CHAPTER 7
Employee
orientation,
motivation and
retention
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Chapter outcomes
• explain the importance of orientation
• design an orientation programme for a new
employee, paying attention to shat it should contain,
how it should be implemented, by whom and what
timescale
• explain why the evaluation of the orientation
programme is important
• discuss how motivation is linked to individual
performance
• list a number of motivational theories
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Chapter outcomes (continued)
• discuss the practical implications of the various motivation
theories
• identify the changing nature of the psychological contract
• list a number of retention determinants in four broad areas
within the work context
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Definition
•• Induction/orientation/socialisation
–
Induction/orientation/socialisation
• Culture –
• Culture –
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
–
Objectives of orientation
• Acquainting new employees with job procedures
• Establishing relationships with co-workers, including
subordinates and supervisors
• Creating a sense of belonging among employees by
showing them how their job fits into the overall
organisation
• Acquainting new employees with the goals of the
organisation
• Indicating to the employees the preferred means by
which these goals should be attained
• Identifying the basic responsibilities of the job
• Indicating the required behaviour patterns for
effective job performance
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Model for orientation
• Phase I – Anticipatory socialisation
–
–
–
–
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Model for orientation (continued)
• Phase II – Encounter
–
–
–
–
–
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Model for orientation (continued)
• Phase III – Change and acquisition
–
–
–
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Model for orientation (continued)
• All three phases have also been labeled as “________”,
“_________” and “_________”
• Behavioural & attitudinal criteria used to measure progress
• 3 essential types of behaviour:
–
–
–
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Model for orientation (continued)
• 3 affective outcomes:
–
–
–
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Benefits of orientation
•
 Job satisfaction
•
 Labour turnover
•
 Commitment to values and goals
•
 Performance as a result of faster learning times
•
 Costly and time-consuming mistakes
•
 Absenteeism
•
 Customer service through heightened productivity
•
 Manager/subordinate relationships
•
 Understanding of company policies, goals and procedures
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Reasons for the lack of effective
orientation
• The supervisors responsible for the task either lack the
time or ability to fulfil this obligation
• Organisations do not regard anxiety and stress, owing
to insecurity and unfulfilled expectations, as a primary
cause of labour turnover among new employees. They
therefore consider orientation to reduce anxiety and
stress as unnecessary
• Organisations regard effective recruitment, selection,
training and development as substitutes for orientation
• Where orientation programmes are introduced, the key
components are lacking
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Reasons for the lack of effective
orientation (continued)
• Orientation is aimed at inducing new employees to
adhere to organisational practices and procedures
while little attention is paid to instilling loyalty and
commitment to the organisation
• Employees who are transferred or promoted within the
organisation are not subjected to orientation
programmes
• Orientation programmes are not followed up, i.e. the
success of these programmes is not determined
• Orientation programmes often concentrate on
promoting the image of the organisation
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Responsibility for orientation
• The supervisor –
• The head of department –
• The human resources department -
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Responsibility for orientation
(continued)
•
A 'mentor' or 'buddy‘ –
•
The shop steward/staff representative –
•
New employees –
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Who should be given orientation
training?
• New employees –
• Transferred/promoted employees –
• All current employees -
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Scope of orientation training
• Two levels:
– General organisational orientation – affect all
employees in the organisation
– Specific departmental orientation – tailored to the
new employee’s specific department
• Employee handbook – review regularly, guard against
too much detail, mention topics briefly, could also be on
website
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Approaches in orientation
• 1 Formal Orientation
• 2 Informal Orientation
• There are also three basic approaches:
–
–
–
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Approaches in orientation
• Informal orientation:
– Self-directed orientation – employee is encouraged to
discover information on their own regarding the organisation
(can be by means of company Intranet)
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
How long should the orientation
training be?
• Avoid cramming all orientation (detailed information) into one
long session
• Sessions should not be longer than 2 hours
• Period of orientation should be linked to time it takes to become
effective
• Follow-up sessions are important after ± 2 months
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Planning an orientation programme
• Developing orientation programme takes 3-6 months
• Key planning considerations:
– Orientation policy – Budget – Other planning considerations • Time needed to plan & implement
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Planning an orientation programme
(continued)
– Other planning considerations - A
number of other aspects must also be
considered: (continued)
• Programme goals, topics to be included,
methods of organising and presenting them,
duration of orientation sessions
• Materials, facilities and personnel to be used
• General organisation topics versus department
and job topics to be covered
• Qualifications and training needs of human
resources personnel, line managers and
supervisors
• Programme flexibility to accommodate employee
differences in education, intelligence and work
experience
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Designing an orientation programme
• Different groups in the organisation require different orientation
programmes (eg. management & non-management)
• Design programme to include all the information the newcomer
will “need to know” and the “nice to know” as well
• “Need to know” – information the newcomer requires as soon
as possible to fit in & be effective
• “Nice to know” – can be given over a period of time as they
settle in
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Designing an orientation programme
(continued)
• Categories of information:
– Job-related information –
– General information -
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Implementing the orientation
programme
•
Steps:
– Pre-employment preparation – Pre-employment information – 1st day instructions -
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Implementing the orientation
programme (continued)
•
Steps: (continued)
– The welcome pack – Organising the work -
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Implementing the orientation
programme (continued)
• Steps: (continued)
– Briefing colleagues –
– Administrative arrangements –
– Training –
– The first day orientation –
– On arrival –
– Basic information –
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Implementing the orientation
programme (continued)
• Steps: (continued)
– The initial discussion –
– Building the relationship –
– Immediate supervisor –
– The buddy or mentor –
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Evaluation of the orientation
programme
• Benefits:
– To ensure that the organisation is spending its money wisely
and achieving positive results
– That the methods used to assist new employees to integrate
and become effective workers in the organisation are the
most suitable
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Evaluation of the orientation
programme
• Use questionnaires, surveys, exit interviews and course
evaluation forms, qualitative information can also be gathered:
– Who should be involved?
