mental Health, 2004
The prefrontal cortex doesn’t fully develop until about age 21, it’s
functions include:
* Reasoning
* Problem solving
* Integrating information from the senses
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Why is it more difficult for schools to work with
children who are traumatized?
 Issues over changes of placement or mobility
 Lack of adequate information or expertise
 Lack of clarity about roles and responsibilities
 Lack of knowledge and skill to deal with traumatized children
 Difficulty of containing post traumatic behaviours in the school
environment
 Effects of secondary traumatic stress
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Explicit and Implicit Memory
CORTEX:
HIPPOCAMPUS:
higher level
thought
processes,
planning,
problem
solving
Explicit memory governs recollection
of facts, events or
associations
AMYGDALA:
Adrenal gland
Implicit memory – No
conscious awareness
(procedural memory –
e.g., riding a bike and
emotional memorye.g., fear)
Chronic stress = overstimulation of the Amygdala, resulting in the release of
cortisol, possible shrinkage or atrophy of the Hippocampus and Cortex,
affecting memory and cognition, and leading to anxiety or depression.
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
(Adapted from: Brunson, Lorang, & Baram, 2002)
Effects of Trauma on IQ and
Achievement
Research shows substantial decrements in both IQ and reading due to
trauma.
 7.5 point decrements in IQ
 9.8 point decrements in reading achievement
(Delaney-Black, et.al., 2002)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Most Frequent Difficulties Following
Chronic Trauma
75%
61.5%
59.2%
60%
57.9%
53.1%
45.8%
45%
30%
15%
Af
fe
ct
D
ys
re
gu
la
At
tio
te
n
nt
io
n/
C
on
ce
nt
ra
tio
N
n
eg
at
iv
e
Se
lfIm
ag
e
Im
pu
ls
e
C
on
Ag
tro
gr
l
es
si
on
/R
is
kta
ki
ng
0%
(Spinazzola.J, et.al., 2005)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
How Traumatized Children are Typically
Diagnosed
The most common psychiatric diagnoses in
order of frequency:
 separation anxiety disorder
 oppositional defiant disorder
 phobic disorders
 PTSD
 ADHD
(van der Kolk, B., 2005)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Relationship Between Diagnoses & Eligibilities
Special Education Eligibility:
Emotional Disturbance
Inability to learn not explained by health,
intellectual, or sensory disability;
Inability to build/maintain relationships;
Inappropriate behavior or feelings under normal
circumstances;
Pervasive anxiety or depression;
Physical symptoms or fears.
Special Education Eligibility:
Specific Learning Disability
Disorder in basic psychological processes involved
in understanding/using language, spoken or
written, may manifest in an imperfect ability to
listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do
mathematical calculations.
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Psychological/Neurobiological Diagnosis:
Traumatic Stress
Rarely in attentive state
Defiant, aggressive, oppositional
Hyperarousal
Internalizing disorders
Fear, somatic disorders
Rarely in attentive state;
Lack of concentration;
Misperceptions;
Avoidance;
Dissociation;
Repeated intrusive memories
(Shumow & Perry, 2006)
Manifestations of Trauma that Affect
School Performance
 Externalizing Behaviors: Coping by acting out on external world
(physical/verbal aggression).
 More visible
 More likely to receive intervention in school
 Internalizing Behaviors: Coping by withdrawing into the self (anxiety,
depression, dissociation).
 Less visible
 Less likely to receive intervention in school
 Somatic Disorders:
 Frequent visits to school nurse
 Frequent school absences
(Shumow & Perry, 2006)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
How we Perceive Traumatized Children
 Many problems of traumatized children can be
understood as efforts to minimize objective threat
and to regulate their emotional distress
 Unless teachers understand the nature of such
re-enactments, they are likely to label the child as
“oppositional,” “rebellious,” “unmotivated,” or
“antisocial”
(van der Kolk, B., 2005)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Power and Control Strategies that are NOT
Beneficial
 Threats
 Bribes
 Control over bodily functions, like prohibiting children
from using the bathroom
 Random enforcement of petty rules
 Humiliation or degradation
 Isolation
 Corporal punishment
(van der Kolk, 2006)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
What Youth Say:
“I changed schools three times, so friends were hard to keep. I had a
lot of conflict at school. I felt isolated and alienated.”
