Traits Theories III: The Big-5 model of personality I & II Dr Niko Tiliopoulos Room 448, Brennan McCallum building Email: [email protected] In search for the basic dimensions of personality (Psychometric) issues with Cattell’s 16PF Inability to replicate the structure Fiske (1949) – used 22 of Cattell’s trait-descriptors Tupes & Christal (1958) – reanalysed Cattell’s and Fiske’s matrices Norman (1963) – Followed Tupes & Christal’s methodology Possible reasons: Rotation used (oblique vs. orthogonal) (absence of) simple structure (problem with convergence and discriminant validity) Response invariance Scaling Low loadings Hans Eysenck argued that the 16PF are not primary (basic) factors of personality The magic number 5! Donald Fiske (1949) • Five recurrent factors: • Social adaptability • Emotional control • Conformity • Inquiring intellect • Confident self-expression The magic number 5! Both Norman (1963) and Tupes & Christal (1958, 1961) identified five factors The magic number 5! The evolution of the lexical taxonomy Lewis Goldberg, PhD Professor of Psychology University of Oregon “In the English language trait-descriptors are versions of five major features of personality:” Love (Agreeableness) Work (Conscientiousness) Affect (emotional stability) Power (Surgency) Intellect Goldberg’s assessment The Abridged Big Five-Dimensional Circumplex (AB5C; Hofstee, de Raad, & Goldberg,1992) A circular model of the personality domain, in which each pair of the Big-5 factors comprises its own circle Many items in the personality domain, when they are factor analyzed, have two large loadings instead of just one! Thus, when these items are mapped onto a two-dimensional planes using their loadings as Cartesian coordinates, they form a polygon The International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) Hans Eysenck (1991): “… we have literally hundreds of inventories incorporating thousands of traits, largely overlapping but also containing specific variance, each empirical finding is strictly speaking only relevant to a specific trait [. . .] This is not the way to build a unified scientific discipline” (p. 786) Enter the OCEAN (Five Factor Model – FFM) Paul Costa, Jr., PhD Professor of medical psychology Johns Hopkins University Robert McCrae, PhD Senior Investigator Laboratory of Personality & Cognition Baltimore OCEAN Used the 16PF but instead of factor analysing they Cluster analysed it Originally identified three personality super-traits: Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Developed the NEO personality inventory (mid 80s) Later (in the 90s) added the dimensions of Agreeableness & Conscientiousness OCEAN The NEO has a hierarchical arrangement 240 items (PI-R version), 60 items (FFI version) 5-point Likert scales Personality dimensions are orthogonal Principal Components analysis, Varimax rotation Each consists of six facets (traits) The NEO is probably the most validated personality questionnaire (and typology) in academia Probably the most commonly used traits assessment instrument in any personality research Factor One Extraversion (Sociability) Other labels: Social adaptability, Assertiveness, Surgency Relates to (a degree of) having social impact Facets: Gregarious Warmth Assertiveness Activity Excitement seeking Positive emotion (enthusiasm) Observed behavioural correlates: Prominence in social organizations (avg) Heritability index: 0.36 Factor Two Neuroticism (emotionality) Other labels: Emotional control, emotional stability Relates to anxiety and distress Facets: Anxiety Anger-hostility Depression Self-consciousness Impulsiveness Vulnerability Observed behavioural correlates: Poor marital functioning, impaired academic performance (avg) Heritability index: 0.31 Factor Three Agreeableness Other labels: Conformity, friendly compliance, likeability Relates to maintaining positive relations with others (quality of relationships) Facets: Trust Straightforwardness Altruism Compliance Modesty Tender-mindedness Observed behavioural correlates: Conflict resolution tactics, greater social support from others (avg) Heritability index: 0.28 Factor Four Conscientiousness Other labels: Responsibility Relates to will to achieve Facets: Competence Order Dutifulness Achievement striving Self-discipline Deliberation Observed behavioural correlates: avoidance of risky behaviours, higher academic achievement (avg) Heritability index: 0.28 Factor Five Openness (to experience) Other labels: Culture, inquiring intellect, intelligence Relates to intelligence, (acquisition or will to acquire) social or existential experience Factor with least consensus about meaning Facets: Fantasy Aesthetics (appreciation of or attendance to) Feelings Actions Ideas (curiosity) Values Observed behavioural correlates: Greater engagement with existential challenges, artistic expression (avg) Heritability index: 0.46 Profiling with the NEO Psychometric value of the NEO Normative internal consistencies (alphas): 0.70 to 0.85 Cross-cultural replicability Emic approach (imposed) Etic approach Psychometric value of the NEO Good temporal stability The NEO & psychopathology Evaluating the Big-5 The negatives The positives Disagreement about the exact nature of the five factors Probably the most commonly used typology in personality research Are the dimensions really orthogonal? (N & C r ≈ -0.45) Immediate applications in occupation and health Doesn’t really possess a solid theoretical basis Good cross-cultural validity and other psychometric properties Is Openness a dimension of personality? How about Honesty-Humility? Still a descriptive taxonomy “It is unlikely that the five factors identified are the only fundamental personality factors. There are quite likely other fundamental concepts involved among the Allport-Odbert adjectives” (Tupes & Christal, 1961, p.12) Beyond the lexical approach (discussed in PSYC3015: Personality & Intelligence II) Psychobiological perspectives (the birth of Clinical Psychology) Interpersonal & cross-cultural perspectives The rise of causal (predictive) theories of personality Hans Eysenck and neurological personology Marvin Zuckerman’s alternative (biopsychological) Big-5 Claude Cloninger and the Biosocial model of health & mental health Theodore Millon and the dimensional approach to personality disorders Timothy Leary and the interpersonal circumplex of traits Cindy Hazan and the attachment-based models of traits Kim Bartholomew and the construction of adult attachment The development of the psychology of religion & spirituality Evolutionary & behaviour genetics perspectives David Buss and the k-factor of evolutionary personology Robert Plomin and the genomics of personality traits Samuel Gosling and the study of personality in non-human animals Main reading Murphy, K. et al. (2010). PSYC2014: Personality & Intelligence I (3rd ed.). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia. (Section 2, Chapter 8 “Cattell & the Big Five: Factor analytic trait theory”, pp. 287-314) In case you are interested: Tiliopoulos, N., Pallier, G., & Coxon, A.P.M. (2010). A circle of traits: A perceptual mapping of the NEO-PI-R. Personality & Individual Differences, 48, 34-39. or Tiliopoulos, N. (2011). A proposition for a parsimonious taxonomic convergence of personality traits. In S. Boag, & N. Tiliopoulos (Eds.), Personality & individual differences: Theory, assessment, & application. New York: Nova Science Pubs.