Consumer Behavior
Chapter 6
What is Consumer Behavior?
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“Describes how consumers make purchase
decisions and how they use and dispose of
goods and services, and also analyzes the
factors that influence purchase decisions.”
The Decision-Making Process
Problem Recognition
Information Search
Evaluation of Alternatives
Purchase
Post-Purchase Behavior
Problem Recognition
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Difference between ideal state and actual
state
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Nike
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College
Information Search
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Internal Search
External Search
How much research?
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Perceived risk
Knowledge
Prior experience
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Interest
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What resources aided you in choosing a college?
Evaluation of Alternatives
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Evaluative criteria
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Leads to the Formation of an Evoked Set
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College
Purchase Decisions
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Where to buy?
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When to buy?
Post-purchase Behavior
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Expectation comparison
“Buyers remorse”
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Post-purchase anxiety
Cognitive dissonance
Can marketers do anything about it?
Involvement
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High v. Low Involvement
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Routine Problem Solving
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Milk
Limited Problem Solving
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High
Low
Restaurant
Extended Problem Solving
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Cars
Involvement & Marketing
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Low Involvement
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Leader
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Challengers
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Make quality product available and advertise it
Break buying behaviors
High Involvement
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Leaders
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Make info available
Challengers
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Comparative advertising
Situational Influences
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Purchase task
Social surroundings
Physical surroundings
Temporal effects
Antecedent states
Psychological Influences
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Motivation
Personality
Perception
Learning
Values, Beliefs & Attitudes
Lifestyle
Motivation & Personality
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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Must tune products to specific need-level
Personality
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“A person’s consistent behaviors or responses
to recurring situations.”
National character
Self—concept
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Actual self v. Ideal self
Perception
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“The process by which an
individual selects,
organizes, and interprets
information to create a
meaningful picture of the
world.”
Selective perception
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Exposure v. comprehension
v. retention
Subliminal perception
Perceived risk
Source: http://www.impactlab.net
Learning
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Behavioral (Experiential) Learning
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Cognitive (Conceptual) Learning
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Drive + Cue + Response → Reinforcement
Making a connection between two or more
ideas
Brand Loyalty
Top 20 Most Desired Brands- Men
1. Crest
2. BMW
3. National Geographic
4. Panasonic
5. Hyundai
6. Kleenex
7. Coca-Cola
8. Microsoft
9. Tide
10. Lexus
11. Apple
12. Bed Bath & Beyond
13. Ford
14. Animal Planet
15. Hitachi
16. Mercedes-Benz
17. FedEx
18. Proctor & Gamble
19. Hallmark
20. Geico
Source: http://www.walletpop.com/2011/02/02/women-are-from-amazonmen-are-from-geico-worlds-most-desired/
Top 20 Most Desired Brands- Women
1. Johnson & Johnson
2. Sony
3. Kleenex
4. National Geographic
5. MasterCard
6. Google
7. Amazon
8. Visa
9. General Electric
10. Toshiba
11. Crest
12. Microsoft
13. Disney
14. Target
15. Tropicana
16. BMW
17. Febreze
18. Ford
19. Olay
20. Chase
Source: http://www.walletpop.com/2011/02/02/women-are-from-amazonmen-are-from-geico-worlds-most-desired/
Brand Loyalty- College Students
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Brand Keys Inc. survey
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Based on Customer Loyalty Index (16,000
people)
Looked at students’ habits before and after
graduation
Almost 5,000 students and post-grads
surveyed
Students’ attitudes changed because of new
environment and more income
Brand Loyalty-College Students
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Results
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Most loyal to
Least loyal to
Other notables:
Values, Beliefs, & Attitudes
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Values
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Beliefs
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What is important?
“An organized pattern of knowledge that an individual
holds as true.”
Attitudes
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“Learned tendency to respond consistently toward a
given object.”
Shaped by beliefs and values
Involvement & Psychological
Influences
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Decision-making- High-involvement
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Beliefs → attitude → behavior
Decision-making- Low-involvement
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Beliefs → behavior → affect
Lifestyle
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Based on people’s
activities, interests,
and opinions
VALS program
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Discusses 8 lifestyles
Based on resources
and self-orientation
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Action, principles, and
status
Source: http://www.e-flux.com
Sociocultural Influences
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Personal influence
Reference groups
Family
Social class
Culture/Subculture
Personal Influence
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Opinion Leaders
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Direct or indirect influence
Word of mouth
Reference Groups
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Formal and informal groups
that influence the buying
behavior of the individual
Two broad classifications
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Primary
Secondary
Three types
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Membership group
Aspiration group
Dissociative group
Source: http://wwwinsidesocal.com
Family Influence
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Source: http://foodhelp.wa.gov
Consumer
Socialization
Family Life Cycle
Family Decision
Making
Social Class
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Divisions within society along values,
interests, and behavioral lines
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Upper, middle, and lower classes
Share certain characteristics
Culture/Subculture
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Subcultures are divisions of people with
homogenous characteristics
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Age groups
Ethnic groups