Libraries in Transition
From Book Collections & Union Catalogues to
Open Access & Digital Repositories
Abby Clobridge
Director, Clobridge Consulting
[email protected]
CASLIN 2011
Brno, Czech Republic
14 June 2011
Overview
1) A Brief History of Libraries
2) Open Access & Digital Repositories
3) Interoperability
4) Moving Forward in the New Environment
A Short History of Libraries
& Librarianship, Part 1
Ancient Library of Alexandria
Wall painting from Pompeii, woman
holding wax tablets (codex) – Pre 79 AD.
Approx. 3rd Century BC – 30 BC
Ancient Library of Alexandria
Approx. 3rd Century BC – 30 BC
Movable Type &
Gutenberg Press
Circa 1439
Images: Stamp: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DBP_1954_198_Gutenberg.jpg;
Movable Type: Willi Heidelbach, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Metal_movable_type.jpg
Movable Type & Gutenberg Press
Circa 1439
Spread of Printing Press – 1450+
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spread-of-printing.gif
Spread of Printing Press
1450 – End of 19th Century
Spread of Printing Press  more books for libraries
Chained books in library: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Milkau_B%C3%BCcherschrank_mit_angekettetem_Buch_aus_der_Bibliothek_von_Cesena_109-2.jpg
Book photo courtesy of NKZS - http://www.sxc.hu/profile/nkzs ; Archive photo courtesy of Mattox - http://www.sxc.hu/profile/Mattox
Early 1900s:
- Manual of Library Economy
(1929)
- S.R. Ranganathan, The Five
Laws of Library Science (1931)
- Lee Pierce Butler, An
Introduction to Library Science
(1933)
Union catalogues – early printed version.
National Union Catalog (NUC) – issued
serially beginning in the 1950s.
Spread of Printing Press
1450 – End of 19th Century
1900s: “Library Science”
National Union Catalog (NUC) -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NUC_Christmas_Tree_S_Calhoun.jpg
Early 1900s:
- Manual of Library Economy
(1929)
- S.R. Ranganathan, The Five
Laws of Library Science (1931)
- Lee Pierce Butler, An
Introduction to Library Science
(1933)
Spread of Printing Press
1450 – End of 19th Century
1900s: “Library Science”
National Union Catalog (NUC) -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NUC_Christmas_Tree_S_Calhoun.jpg
Library economy –
emphasis on
management and
administration of
libraries
Social science
approach – study
of books & users;
social problems of
information
exchange
University of Graz Library
Early 1900s:
Library Science
Library of Congress, Card Division, 1900 - 1920
1900s: “Library Science”
Images: Card Catalog from University of Graz Library – by Dr. Marcus Gossler, Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution, Share Alike 3.0
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Schlagwortkatalog.jpg
Early OPACs
(1970s)
Ohio State
University,
Dallas Public
Library
1980s:
Widespread
OPAC Adoption
– to replace
card catalogs
Early Computers
MARC Records (1960s)
1960s & 1970s: MARC and OPACs
Early OPACs
(1970s)
Ohio State
University,
Dallas Public
Library
1980s:
Widespread
OPAC Adoption
Online
union
catalogues
Inter-library
loan (ILL)
1980s and early 1990s: Pre-Internet, Early Internet
Emphasis on using technology to improve or replace services.
Card catalogue courtesy of Ralev_com - http://www.sxc.hu/profile/ralev_com.
Model of
Technology
Adoption
4. Redefinition
3. Modification
2. Augmentation
Transformative
Not Transformative
1. Substitution
A Matrix Model for Designing and Assessing Network-Enhanced Courses
http://www.hippasus.com/resources/matrixmodel/puentedura_model.pdf
Ruben R. Puentedura, Ph.D. 2003. Accessed 12/7/08.
Librarians’
Work –
Emphasis on
Books +
Buildings
The Librarian (1556)
Giuseppe Arcimboldo
Libraries =
mostly static
environment
until early
1990s.
The Librarian (1556)
Giuseppe Arcimboldo
St. Petersburg Times (1993)
Early 1990s: Libraries & the Internet
Tap into the FUTURE NOW!, St. Petersburg Times (1993)
Shirley Dugan Kennedy
Internet isn’t just for
computer whizzes.
Ordinary people are
taking advantage of it
too.
Messages only
take a few hours
to be delivered.
Internet access through FIRN, the Florida Information
Resource Network, an E-mail and conferencing system
operated by the state Department of Education
primarily for teachers and librarians
Early 1990s: Libraries & the Internet
Visualization of routes through
a portion of the Internet
Changes in:
• Technology
• User Behavior
• User Expectations
Late 1990s/2000s – Turning point for libraries and the information
ecosystem
Visualization from the Opte Project of the various routes through a portion of the Internet, circa 2005. Image from the Opte Project (www.opte.org) via Wikipedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet
How we work
Gaming
Teaching & Learning
Direct access to
objects
themselves
Media types
Digital Natives
Class of 2012:
Born in 1991
Late 1990s/2000s – Turning point for libraries and the information ecosystem
Late 1990s/2000s – Turning point for libraries and the information
ecosystem
Now What?
Information ecosystem is more complex than ever. How
should we define our role? How do we position
ourselves for the future?
What do our skills and expertise make us uniquely suited
to do? What are the areas where we can add the most
value?
What do our users need? Want? Expect?
René Magritte, "La Trahison des Images" ("The Treachery of Images") (1928-9) or
"Ceci n'est pas une pipe" ("This is not a pipe")
Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media – “We need new mental models.”
