Motivation and Emotion
Psychology 101 Woodruff, Spring ‘07
What motivates you? Where do
you see yourself in 5 years?
Q. What is motivation?
A. Motivation is an internal state
that activates and gives direction
to our thoughts.
What is Motivation?
physiological and psychological
factors that cause us to act in a
specific way at a particular time.
the “why” in psychology
Energized to do an activity
Direct energy toward a goal
Have differing Intensities of feelings
about reaching that goal.
Why do most businesses fail
within the first year?
1. Fear—Whether it is the fear of success or the fear of failure, fear of stepping out of
one’s comfort zone to try something new, or the fear of trial and error. Fear can
freeze a person dead in his or her tracks.
2. Failure to plan.
3. Lack of funding.
4. Procrastination
5. Excuses. Especially making an excuse for any and everything that causes you to
6. Doing busy work. Keeping busy doing unimportant tasks.
7. Inability to delegate tasks. Sometimes delegation saves your business. If you
have a weakness, hire someone who could turn that weakness into a strength. Use
others to complete simple time consuming tasks so that you can do other things.
8. Failure to Research.
9. Failure to Market.
10. An inconsistent advertising campaign. It is better to have a ton of small ads on a
regular basis than one large ad on a monthly or yearly basis.
11. Your pricing is too low, thus resulting in a negative cash flow.
12. Bad accounting practices.
13. Choosing quantity over quality. Cutting corners is bad business sense.
14. Dishonesty.
15. Not fixing mistakes.
16. Not completing tasks in a timely manner.
17. Inability to follow-up. You should always follow-up by email, snail mail, or phone.
18. Not listening to client or customer. Talking too much.
19. Spending too little. It takes money to make money.
20. Spending too much. Purchasing items when you don’t need them, upgrading when the
older version will do, letting suppliers talk you into things you cannot afford, and not budgeting.
21. Being unprepared for fluctuations in business. Boom times when demands are high as well
as slow times when you are struggling to get by. (Put money away during boom times to
prepare for slow times.)
22. Lack of diversification. If you only offer one product or service, losing it can destroy your
23. Reputation. While a good reputation will gain you tons of business, a bad reputation could
close your business.
24. Cockiness. There is nothing wrong with feeling great about your products, services, or
accomplishments. Just don’t let pride and arrogance destroy your customer relations.
25. Discouragement. Giving in to your feelings of discouragement, when things do not work out
the way you planned or succeed as fast as you thought. Also allowing others to feed on any
discouragement you may already feel.
Drive theories
•Instinct theories- late 1800’s theory proposing
that people are motivated to engage in certain
behaviors because of evolutionary
programming. (i.e. migration, mating rituals) Is
there a jogging instinct?
•Instinct theories were replaced by Drive theories.
•This theory asserted that behavior is motivated by the
desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet
biological needs.
•Needs that “push” or “drive” us to behave in certain ways
that will lead to a reduction in the drive.
•When a behavior reduces a drive, we are more likely to
repeat it when the same need arises in the future.
Instinct Theory
Instincts- innate tendencies or biological
forces that determine behavior.
Fixed action pattern- innate biological force
that predisposes an organism to behave in a
fixed way in the presence of a specific
environmental condition.
Primary Motives
Biological Needs
Human Motives for things that are necessary for
survival, such as food, water, and warmth.
Homeostasis- Biological Thermostats
Homeostatic mechanisms
Internal body mechanisms that sense
biological imbalances and stimulate action
to restore proper balance.
Internal Sources
Biological Needs
Social Motives
External Sources
Internal Sources
Biological Needs:
A state of physical
deprivation that
causes an imbalance
within the body (e.g.,
body temperature,
blood sugar, water
External Sources
Any external motivating
stimulus, such as
Internal Sources
A state of arousal or
tension that is
produced by a
biological need.
External Sources
Any external motivating
stimulus, such as
Internal Sources
Social Motive:
A type of motivation
acquired through
experience and
interaction with other
people; becomes part
of your personality.