– What will be measured?
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
The problems with orientation
programmes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Too much emphasis on paperwork
Information overload
Scare tactics
Too much selling of the organisation
Emphasis on formal, one-way communication
One-shot mentality
No diagnosis or evaluation of the programme
Lack of “follow-up”
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Motivation
• Definition:
–
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Motivation
• Completing the orientation process does not
guarantee satisfactory employee performance
• Many factors affect performance abilities, efforts
expended & continued organisational support
received
• HR should analyse and address these areas
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Motivation
• Motivators are specific to an individual
• A manager should attempt to meet the employee’s important
needs/basic requirements for worker productivity
• Increased diversity of workforce
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
_______________ needs
_______________ needs
_______________ needs
_______________ needs
_______________ needs
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Alderfer’s ERG theory
• Closely related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
• ____________ (existence, relatedness and growth)
• Differences do exist, however
• Alderfer proposes that, when one need is frustrated, we simply
concentrate on the others
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Achievement motivation
• David McClelland
• 3 needs are emphasised: achievement, affiliation & power
– The need to achieve (N ach) -
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Achievement motivation
(continued)
– The need for affiliation (N aff) – The need for power (N pow) •
N aff + N pow strong 
•
N Ach + N pow 
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Goal setting
• Edwin Locke
• Job performance can be increased through goal setting - when
individuals are given measurable goals rather than vague
performance standards
• Best-known expression of goal setting theory is
_________________________________
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Goal setting (continued)
• Goal-setting strategies involve a systematic
process  manager & subordinate discuss
and agree on a set of jointly determined goals
• Present a case for or against each goal
• Final result - a set of goals that is in keeping
with the overall goals of the organisation
• Feedback on progress is periodically
supplied, enabling the worker to make
necessary corrections
• Link between performance & rewards is clear
(emphasis on what is achieved rather than on
how)
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Positive reinforcement
• The practice of giving valued rewards to someone who
has just engaged in a desired behaviour
• Law of effect • Reinforcement is at the heart of merit increases
• For reinforcement to continue to affect employees’
future behaviour manager must make certain that
rewards are meaningful and desired by each employee
• Manager must tailor the reward, whether it be
recognition, pay or changing job requirements, to fit the
employee
• Manager must be sure that employees realise that
rewards are contingent on correct behaviour.
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
• Frederick Herzberg
• Motivator-hygiene factors - applied to the workplace and job
design
• Herzberg noticed that people identified different things as
sources of work dissatisfaction (__________ factors) from
those that were sources of satisfaction (____________)
• Satisfaction and dissatisfaction not simple opposites
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
(continued)
Hygiene needs
- job
environment
creates
demand for
Motivator needs
+ job
opportunities
allow
workers to
achieve
Hygiene factors:
Level of job
dissatisfaction
More money, better
supervision, good
working conditions
etc
Level of job
performance
Motivators:
Level of job
satisfaction
Achievement,
responsibility,
growth, work itself,
recognition
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
The psychological contract definition
• The psychological contract –
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Individual/organisational
relationships
• The psychological contract - entails beliefs about what employees
believe they are entitled to receive because they perceive their
employer promised to provide these things
– Unwritten
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Individual/organisational
relationships (continued)
• The psychological contract
– Violations of the psychological contract
– Changing of the psychological contract
– Practical implications for companies regarding psychological
contracts
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Retention of human resources
•
•
•
•
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Summary
•
•
•
Starting a new job is not easy. It is important that careful attention be paid to the
introduction of the new employee to the organisation, his or her co-workers and
his or her job. This is also applicable to transferred and promoted employees.
The method to achieve this is by means of a well-designed orientation
programme.
To implement the programme successfully requires the joint effort of the HR
department, the line managers and the existing employees.
While the first day of the new employee at the organisation is critical, there are
limits to what can be achieved and the orientation will often have to be spread
over a longer period.
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Summary
• When planning the orientation programme, it is important to note not
only the content of the programme but also the best way of handling it.
The programme will also have to be monitored regularly to correct any
problems and to see whether any redesign is necessary.
• Successful orientation will lead to better-motivated employees and
higher productivity within the organisation.
• After orientation has been completed, it is important that the employee
receives proper training in order to improve his or her skills within the
job environment.
• Individual performance components include individual ability, effort
expended and organisational support.
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning
Summary
•
•
•
Motivation deals with the needs and desires of human behaviour. Various
theories of motivation have been developed.
A psychological contract contains the unwritten expectations that employees
and employers have about the nature of their work relationship. Those contracts
are changing along with employee loyalty to their employers.
Retention of employees is a major focus of HR efforts in organisations. The
determinants of retention can be broadly divided into four categories.
For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e
by Grobler, Wärnich et al
ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning