Through the Labyrinth: How Women Become Leaders Linda Carli, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Wellesley College Big Sky Leadership Initiative Cultures of Leadership Conference May 5, 2010 Is there still a glass ceiling? • A single obstacle • At the pinnacle of women’s careers • The same for all women • Completely impermeable - But there are multiple obstacles - Some occur early in careers - Paths to leadership vary - And some women have advanced (Wall Street Journal, 1986) More women are well-educated Percentage of degrees awarded to women in the United States, 1900-2008 (bls.gov) Master's Doctor's 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 8 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 197 198 198 199 199 200 200 200 10 0 190 Percentage going to women Bachelor's More women have jobs Labor force participation of men and women in the United States, 1940-2009 (bls.gov) Men 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 19 4 0 19 4 3 19 4 6 19 4 9 19 5 2 19 5 5 19 5 8 19 6 1 19 6 4 19 6 7 19 7 0 19 7 3 19 7 6 19 7 9 19 8 2 19 8 5 19 8 8 19 9 1 19 9 4 19 9 7 20 0 0 20 0 3 20 0 6 20 0 9 Percentage Women More women are in management Percentage of managers who are women and men in the United States—1983-2009 Women (bls.gov) Men 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 20 09 20 07 20 05 20 03 20 01 19 99 19 97 19 95 19 93 19 91 19 89 19 87 19 85 0 19 83 Percentage 70 Women are earning more Median weekly earnings of full-time & salaried employees in the United States, in 2008 dollars, 1979-2008 (bls.gov) Men Women 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 But equality has not been achieved • Income gap remains • Slower advancement for women • Few women at the top of biggest corporations Organizational leadership in USA, 2009 (bls.gov; Catalyst, 2009, 2010; Fortune, 2010) Women Men 100 90 Percentage 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 42 58 25 75 16 84 15 85 6 94 3 97 Managers CEOs Fortune 500 Corporate Officers Fortune 500 Board Members Fortune 500 Top Earners Fortune 500 CEOs 0 Leadership (Harvard Business Review, 2007) What are the obstacles that form the labyrinth? Do women lack the desire for leadership or the traits of a good leader? • No • Women and men in similar positions do not differ in their desire for advancement and leadership (Konrad et. al., 2000) • Women and men do not differ in the personality traits associated with effective leadership (Halpern, 2001; Schmitt, et. al. 2008) - Extraversion - Intelligence (Judge, et. al., 2002) (Judge, Colbert, & Ilies, 2004) What about family responsibilities? Women take more career breaks for family and more often work part-time (Bianchi, Robinson, & Milkie, 2006;) Weekly hours of housework Married Women Married Men 40 Hours 30 20 10 0 1965 1975 1985 Year 1995 2005 What about family responsibilities? Women take more career breaks for family and more often work part-time (Bianchi, Robinson, & Milkie, 2006) Weekly hours of childcare Married Mothers Married Fathers 14 Hours 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1965 1975 1985 Year 1995 2000 What about family responsibilities? Women take more career breaks for family and more often work part-time (Galinsky et al., 2003) Executives with Stay-at-Home or Employed Spouses Female executives Male executives Percentage 80 60 40 20 0 Stay-at-home Spouse Employed Spouse Organizational obstacles • Lack of social capital – less access to powerful networks and mentors (e.g., Forret & Dougherty, 2004; McPherson, Smith-Lovin, & Cook, 2001) • Fewer offers of appropriately challenging assignments – line management, travel, and relocations (e.g., Catalyst, 2004; Lyness & Thompson, 2000) - Glass cliff (e.g., Haslam & Ryan, 2008; Ryan & Haslam, 2007) One major obstacle: Gender stereotypes • Men seen as more agentic (for example, competent, leaderlike, assertive, in charge, strong, directive) • Women seen as more communal (for example, warm, supportive, helpful, sympathetic, kind) • And leaders? - Think-manager think-male studies: Studies comparing the traits of leaders with the traits of men and women (e.g., Schein, 1973) - Studies comparing the agentic vs communal traits of leaders (e.g., Powell & Butterfield, 1989) • And what are leaders and managers seen as? - Agentic Association of leadership with stereotypical traits of men and women (Koenig et al, 2010) Correlation coefficient Male Traits Female Traits 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Overall By Men By Women Doubts about women’s agency and competence • To be considered exceptional, women must exhibit higher levels of performance than men do (e.g., Biernat & Kobrynowicz, 1997; Foschi, 2000) • Real expertise is less likely to be recognized in women than in men (e.g., Propp, 1995; Thomas-Hunt & Phillips, 2004) And what about the stereotype that women are communal? • Women not only are thought to be communal, • they have to be The demand for communal behavior • Women are penalized more than men for being agentic - Disagreeing (e.g., Carli, 2006) Negotiating (e.g., Bowles, Babcock, & Lai, 2007; Stuhlmacher & Walters, 1999) Self-promoting (e.g., Carli, 2006; Wosinska et al., 1996) Command-and-control leadership (Eagly, Makhijani, & Klonsky, 1992). • Women who succeed in masculine domains are thought to lack communion & are disliked (e.g., Heilman, et. Al., 2004; Yoder & Schleicher, 1996) • Men receive benefits (gaining approval or promotion) for being helpful but women do not Allen, 2006; Heilman & Chen, 2005) (e.g., A double bind for women leaders • To be a good leader, women must overcome doubts about their agency by performing exceptionally well and being highly agentic. - But very competent and agentic women may be seen as lacking communion and not well liked. • To be a good woman, women must be communal by being warm, helpful, and supportive. - But nice communal women may be seen as lacking agency and competence, and considered weak ineffective leaders. In the chat rooms around Silicon Valley, from the