External Sources
Any external motivating
stimulus, such as
Theories of Motivation
Biological theories
 instincts
releasing stimuli
 sociobiology - the study of the genetic and
evolutionary basis of social behavior
drive - internal motivational state created by a
physiological need
homeostasis - tendency of the body to maintain
an optimum balanced range of physiological
Psychological motives
Motives related to the
individual’s happiness
and well-being, but not to
Novel stimulation- new or
changed exp.
Like humans, animals are
motivated to seek out stimulation
and explore novel environments.
Theories of Motivation…cont.
drive-reduction model -motivated behavior is
directed toward the reduction of a physiological
optimum-level theory - the body functions best
at a specific level of arousal, which varies from
one individual to another.
Why bungee jump, skydive, shark surf?
To increase optimal levels…
Cognitive Theories
Incentive theory
theory that views behavior as motivated by
the goal that the organism seeks to attain
Incentives- environmental factors, such
as external stimuli, reinforces, or rewards,
that motivate our behavior.
Yerkes- Dodson law
A law stating that effective performance is likely
if the level of arousal is suitable for the activity.
Achievement and Affiliation
manipulation of the environment according to
established rules to attain a desired goal
the need to be with others and have personal
relationships to avoid being alone
Gang violence
Why do gangs exist?
Stanley Schacheter 1959
Half subjects told they were to be painfully shocked.
Half told they would receive mild shocks.
Both groups given choice of waiting together or
2/3 of subjects of high shock grp waited together.
Only 1/3 of low shock grp waited together.
Achievement Motivation
The psychological need in humans for success.
1. Mastery goals – Are intrinsically motivated to learn
new information, enjoy challenging courses, and
disappointed by easy courses.
2. Performance-approach goals-motivated to work
hard to get better grades than others, to gain
3. Performance-avoidance-motivated to work hard to
avoid getting bad grades and looking unintelligent to
Fear of success- The fear of the consequences of
success, particularly the envy of others.
Opponent-process theory of motivation- Theory of the
learning of new motives based on changes over time in
contrasting feelings. For example:
(a) Every state of positive feeling is followed by a
contrasting negative feeling and vice-versa.
(Happiness then depression)
(a) Any feeling experienced many times over in
succession loses some of its intensity.
(Being let down over and over again)
Why do we stay in relationships we do not enjoy? Why use drugs, or parachute
jump, or stay in a drama filled negative relationship?
When Extrinsic rewards go bad or good
Should extrinsic rewards should be supplied
by parents, teachers, and employers in an
effort to increase motivation?
Should police officers and firemen be given
rewards for more prisoners apprehended, or
more fires extinguished in record time?
When young children who like to draw
pictures in school were given gold certificates
for good drawing, they drew less often than
those who had not received rewards.
Human motives stem from the
Need for things that keep us alive:
Specific Motives
Intrinsic motivation- Human motives
stimulated by the inherent nature of the activity
the pleasure in new accomplishments or its
natural consequences. (internal personal joy)
Extrinsic motivation- Human motives activated
by external rewards.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Specific Hungers
Psychological Factors in
Emotions- depressed eaters
Incentives- clear your plate, greed
Glucostatic theory
when glucose levels drop, we feel hungry
Lipostatic theory
person’s long-term normal weight varies
around a set-point; when the weight drops
below a the set-point, we feel hungry
Glucostatic Theory
Hunger : Regulation of Food Intake
Hypothalamus- part of the forebrain involved with
motives, emotions, and the functions of the autonomic
nervous system.
Lateral hypothalamus- involved in feeling hungry and starting
to eat (the feeding center).
Ventromedial hypothalamus- portion of the
hypothalamus involved in inhibiting eating when sufficient
food has been consumed (satiety center).
Hyperphagia- excessive overeating that results from damage
of the satiety center of the hypothalamus.
