What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Motivation and Emotions:
What Guides Our Behavior?
The Big Picture: Why We Do What We
Do
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
The Big Picture: Why We Do What We Do
• Motive – tendency to desire, seek out positive
incentives/rewards and to avoid negative
outcomes
• Motives serve to protect us – eat, drinks, engage
in some detrimental behavior
• When motives go astray
– The story of Marya, a child with bulimia and
anorexia
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Theories About Motivation
• Various ways motive has been explained
– Instincts: inborn forces that direct behavior
– Drives: uncomfortable biological states seek
to change
– Arousal: desire to maintain optimal level
– Incentives: seek rewards from world
• No one view complete in itself
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Motivation as an Instinct
• Influenced by Charles Darwin/theory of natural
selection
• William James, American psychologist,
proposed that instincts motivate behavior
• Form habits that fulfill daily needs
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Motivation as a Drive
• Drive-reduction theories: motivation comes from
desire to reduce internal, uncomfortable, state
(drive) when needs not fulfilled
• Primary drives maintain homeostasis/equilibrium
such as food, water
– Negative feedback loop: information systems
monitor bodily process, adjust accordingly
• Secondary drives motivate behaviors not related
to biological needs
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Does Drive Reduction Theory Really Explain
Our Behavior?
• Does it sufficiently explain things like
achievement or desire for love
• Does it explain things such as overeating?
Eating disorders?
• At times motivated to increase (not decrease)
arousal in bodies (riding a roller coaster); not
explained by drive reduction
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Arousal Theories of Motivation
• Operate best at optimal level of arousal (often
moderately aroused); too much or too little
arousal weakens performance
• Sensation seekers
– Seek out levels of arousal higher than most
– Zuckerman found low levels of monoamine
oxidase (MAO) in sensation seekers
– MAO affects dopamine release; may cause
sensation seekers to seek intense arousal
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Incentive Theories of Motivation
• Incentives are things that motivate to action
• Extrinsic motivation is behavior that is motivated
from outside (praise, material items)
• Intrinsic motivation are incentives that come
from within (feeling good about self, pride in
accomplishment)
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation – Which
One Is Best?
• Advantages of intrinsic motivation
– No extrinsic incentives needed
– Extrinsic motivators/tangible reinforcers lower
motivation to engage in task
• justification effect
– Intangible reinforcers motivate without
extrinsic incentives
• Advantages of extrinsic motivation
– Can help motivate when not intrinsically
motivated
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Hierarchy of needs
– Basic human needs: physiological, safety and
security
– Psychological needs: belongingness and love,
esteem
– Self-fulfillment needs: self-actualization and
transcendence
– Lower needs need to be met first before can
meet higher need
– Hierarchy not supported by research but still
used in business, marketing, etc.
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Hunger and Thirst: What Makes Us Eat and
Drink
• Eating is most fundamental motivation, ensures
survival
• Motivation to eat remains strong even when we
fight it (e.g. eating disorders)
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Hunger and Feedback in the Body
• Hunger motivates us to eat when needed
• Brain turns hunger off and on in order to
maintain homeostasis (negative feedback loop)
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Hunger and Feedback in the Body
Feedback from the Stomach
• Stomach is one part of body that signals hunger
(the balloon experiment)
• Stomach also plays role in telling brains to stop
eating
• Receptors in wall of stomach measure nutritive
value of food eaten; both quality and quantity
• Rate at which food leaves stomach related to
caloric content of food
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Hunger Feedback from the Liver
• Liver monitors glucose and glycogen levels
• Glucose – sugar needs for energy; glycogen
starch that is stored
• Too much glucose, turns off hunger; if dip into
energy reserves, turns on hunger
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Hunger Feedback from Hormones
• Insulin, made in pancreas, increases hunger
• Cholecystokinin (CCK) released from small
intestines, shuts off eating
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Hunger Feedback from Fat Cells
• Fat cells store fuel reserves that are mobilized
when bodies need fuel
• Also make and secrete chemical called leptin;
informs brain about level of available fat
reserves
• If brain senses high leptin levels, hunger is
reduced
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Hunger Regulation in the Brain
• Processes signals from stomach, liver and leptin
• Glucoreceptors in hypothalamus measure
glucose levels in bloodstream
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Hunger Regulation in the Brain (continued)
• Evidence supporting findings:
– Lateral hypothalamus (LH) functions as “on
switch”; destruction of LH creates starvation
– Neuropeptide Y, appetite stimulant, affects
part of brain outside of LH
– Hypothalamus shuts off hunger; destruction of
ventromedical hypothalamus (VMH) creates
obesity; new set point reached
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
External Cues that Influence Eating: Culture
and Consumerism
• Sight or smell of food sparks hunger
• Relate food to customs, holidays, celebration
• Connect joy and food
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
What Causes Obesity: Nature and Nurture,
Again
• Two-thirds of Americans are considered
overweight; one-third of those obese
• Body mass index (BMI) one way of measuring
obesity
• Obesity causes multitude of health issues
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Factors Controlling Eating
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Behavioral Factors in Obesity
• Poor diet
– High fat diets
– Emotional eating
– More we diet, the harder it may be to lose
weight; body fights against weight loss
– May lead to bingeing
– Emotional distress causes dieting slips
• Lack of exercise
– Exercise burn calories, more permanent
weight loss
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Biological Factors in Obesity
• Low metabolic rate; gain more weight than
normal people
• Low metabolic rate may have been adaptive
once; store reserves of food
• Obese people may have more efficient digestive
systems that use more of food eaten
• Obese people may convert more food into fat
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
It’s a Diverse World: Obesity in White and
Black American Adolescent Females
• Over 33% of Black girls in one study were obese
versus 20% of White girls
• Why?
