The Art and Science of Parent Education Barbara LeBlanc, LCSW Debbie Regan, RNC, IBCLC Session I Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Lara Robinson, PhD, MPH Jennifer Kaminski, PhD CDC Child Development Studies Team Parent Training Programs: Insight for Practitioners A publication of the National Center for Injury Prevention and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA Purpose of the CDC Study Is all parent training the same? Research and analysis of evaluations of existing programs for effectiveness Guide practitioners in making evidence-based program decisions What was Evaluated? Peer-reviewed articles published from 1990 – 2002 evaluating training programs for parents of children ages 0 – 7 Meta-analysis of 77 program evaluations Parent Education Who? What? Where? Who are Parent Educators? Social workers Child care providers Teachers Doctors Nurses Clergy Others ? Competencies for Parent Educators Knowledge of: Child and lifespan development Dynamics of family relations Guidance and nurturing Health and safety Diversity and family systems Professional practice and methods of adult learning Community relationships Assessment and evaluation LAPEN Parent Educator Core Competencies 2010 Sense of Humor What do Parent Educators do? Teach Facilitate Continue to learn Professional Growth of Parent Educators Join LAPEN Network NPEN Listserve Track professional development Seek & explore latest research Where is Parent Education Happening? Schools Child Social care centers service agencies Healthcare Faith-based facilities institutions Other ??? Session II Content and Delivery of Parent Education that Works! How? What? Why? How do Parent Educators Teach? Utilize evidenced-based research Avoid using personal anecdotal information Qualify information you give as either “my opinion/experience” vs. research Encourage parents to recognize what they are doing right = empowerment What do Parent Educators Teach? (CDC Study, Content Components) Child development Positive interactions with child Responsiveness, sensitivity and nurturing Emotional communication Disciplinary communication Discipline and behavior management Promoting children’s social skills Promoting children’s cognitive skills What do Parent Educators Use? (CDC Study, Delivery Components) Curriculum or Manual Modeling Homework Rehearsal, Role Playing, or Practice Separate Child Instruction Ancillary Services What Skills do Parent Educators Use? Resist giving immediate advice, answers & solutions • Guide parents to explore options Resist being the expert on EVERYTHING! Resist citing research on EVERYTHING! Allow parents to find their own comfort zone Parent Educator Facilitation Skills ●Creating an open and supportive climate ●Know when to be supportive or when to refer out ●Introduce appropriate information for discussion ●Encourage participation ●Help create a feeling of group trust ●Summarize major points ●Encourage parents with praise ●Encourage parent to parent relationships Why do Parents Join Groups or Take Classes? Feeling overwhelmed or inadequate Needs help sorting out contradictory information Individual child rearing concerns Place to sort out feelings Seeking ways to transmit their values and morals Mandatory Adult Learning Principles Adults are motivated to learn as they develop needs and interests generated by real life tasks or problems Learning is life or work centered Experience is the richest resource for adult learning Adults have a deep need to be self-directing Individual differences increase with age and experience What Parent Groups Offer Isolation seeks socialization Helps parents create a new normal Spin off friendships / playgroups Observes others’ parenting skills Builds confidence as a parent How to Evaluate a Program Two Outcomes Examined (CDC Study) Outcome 1: Acquiring Parenting Skills and Behaviors Outcome 2: Decreases in Children’s Externalizing Behaviors Outcome 1: Acquiring Parenting Skills and Behaviors Components Associated with Larger Effects on Parenting Behaviors & Skills Outcomes I. Teach parents emotional communication skills II. Teach parents positive parent-child interaction skills III. Require parents to practice with their child during program sessions I. Teach parents emotional communication skills 5 Stages of Emotional Communication 1. Emotional awareness 2. Connecting during emotional moments 3. Listening with empathy 4. Naming emotions 5. Finding good solutions TALARIS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, John Gottman, Ph.D Emotion Coaching Video TALARIS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, John Gottman, Ph.D II. Teach parents positive parentchild interaction skills Non-disciplinary interactions Play Using skills that promote positive parent-child interactions Enthusiasm Following interests Age appropriate recreation Provide positive attention Connecting / Reconnecting III. Require parents to practice with their child during program sessions Role-playing with the parent trainer or a peer Practice parent skills with own child Outcome 2: Decreases in Children’s Externalizing Behaviors Components Associated with Larger Effects on Children’s Externalizing Behaviors I. Teach parents the correct use of time out II. Teach parents to respond consistently to their child III. Teach parents to interact positively with their child IV. Require parents to practice with their child during program sessions I. Teach parents the correct use of time out One minute/year of age Set timer Location 3 years and up Over use Lesson learned? Alternatives? www.vanderbilt.edu/csefel/scripte dstories/tuckerturtle.ppt II. Teach parents to respond consistently to their child Parents agree on discipline Plan ahead for persistent problems Say it one time – then act ACT* Acknowledge behavior/feelings Communicate the rule Target acceptable behavior (redirect) *1 2 3 4 Parents, Michael Popkin, Ph.D III. Teach parents positive parent-child interaction skills Non-disciplinary interactions Play Using skills that promote positive parent-child interactions Enthusiasm Following interests Age appropriate recreation Provide positive attention Connecting / Reconnecting Positive Parent-Child Interactions Learning Happens Video Zero to Three, National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families IV. Require parents to practice with their child during program sessions Role-play Practice with the parent trainer or a peer parent skills with own child BUSY BABIES VIDEO Lunch & Networking Evaluate Your Program What components in my program are effective? What components in my program are ineffective? How could additional effective components be added to my existing program? How could ineffective components be eliminated from my existing program? Session III Theory to Practice: Parenting Education that Makes a Difference Commonly Used Components in Parent Education Tailoring parenting classes to appropriate ages and stages “One size does not fit all” Video examples of parent/child interactions Homework Teaching child development Teaching problem-solving Focus on cognitive / academic development If Parents do not attend or endorse the need to learn and use new strategies, even the most effective parenting program WILL NOT WORK! Motivation for Parents to Continue to Attend We know what to teach. We know how to teach. BUT… How do we keep them coming back? Marketing Strategies Media Healthcare facilities Pediatrician / Obstetrician offices Social service agencies Legal system Library Community fairs Schools Retail outlets CDC Study Results say… “…decades of research show that active learning approaches are superior to passive approaches. Therefore parent education programs that seek to presumably change behavior but do not use an active skills acquisition mechanism were not included in the meta-analysis” So… Classroom instruction alone doesn’t work Active learning approaches must be incorporated The Parenting Center at Children’s Hospital Program model Support & funding Staff Utilization Classes/activities/programs 30 Years and Counting!