Paraventricular nucleus- motive of hunger by regulating the
level of blood sugar.
Insulin- reduces amount of sugar in the bloodstream.
Glucagon- causes liver to release sugar into bloodstream.
Specific Hungers
Psychological Factors in
Emotions- depressed eaters
Incentives- clear your plate, greed
Hunger Drive
Two areas of
the lateral and
areas, play a
central role in
the hunger
Lateral Area
lesions to
specific cell
bodies reduce
hunger drive as
well as general
Ventromedial Area
Lesions alter
digestive and
metabolic processes
Food is converted
into fat rather than
energy molecules,
causing animal to
eat much more than
and gain weight
Hunger Drive
Other stimuli that act on the brain to
increase or decrease hunger include
satiety signals from the stomach (CCK)
signals indicating the amount of food
molecules in the blood (insulin)
leptin, a hormone indicating the amount
of fat in the body
internals vs. externals
Research on Weight
Regulation and Dieting
No consistent personality trait differences
found between obese and non-obese people
(e.g., willpower, anxiety)
Dieters and obese are more likely to eat in
response to stress than non-dieters
Family environment of little importance in
determining body weight; genetics plays a
large role
Number of fat-storage cells is a major
determinant of body weight
Appetite stimulated by (+) Ghrelin, NPY, but suppressed by
increased levels of (-) CCK, Insulin, & Leptin.
Research on Weight
Regulation and Dieting
Fat cells are determined by genetics and food
They increase with weight gain, but merely
shrink with weight loss; may stimulate hunger
Weight loss causes a decline in basal
Fat cells
Return to
normal diet
Effects of Culture and
Habits on Body Weight
Baseline body weight—cluster of
genetic and environmental factors that
cause a
person’s weight to settle within a
given range
Weight can be affected by factors like
diet, exercise, and daily habits (e.g.,
stairs instead of elevator)
Basal Metabolic Rate
The rate at which the body uses energy
for vital functions while at rest
Factors that influence BMR
Food intake
Excess Weight and Obesity
Obesity—condition characterized by
excessive body fat and a BMI equal to
or greater than 30.0
Overweight—condition characterized by
BMI between 25.0 and 29.9
Factors Contributing to Being
Highly palatable food—we eat because it
tastes so good
SuperSize It—food portions are larger than
necessary or health
Cafeteria Diet Effect—more food and more
variety leads us to eat more
Snacking—does not cause us to eat less at
BMR—changes through the lifespan
Sedentary lifestyles
Factors in Obesity
Genetic susceptibility—some people are
more likely to be predisposed to obesity
Leptin resistance—condition where
higher-than-normal levels of leptin do
not produce desired physiological
Weight cycling—repeated dieting,
weight loss and weight gain tends to
result in higher weight and reduced
Normal mouse vs. ob mouse
Because of a genetic
mutation, ob/ob mice
are unable to produce
These mice display
the eating behavior of
“starving” animals.
They have 5 times as
much body fat then
normal mice.
When treated with
Leptin, the mice lose
weight and eating
But this has not worked
for obese people.
“Of mice not of men?”
Eating Disorders
Anorexia nervosa—characterized by
excessive weight loss, irrational fear of
gaining weight and distorted body
Bulimia nervosa—characterized by
binges of extreme overeating followed
by self-induced purging such as
vomiting, laxatives
Binge-eating—disorder characterized by
recurring episodes of binge eating
without purging.
Definition of Emotion
Positive or negative feelings generally
in reaction to stimuli that are
accompanied by physiological arousal
and characteristic behavior.
Physiological changes and conscious
feelings of pleasantness or
unpleasantness, aroused by external and
internal stimuli, that lead to behavioral
Theories of Emotion
Commonsense view
stimulus  emotion  physiological response
James-Lange theory
Stimulus  physiological  emotion
Cannon-Bard theory
emotional feelings and physiological changes occur
at the same time, via the thalamus
Cognitive theory- cognitive interpretation of events
from both the outside world & stimuli from inside
our own bodies is the key factor in emotions.