“School was the most consistent thing in my life. I moved around a
lot and I went to nine different elementary schools. But I always
knew that my teacher was going to be there when I got there
every morning and I didn’t have that at home.”
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Discussion Questions
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1.
What problems stem from school and mental health
providers not sharing common terminology, eligibilities
and diagnoses?
2.
Knowing that for traumatized children some behaviors are
organic rather than willful, how do we reconcile that with
current discipline policies?
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Interventions for Children with Trauma
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Curriculum for Traumatized Children
Connecting
1 Safety
2 Engaging
3 Trusting
Processing
4 Managing the self
5 Managing feelings
6 Taking responsibility
Adapting
7 Developing social
awareness
8 Developing reflectivity
9 Developing reciprocity
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Step I - Safety First
 Stay aware of the terror
 Provide and sustain a relaxing environment
 Use self appropriately to deal with a terrified flight animal:
voice, gestures, expression
 Use group work skills to create sense of safety
 Bring relaxation into the awareness of the child and encourage
practice
 Discourage dependence on high stimulus activities
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Step II - Engaging
 Provide appropriate environmental stimulation for adults and
children
 Learning about the effects of trauma is part of the treatment
 Stories and metaphors are powerful tools for teaching about
overwhelming events
 Encourage expression of experience and development of
emotional intelligence
 Bring dissociation into awareness, develop sense of protector
self and observer self
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Step III - Trusting and Feeling
 Accept the level of trust the child has to offer
 Encourage open discussion of issues of trust
 Encourage the child to express inner states in words, even though
they will find this difficult
 Notice non-verbal signals of feelings and help child to recognize and
name what is happening
 Identify self-transcending as well as self-assertive emotions
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Step IV - Managing the Self
 Discuss and practice relaxation and soothing activities with the
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child
Avoid asking ‘why did you do that?’ Instead invite reflection linking
inner state with actions
Encourage the child to be interested in their own inner state with
regard to their behaviour
Comment on small indicators of self-regulation
Encourage children to build on growing capacity for selfmanagement
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Step V - Managing Feelings
 Expect and contain disturbed behaviour
 Help child to engage with therapy
 Encourage child to feel more in control - space, time, activities
 Limit choices, restrict choice-making to less stressful situations
and celebrate successes
 Encourage child to recognize and celebrate learning from
mistakes
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Step VI - Taking Responsibility
 Recognize the power of traumatic identity and expect
resistance to changing identity
 Provide choices about how they see themselves
 Allow child to let go of excessive or inappropriate
responsibilities
 Encourage child to allow adults to be in control appropriately
 Celebrate any evidence of the child taking appropriate
responsibility for behaviour
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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VII - Developing Social Awareness
 Encourage friendships and social interaction
 Identify and rehearse social situations requiring self-control in the
child
 Encourage the child to broaden the range of their social
connections and to be interested in people generally
 Promote activities motivating social accountability such as sport,
drama, music
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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VIII - Developing Reflectivity
 Promote self-esteem; catch them doing something good
 Provide and comment on role models of centered people
who are comfortable in their own lives
 Encourage the use of tools for reflection such as keeping a
diary
 Help children deal with feedback from a range of social
situations
 Be creative about ways to help the child become fearlessly
reflective
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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IX - Developing Reciprocity
 Provide and invite reflection on wide range of aesthetic
experiences
 Share thoughts and feelings
 Apologize when we hurt the child
 Encourage the child to reflect on our experience as well as
their own
 Invite the child to take our position - ‘What do you think I
should do about this?’ in response to child’s behaviour
 Accept that we are a problem for the child
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Dealing with Individual Incidents of Posttraumatic Behavior
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
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Safety first
Engaging
Trusting and Feeling
Managing the self
Managing feelings
Taking responsibility
Developing social awareness
Developing reflectivity
Developing reciprocity
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Illinois Children’s Mental Health Act
and the Illinois Learning Standards
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Children’s Mental Health Act of 2003
 Required ISBE to incorporate social/emotional development
as part of the Illinois Learning Standards.
 By August, 2004 Every Illinois School District was to develop
a policy for incorporating social and emotional development
into the district’s educational program, which addresses:
 Teaching
 Assessment
 Protocols for responding to social/emotional problems that
impact learning
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Social/Emotional Learning Standards
Goal 1:
Develop self-awareness and selfmanagement skills to achieve school
and life success.
A.
B.
C.
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Identify and manage one’s emotions and behavior.
Recognize personal qualities and external supports.
Demonstrate skills related to achieving personal and
academic goals.
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Social/Emotional Learning Standards
Goal 2: Use social-awareness and interpersonal skills to establish
and maintain positive relationships.
Recognize the feelings and perspectives of others.
Recognize individual and group similarities and
differences.
C. Use communication and social skills to interact
effectively with others.
D. Demonstrate an ability to prevent, manage, and resolve
interpersonal conflicts in constructive ways.
A.
B.
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Social/Emotional Learning Standards
Goal 3: Demonstrate decision-making skills and responsible
behaviors in personal, school, and community contexts.
Consider ethical, safety, and societal factors in making
decisions.
B. Apply decision-making skills to deal responsibly with
daily academic and social situations.
C. Contribute to the well-being of one’s school and
community.
A.
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Discussion Question
1.
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How can these recommendations for traumatized children
support your implementation of the learning standards?
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Secondary Trauma
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Trauma is catching:
Secondary Traumatic Stress
 Secondary traumatic stress is the stress that results from caring for or
about someone who has been traumatized.
 It can result in injuries similar to those produced by primary trauma.
 People who are empathic, and/or have experienced trauma in their own
lives, and/or have unresolved personal trauma are vulnerable.
 People who care for traumatized children are particularly vulnerable to
secondary traumatic stress.
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Impact of STS on individuals
 Performance
 decrease in quality and
quantity
 increased mistakes
 avoidance of tasks
 perfectionism
 obsessiveness
 exhaustion
 irresponsibility
 Morale
 decrease in confidence
 apathy
 dissatisfaction
 negativity
 feel incomplete
 subsume own needs
 detachment
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Impact on whole network
 Withdrawal
 Lack of appreciation
 Impatience
 Increase in conflict
 Poor communication
 Persecutor/victim/rescuer dynamic
(Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004.)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Discussion Questions?
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1.
In what ways do you see secondary trauma affecting your
school staff?
2.
How do you currently support school staff who may be
impacted by secondary trauma?
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Community Resources
Family Violence Shelters:
 Family Shelter Service (Bi-lingual) 630-
469-5650
 Hamdard Center (South Asian & MidEastern) 630-860-9122
Sexual Assault Programs:
 DuPage Cty. Children’s Sexual Abuse
Center 630-407-2750
 Mutual Ground 630-897-0080
 YWCA West Suburban Sexual Assault
Hotline 630-971-3927
Violence & Prevention Training:
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 Prevent Child Abuse IL
630-790-
6869
 Family Shelter Service
5650
630-469-
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Plan Development
 How do you communicate the information to your staff?
 Who else needs this information? Whose buy-in do you need
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to get?
How to incorporate with current policies MHA, how to
implement, etc.
Identifying resources you have
Identifying gaps in resources
Addressing secondary trauma
Other issues unique to your school or district
Identify first steps (3?)
Follow up
Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Recommended Reading:
Right on Course: How trauma and maltreatment impact children
in the classroom, and how you can help.
Available from: Civitas, www.civitas.org
Learn the Child: Helping looked after children to learn.
Available from: British Association for Adoption & Fostering, www.baaf.org.uk
Helping Traumatized Children Learn: Supportive school
environments for children traumatized by family violence.