time I arrived and until long after I left HP, I was routinely referred to as a ‘bimbo,’ or a ‘bitch’—too soft or too hard, and presumptuous, besides. Carly Fiorina, 2006 former CEO Hewlett-Packard In Tough Choices The double-bind and stereotypes lead to discrimination • Meta-analysis of résumé experiments Men favored (Davison & Burke, 2000) Women favored 0.4 Effect size in d 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 Masculine Jobs Gender-Neutral Jobs Feminine Jobs Other evidence of discrimination • Studies assess whether the gender gaps in income and promotion disappear when controlling for human capital variables 2006; Smith, 2002) - Years of employment Breaks in employment Part-time or full time employment Education Overtime hours - Gender gaps remain (e.g., Blau & Kahn, What can women do to overcome some of the obstacles that form the labyrinth? • Build social capital – Networking, mentors • Blend agency & communion – Lead with a mix of masculine & feminine qualities – What type of leadership might incorporate agency and communion? Transformational Leadership • Idealized Influence (Attributes) - Motivating respect and pride from association with the leader • Idealized Influence (Behavior) - Communicating values, purpose, and importance of organization’s mission • Inspirational Motivation - Displaying optimism and excitement about goals and future states • Intellectual Stimulation - Examining new perspectives for solving problems and completing tasks • Individualized Consideration - Focusing on development and mentoring of followers and attending to their individual needs Transformational leadership is often contrasted with Transactional and Laissez-faire Leadership Transactional Leadership • Contingent Reward - Rewarding followers for satisfactory performance • Active Management-by-Exception - Attending to followers’ mistakes and failures • Passive Management-by-Exception - Waiting until problems become severe before attending to them Laissez-Faire Leadership - Is absent and uninvolved during critical junctures Which styles are effective? (Judge & Piccolo, 2004) Transformational • Idealized Influence (Attributes) • Idealized Influence (Behavior) • Inspirational Motivation • Intellectual Stimulation • Individualized Consideration More Effective Styles Transactional • Contingent Reward • Active Management by Exception • Passive Management by Exception Laissez-Faire Less Effective Styles Do women and men differ in these styles? (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, & van Engen, 2003). Transformational • Idealized Influence (Attributes) • Idealized Influence (Behavior) • Inspirational Motivation • Intellectual Stimulation • Individualized Consideration Women use these styles more Transactional • Contingent Reward • Active Management by Exception • Passive Management by Exception Laissez-Faire Men use these styles more Advantages of having women leaders • Women more often use transformational leadership and contingent reward • Diversity yields a greater range of perspectives and points of view, which can enhance performance and creativity (but also produce conflict & stress) (e.g., Guzzo & Dickson, 1996; van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007) • Studies predict financial performance from the % of women among corporate officers and on boards of directors (e.g., Carter, Simkins, & Simpson, 2003; Krishnan & Park, 2005) Organizational strategies to increase the number of women leaders (Kalev et al., 2006) • Increase women’s social capital with networking & mentoring programs • Creating full-time diversity staff and multidepartment diversity committees to develop policy and monitor outcomes More organizational strategies • Offer the same opportunities to women as men—line management positions, travel, relocations, and other appropriately challenging opportunities • Increase representation of women - Avoid placing women in token positions - Having more visible female leaders shifts stereotypes about leaders A major shift in views about leadership Good leadership is increasingly seen as requiring communal qualities We have teams of people, creative people, and it is about keeping them motivated, keeping them on track, making sure that they are following the vision. I am observing, watching and encouraging and motivating . . . . We try to set an agenda throughout the company where everyone’s opinion counts, and it’s nice to be asked. Rose Marie Bravo Then CEO, Burberry Group In the media Mike Barack Krzyzewski, Obama understands the Duke basketball that real coach strength andcomes business guru, fromhas a blending some things of the to tell you about masculine leadership: and feminine. For starters: Release your Christi inner Parsons woman. , 2008 In Chicago MichaelTribune Sokolove, 2006 In New York Times By leadership experts and scholars: Command-and-control leadership has given way to a new approach, often called an influence model of leadership . . . The new leader persuades, empowers, collaborates, and partners David Gergen, 2005 Center for Public Leadership at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government By the Public: Would vote for well-qualified woman presidential candidate if nominated by own party (U.S. Polls) Yes No 100 90 80 Percent 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1937 1945 1949 1955 1958 1959 1963 1967 1969 1971 1975 1978 1983 1984 1987 1998 2003 2006 Year So what does the future hold for women leaders? The changes in ideas about leadership, equating good leadership with communal qualities, should continue to advance women and help women leaders chart a path through the labyrinth. Thanks to my collaborator and coauthor, Alice Eagly, our students—who have helped us in our research, and the many scholars who have contributed to our knowledge about women leaders. And thanks to you for your interest in women’s leadership. References • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Allen, T. D. (2006). 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