Emotions and the Brain
Limbic system
Evaluates the emotional meaning
Processes memories (i.e., memories can elicit
certain emotions)
Triggers the physiological response
Emotions and the Brain – cont.
 Right hemisphere damage leaves some people
emotional indifferent, no expressions, and the
inability to interrupt emotions in others
 In general, positive emotions activate the left
Alexithymia – lack of emotional expression, more in
men than women, probably learned, not recognized as
a psychological disorder, yet.
 In general, negative emotions activate the right
Opponent-process theory of emotion
 After an emotion response, the brain initiates the
opposite reaction, trying to maintain homeostasis
Expressive Components of Emotion - cont.
facial feedback hypothesis
 a certain facial expression will produce
the corresponding emotion
display rules
 culturally specific rules about
expressing emotions
 real smile versus a fake smile
nonverbal communication
 body language
 paralanguage
gender effects
the development of emotion
Plutchik’s 8 Basic Emotions
Six universal emotions
Basic Conflicts
approach-approach conflict
 a choice must be made between two attractive
 a choice must be made between two unattractive
 a choice must be made whether to pursue a single
goal that has attractive and unattractive aspects
multiple approach-avoidance
 choices must be made between several goals with
attractive and unattractive aspects
Social Learning theory
Albert Bandura (1973)
Believe that people are aggressive only if they
have learned that it’s to their benefit to be
We will act aggressively in reaction to
frustration only if we have learned to do so.
If we see others success at being aggressive,
or we win victories due to aggression, then we
become aggressive.
Aggression, Learned or
Polygraph (“lie detector test”)
What Motivates Sexual
• Necessary for the survival of the
species but not of the individual
• Lower animals motivated by hormonal
changes in the female
• Higher species less influenced by
hormones and more by learning and
environmental influences
Sexual Activity
Men are thought to have greater sexual drive,
interest and activity than do women. Why?
Evolutionary Perspective: Men developed an
interest in sex with multiple partners in order to
maximize the likelihood of passing on their
genes; women seek a good provider
Social Role Approach: Gender differences reflect
cultural roles and division of labor
Women prefer resource-rich men, but only when they
lived in cultures with little reproductive
freedom/educational equality
Sexual Orientation
• Sexual orientation—direction of a person's
emotional and erotic attractions
• Heterosexual—sexual attraction for the
opposite sex
• Homosexual—sexual attraction for the same
• Gay—typically used to describe male
• Lesbian—typically used to describe female
• Bisexual—sexual attraction for both sexes
Survey of Sexual Behavior
% of Subjects Agreeing
Male and Female Attitudes
Toward Casual Sex
Sleep With
Sleep With
Friend of Friend
Gender and Jealousy: Cheating
Which is worse? Emotional or Sex
Sex Worse
Emotion Worse 62%
Human Sexual Response
• Stage 1: Excitement—beginning of sexual
• Stage 2: Plateau—increased physical arousal
• Stage 3: Orgasm—male ejaculates, female
vaginal contractions
• Stage 4: Resolution—arousal subsides
The Sexual Response
refractory period
Sexual Response Cycle
Orgasm with Partner
Sexual Dysfunctions
• Male sexual problems
– Impotence (inability to maintain an erection)
– Premature ejaculation
• Male and Female
– Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
– Inhibited desire
– Sexual aversion
• Female
– Orgasmic dysfunction
– Vaginismus (painful contraction of the vaginal
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sexual Disorders and
• Sexual dysfunction—consistent disturbance
in sexual desire, arousal, or orgasm that
causes psychological distress and
interpersonal difficulties
• 41% of women and 31% of men report sexual
• Low desire and arousal problems common
among women
• Premature ejaculation and erectile problems
common among men
Any of several forms of nontraditional sexual
behavior where sexual gratification depends
on an unusual experience, object, or fantasy
– Exhibitionism—arousal from exposing one’s
genitals to strangers
– Fetishism—arousal in response to inanimate
objects (shoes, leather)
– Frotteurism—arousal from touching or rubbing
against a non-consenting person, such as in a bus
or subway
Sexually Transmitted
Diseases (STD)
• STD—any of several infectious diseases
transmitted through sexual intercourse or
other sexual contact
• Of the 12 million cases of STDs diagnosed
annually in the US, about 8 million are among
people under 25 years of age
• Many STDs have mild or no symptoms, yet
left untreated can cause serious health
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Although AIDS is transmitted only through
sexual contact or exposure to infected
bodily fluids, many people have irrational
fears of contagion.