Available from: Massachussets Advocates for Children, www.massadvocates.org
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Content for this presentation was compiled from the
following sources:
The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, The Effects of Adverse Childhood
Experiences on Adult Health and Well Being. Retrieved 12/21/04:
http://www.acestudy.org/
Bedics, B. C., Rappe, P. T., and Sansone, F. A. (1998). Trauma of children in a
residential wilderness treatment program. TRAUMATOLOGYe, Volume IV: 2,
Article 2. <http://www.fsu.edu/~trauma/art3v4i2.htm>
Brendtro, L. (1988). Problems as opportunities: Developing positive theories
about troubled youth. Journal of Child Care, 3, 15-24.
Brunson KL, et. al. (2002): Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
downregulates the function of its receptor (CRF-1) and induces CRF-1
expression in hippocampal and cortical regions of the immature rat brain. Exp
Neurol 176:75–86.
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Presentation Sources, Continued.
Cairns, K. & Stanway, S., 2004. Learn the Child - Helping looked after children
to learn: a good practice guide for social workers, carers and teachers
Skyline House:London.
De Kloet, E.R., et.al. (1991). Brain Corticosteriod Receptor Balance and
Homeostatic Control. Frontiers of Neuroendocrinology, 12, 95-164.
Delaney-Black, V. M.D., MPH. Violence Exposure, Trauma, and I.Q. and/or
Reading Deficits Among Urban Children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent
Medicine, 2002; 156:280-285.
Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Brain. (2005). National
Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Working Paper No. 3. Retrieved 817-2006, from http://www.developingchild.net/reports.shtml.
Geroski, A. Addressing the Needs of Foster Children Within a School
Counseling Program. Northern Lights Special Collection Document. (Vol.3
No.3; p 152)
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
Welfare & Education - 2013
Presentation Sources, Continued.
Kraimer-Rickaby, L. (1998) Creating a Nurturing Environment for Foster Children
in School-Age Child Care. University of Connecticut. Retrieved 3/5/05 from:
http://www.canr.uconn.edu/ces/child/newsarticles/SAC744.html.
Luthar, S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. The Construct of Resilience: A Critical
Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work. Child Development, May/June
2000, v. 71, n. 3, pp. 543-562.
Palmer, L.F. (2001). Baby Matters: What your Doctor may not tell you about caring
for your baby. Lancaster, OH:Lucky Press.
Perry, B. Childhood Experience and Expression of Genetic Potential: What
Childhood Tells us About Nature and Nurture. Brain and Mind, v. 3, pp. 79-100,
2002. Retrieved on 8-17-06 from:
http://www.childtrauma.org/ctamaterials/MindBrain.pdf
Sapolsky, R. (2003). Taming Stress: An emerging understanding of the brain’s
stress pathways. Scientific American, September, 2003.
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Presentation Sources, Continued.
Schwartz, W. (Sept, 1999) School Support For Foster Families. Clearinghouse on
Urban Education. (Number 147).
Smider, M.J., et.al. (February 2002). Salivary Cortisol as a Predictor of
Socioemotional Adjustment during Kindergarten: A Prospective Study. Child
Development, Jan/Feb 2002, V 73, No. 1, 75-92.
Spinazzola, J., et. al. Survey Evaluates Complex Trauma Exposure, Outcome
and Intervention Among Children and Adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 35:5,
pp. 433-439, May 2005.
van der Kolk, B. Developmental Trauma Disorder, Psychiatric Annals, pp. 401408, 2005.
van der Kolk, B. The Neurobiology of Childhood Trauma and Abuse. Child &
Adolescent Clinics of North America vol 12(2): 293-317. 2003.
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Northern Illinois University Center for Child
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Presentation Sources, Continued.
Walker, E., et.al. Costs of Health Care Use by Women HMO Members
with a History of Abuse and Neglect. Arch Gen Psychiatry,
1999;56:609-613.
Zhang, Y., et.al. Effects of language experience: Neural commitment to
language-specific auditory patterns. NeuroImage 26 (2005) 703–720.
Retrieved 8-30-06 from:
http://ilabs.washington.edu:16080/kuhl/pdf/Zhang_Kuhl_2005.pdf
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Childhood Trauma and the Implications for Education