– Lifestyle and demographic factors; more TV,
less active
– Social factors; attitudes about weight
– Genetic factors; metabolic differences
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa and
Anorexia Nervosa
• Two types of disorder eating: bulimia nervosa
and anorexia nervosa
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Bulimia Nervosa
• Alternating bouts of bingeing and self-starvation
often including purging
• Up to 20,000 calories at once and then starve or
purge (laxatives, self-induced vomiting)
• Average victim is young female of average
weight
• Socially isolating disorder
• Takes physical and psychological toll
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Anorexia Nervosa
• Self-starvation, intense exercise and distorted
image of body (see selves as fat)
• Most often females from upper class families in
industrialized countries where thinness is valued
• Causes of anorexia
– Correlated with perfectionism and faulty
thinking about food
– Biochemical abnormalities
– Personality disorders
– Genetics
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Thirst
•
•
•
•
•
Fluid is critical to survival
How do we know when we’re thirsty?
Intracellular fluid: fluid stored inside cells
Extracellular fluid: fluid stored outside cells
Hypothalamus monitors both fluid levels and
signals thirst
• Specialized pressure receptors in heart, kidneys
and blood vessels detect drop in blood pressure
due to lose of fluid and signal thirst
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
The Puzzle of Destructive Motivation
• Eating disorders, self-injury, suicide, and
substance abuse
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Why Do Some People Abuse Drugs?
• Low self-esteem, boredom, depression
• Operant conditioning: positive reinforcers
causing feelings of pleasure and euphoria;
negatively reinforces pain removal
• Opponent-process theory: counteract effects of
drugs by decreasing user’s arousal; user goes
through withdrawal causing continued need
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Why Do Some People Abuse Drugs?
(continued)
• Physical dependence developed
• Causes drug tolerance: more drug is needed
• Dependence and tolerance may be genetic
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Other Destructive Behaviors
• Self-injury: cut, burn, scratch, beat, mutilate, and
harm
– May have borderline personality disorder
• Suicide
– Depression
– Multiple individual motives
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Theories and Expression of Emotion
• Definition – complex reaction to internal or
external event that involves physiological and
behavioral reactions, facial expression,
cognition, and affective responses
• Emotion is similar to motivation except that it
have an affective component
• Emotions are caused by things outside body
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
The James-Lange Theory of Emotion
• Emotion is equal to pattern of physiological
arousal person experiences during emotion
• Emotion is physiological response to stimulus
• Increased heart rate, increased respiration
create emotion of fear
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Walter Cannon’s Criticisms of the JamesLange Theory
• Criticisms
– Each emotion would have to have a different
physiological bodily response
– Sometimes bodily response follows emotion
– Artificially created physiological responses
don’t cause emotions
• Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
– Emotion originates in brain, not body
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Some Validation of the James-Lange Theory
• New research does show that some emotions
involve different bodily reactions
• Explains some but not all of James-Lange theory
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
• Experience of emotion affected by feedback
brain gets from facial muscles
• Some research support
• Possible explanation: configuration of facial
muscles affects blood flow to brain, affecting
temperature of brain releasing neurotransmitters
• Smiles promote facial muscles that improves our
mood
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Facial Analysis
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
The Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of
Emotion
• Emotions are product of physiological arousal
and cognitive interpretations
• Emotions cause diffuse, general physiological
arousal
• Use situational context to interpret meaning of
arousal
• Interpret cause of reaction based on context and
label emotion
• Research support – Schacter and Singer
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Lazarus’s Cognitive-Mediational Theory of
Emotion
• Cognitive appraisal of situation determines
emotion
• All other components of emotions follow
cognitive appraisal
• Explains why different people react with different
emotions in same situation
• Not everyone agrees
– Zajonc research – mere exposure effect:
preferring things with which we’ve had most
exposure; cognitive appraisal not a factor
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Communicating Emotions: Culture, Gender,
and Facial Expression
• How could you communicate without words?
Through facial expressions!
• Emotions cross across cultural barriers
• Basic emotions are emotions all humans have,
regardless of cultural background
• Genetically programmed
• Cross-cultural studies support this belief
• However, there still are cultural differences
What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 8
Studying the Chapter:
Are You Getting the Big Picture?
• Motivation and emotion are intertwined and
direct behavior
• Both influenced by physiological states that are
an important in emotions
• Cognition and social factors play a role in
motivation and emotion
• Motivation and emotion allow us to function in
variety of situations
• Real life application: psychotherapists, doctors,
teachers, managers
Download

What Guides Our Behavior? - Valdosta State University