One million North Americans are HIV
positive and therefore carriers
AIDS Epidemic
• Acquired immune deficiency syndrome—caused
by exchange of bodily fluids (blood, blood
products, semen) containing the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks and
weakens the immune system
• HIV can stay in the body for many years without
apparent symptoms
• As the HIV attacks the immune system, the person
becomes very susceptible to other opportunistic
diseases (pneumonia, cancers)
• Highest risk groups are gay men, IV drug users
sharing needles, and people with multiple sex
Prevention and Treatment
• There is currently no cure for AIDS, but it can
be treated with complex “drug cocktails,”
which improve quality and duration of life, but
have many side effects and are extremely
• Prevention is possible using condoms, not
engaging in other high risk behaviors such as
sharing needles, and improved blood
screening and infection control in health care
Sexual Disorders
DSM-IV classifies sexual disorders
under two major divisions:
sexual dysfunctions: loss or
impairment in some aspect of the
normal human sexual response
paraphilias: Sexual disorders in which
unconventional objects or situations
become the focus of sexual interest
Sexual Dysfunctions
Some sexual dysfunctions are physical but
most have a psychological basis
erectile disorder: The inability of a man
to achieve or maintain an erection.
female sexual arousal disorder: The
inability of a woman to become sexually
Sexual Dysfunctions
sexual desire disorders: Disorders in
which the person lacks sexual interest
or has an active distaste for sex.
sexual arousal disorder: Inability to
achieve or sustain arousal until the end
of intercourse in a person who is
capable of experiencing sexual desire.
Sexual Dysfunctions
orgasmic disorders: Inability to reach
orgasm in a person able to experience
sexual desire and maintain arousal.
premature ejaculation: In ability of a man
to inhibit orgasm as long as desired.
vaginismus: Involuntary muscle spasms in
the outer part of the vagina that make
intercourse impossible.
Paraphillias are primarily a “male”
phenomenon. Classical and operant
“conditioning” likely play a role.
fetishism: A paraphilia in which a
nonhuman object is the preferred or
exclusive method of achieving sexual
voyeurism: Desire to watch others
having sexual relations or to spy on
nude people.
exhibitionism: Compulsion to expose
one’s genitals in public to achieve
sexual arousal.
frotteurism: Compulsion to achieve
sexual arousal by touching or rubbing
against a non-consenting person in
public situations.
transvestic fetishism: Wearing the clothes
of the opposite sex to achieve sexual
gratification. (don’t confuse with transsexualism)
sexual sadism: Obtaining sexual
gratification from humiliating or inflicting
physical pain on a sex partner.
sexual masochism: Obtaining sexual
gratification from being humiliated or
receiving physical pain from a sex partner.
pedophilia: “pre-pubescent” children are the
focus of sexual fantasy or actual sexual
While this remains a “fantasy” it is a
psychological disorder. When the person
acts on the desire, it also becomes a
criminal activity.
most pedophiles have great difficulty fighting
their desires
Gender-Identity Disorder
a strong belief that one is really a member
of the opposite biological sex (i.e., a
woman trapped in a man’s body).
many seek an operation to change their
gender which is granted only after
extensive counseling therapy (most are
happy with the change)
These individuals are NOT transvestites
nor are they homosexuals