Chapter 1
Introduction to Nursing Research and
Evidence-Based Practice
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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Introduction to the Course
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Introduction of class members
Review of syllabus
Presentation of class schedule
Questions
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Class Discussion Questions
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What was your reaction when you learned
you were required to take a research course?
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Class Discussion Questions (cont’d)
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What is the value of a research course to
you as a nurse?
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What Is Research?
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To search again
To examine carefully
Diligent and systematic inquiry
Discovery
Goal is to develop an empirical body of
knowledge for a discipline
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Definition of Nursing Research
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A scientific process that validates and refines
existing knowledge and generates new
knowledge that directly and indirectly
influences nursing practice.
It is the key to building an evidence-based
practice for nursing.
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Using Research in Practice
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Synthesis of knowledge (research, theory,
and clinical experiences)
Effect of philosophy
Making a change in practice
Evaluation of change for patient, provider,
and health care system
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Integrative Review of Research
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Critique of studies on a selected topic or
practice problem
Development of evidence-based practice
guidelines:
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Example: safe administration of intramuscular
injections
• Summarize the findings.
• Draw conclusions about what is known or not known
about the topic.
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Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines
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Conscientious integration of best research
evidence with clinical expertise and patient
values and needs in the delivery of highquality, cost-effective health care
Synthesis of knowledge for development of
guidelines, standards, protocols, or policies to
direct nursing interventions and practice
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Why Is Research Important for
Evidence-Based Practice?
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Develops empirical knowledge base
Identifies best practices that are based on
clinical practices
Improves outcomes for:
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Patient and family
Nurse
Health care system
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Nursing Research Provides:
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Description
Explanation
Prediction
Control
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Description
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Identifying and understanding the nature of
nursing phenomena and the relationships
among the phenomena to:
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Describe what exists in nursing practice.
Discover new information.
Promote understanding of situations.
Classify information for use in the discipline.
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Explanation
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Clarifying the relationships among
phenomena and identifying the reasons why
certain events occur
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Prediction
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Estimating and anticipating the outcomes in a
particular situation
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Control
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Manipulating a situation so as to achieve a
particular outcome
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Research Participation at Various
Levels of Educational Preparation
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BSN Researcher Role
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Identify research problems.
Assist with data collection.
Critique research studies.
Summarize research findings for use in
practice.
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Class Discussion Question
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Why should nurses be excellent consumers
of research?
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History of Nursing Research
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Nursing research has evolved slowly over the
years.
Nursing research began in the 19th century
with Florence Nightingale.
Clinical research is the current major focus of
nursing research and will continue to be so
throughout the 21st century.
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Florence Nightingale
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Nightingale focused on the importance of a
healthy environment for patients.
Aspects of her research included:
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Ventilation
Cleanliness
Purity of water
Healthy diet
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Nursing Research: 1900–1940s
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American Journal of Nursing first published in
1900.
Case studies reported in the 1920s and
1930s.
Graduate programs in nursing began in the
1920s.
Research conducted by nurses in the 1940s.
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Nursing Research: 1950s
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1950—American Nurses Association begins
5-year study of nursing functions and
activities.
1952—Nursing Research published
BSN and MS nursing programs add research
to their curricula.
1953—Institute for Research and Service in
Nursing Education established by Teacher’s
College, Columbia University.
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Nursing Research: 1960s
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1963—International Journal of Nursing
Studies
1967—Image published by Sigma Theta Tau
(now titled The Journal of Nursing
Scholarship)
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Nursing Research: 1970s
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1970—ANA Commission on Nursing
Research
1972—Council of Nurse Researchers
1978—Advances in Nursing Science
1978—Research in Nursing and Health
1979—Western Journal of Nursing Research
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Nursing Research: 1980s
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1982–1983—Conduct and Utilization of
Research in Nursing project (CURN)
1983—Annual Review of Nursing Research
1985—National Center for Nursing Research
(NCNR)
1987—Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice
1988—Applied Nursing Research and
Nursing Science Quarterly
1989—Agency for Health Care Policy and
Research (AHCPR)
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Nursing Research: 1990s
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1992—Clinical Nursing Research
1993—National Institute of Nursing Research
(NINR)
1993—Journal of Nursing Measurement
1994—Qualitative Health Research
AHCPR renamed Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality (AHRQ).
1999—AACN position statement on nursing
research
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Nursing Research: 21st Century
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2000—Healthy People 2010
2000—Biological Research for Nursing
2002—Joint Commission revised policies to
support evidence-based care.
2004—Worldviews on Evidence-Based
Nursing
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21st Century
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2005—AHRQ guidelines and priorities
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2005—NINR priorities
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www.ahrq.gov
www.nih.gov/nin
2006—Revised AACN position statements on
nursing research
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Ways of Acquiring Knowledge
in Nursing
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Traditions
Authority
Borrowing
Trial and error
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Personal
experience
Role modeling
Intuition
Reasoning
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Practice Knowledge Base
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Identify two common behaviors used in your
practice.
Indicate the knowledge base for these
behaviors.
Is your practice based mainly on research or
on other types of knowledge?
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Nursing Research Methods
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Quantitative research
Qualitative research
Outcomes research
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Quantitative Research Methods
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Descriptive research
Correlational research
Quasi-experimental research
Experimental research
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Quantitative Research Characteristics
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Philosophical origin: logical positivism
Focus: concise, objective, reductionistic
Reasoning: logistic, deductive
Basis of knowing: cause-and-effect
relationships
Theoretical focus: tests theory
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Qualitative Research Methods
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Phenomenological research
Ground theory research
Ethnographic research
Historical research
Focus groups
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Qualitative Research Characteristics
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Philosophical origin: naturalistic, interpretive,
humanistic
Focus: broad, subjective, holistic
Reasoning: dialectic, inductive
Basis of knowing: meaning, discovery,
understanding
Theoretical focus: theory development
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Outcomes Research
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Focus of outcomes:
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Patients and families
Providers (nurses, physicians)
Health care systems
Outcomes used change practice and develop
policy.
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