This is not a library.
What is a library? What do librarians do?
Support
for
creating
collecting
describing
curating
disseminating
preserving
information.
How do we access
information? Who
has access to
information? What
are the barriers to
access?
How do we define
information today?
How can we
harness ICT to
interact with
information in
new ways?
How can we use,
reuse, manipulate,
and work with
information and
data?
2000s: How do we think about information and knowledge?
How can we
ensure access
to born-digital
information in
the future?
Now What?
Open Access:
• Demand for immediate, complete access to materials.
• Support for new forms, new content types.
• Continually-evolving landscape.
• Uses ICT for redefinition of our work.
• Usage data  measure value.
Open Access (OA)
“Open-access (OA) literature is
digital, online, free of charge,
and free of most copyright and
licensing restrictions. What
makes it possible is the internet
and the consent of the author
or copyright-holder.”
– Peter Suber, A Very Brief
Introduction to Open Access
Purpose of OA
To use Information
Communication Technology
(ICT) to increase and
enhance
dissemination of
scholarship.
External to libraries
Library initiated
Digitization
of archival
collections
Electronic
Theses &
Dissertations
(ETDs)
Late 1990s – 2000s
Budapest
Open Access
Initiative
(2001)
Bethesda
Statement
on Open
Access
Publishing
(2003)
Berlin
Declaration on
Open Access
to Knowledge
in the Sciences
and
Humanities
(2003)
What does this mean?
Through Open Access…
- Increased access
- Further, broader (global) dissemination
- Impact of research increases
- Increased visibility
- Funding dollars have more impact
Two Methods for Open Access:
1) Publish in an Open Access journal.
2) Publish in any peer-reviewed journal and
deposit refereed version in an Open
Access repository.
Peer-review is critical for either method.
Two Kinds of “Free”
Gratis – “Free as in beer.” Free price.
Libre – “Free as in speech.” Lack of
restrictions.
Nearly 2000
repositories
registered.
2011
State of Open Access & Digital Repositories Today
Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) – www.opendoar.org
Repository 66.org – Repository Maps – maps.repository66.org
Over 6500
journals
registered.
2011
State of Open Access Journals Today
Directory of Open Access Journals – DOAJ – www.doaj.org
Types of
Repository
Content
Types of
Repository
Systems
• OA Monographs
• Enhanced publications
• Linked data
• Grey literature
• ETDs
• Digitized materials from archives & museums
• Open Access repositories
• Open Educational Resources (OER) repositories /
learning object repositories
• Learning management systems / courseware
• Digital asset management systems (DAMs)
• Current Research Information Systems (CRIS)
• ePortfolios
2010s – Repository landscape continues to change
Stakeholders
• Research funding agencies
• Publishers
• Researchers
• National policy makers
• NGOs
National mandates? Denmark, Spain…
National
Institutions
of Health
Wellcome
Trust
European
Commission –
FP7 Open
Access Pilot
2010s – Repository landscape continues to change
UNESCO,
OECD, FAO,
Broadband
Commission
The real promise of Open Access is the
potential that stems from the
aggregation of materials.
- Global access.
- New types of analysis.
- Overarching view of research output.
Interoperability
Ability of systems to pass information back and forth
between each other in a usable format.
Metadata consistency necessary for several kinds of
interoperability.
The real value of Open Access lies in the potential to aggregate research
outputs, present information in different ways, and allow for new types of
data extraction and analysis – all possible because of interoperability.
• Title
15 core
elements
Can be used
to describe
anything
• Creator
• Subject
• Description
• Publisher
• Contributor
• Date
• Type
• Format
Dublin Core Metadata Standard
• Identifier
• Source
• Language
• Relation
• Coverage
• Rights
Unqualified
Dublin Core
“Qualifiers”
to refine or
give more
specificity to
fields
Example – Qualifiers for “Date” field:
- Created
- Valid
- Available
- Issued
- Modified
Qualified
Dublin Core
Dublin Core Metadata Standard
Open Access Initiative –
Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH)
• Process of scraping metadata records from source and
replicated in another collection.
• Requires unqualified Dublin Core.
Harvesting
Collection from Japan
Collection from India
Collection from Scotland
Collection from Colorado
Collection from Michigan
Harvested
collection:
Includes
metadata for
records and links
to the objects at
their host
institution
Objects themselves
are not harvested –
only metadata.
http://www.ndltd.org/
Networked Digital Library of
Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD)
“More than one million records
of electronic theses and
dissertations.”
“Union catalogue of millions of
records form open access
resources”
http://oaister.worldcat.org/
“Makes individual collections of
NDLTD member institutions and
consortia appear as one seamless
digital library of ETDs.”
Early 2000s – Early OAI-PMH Interoperability Projects
Union catalogues 2.0
OAI-ORE
- Supporting researchers’ workflows
-Single deposit, multiple repositories
Current Interoperability Projects
http://easydeposit.swordapp.org/
OAI-ORE: Binds together objects that
are related to each other.
Interoperability Challenges
Technical:
- New content types
- Software and systems
- New service layers
- Usage data
- Consistent identification and terminology
- Language challenges
Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) – Interoperability Briefing,
pre-print, 01-June-2011 http://www.coar-repositories.org
Interoperability Challenges
Technical:
- Global context
- Long-term sustainability of guidelines and standards
- Institutional support for implementing guidelines
Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) – Interoperability Briefing,
pre-print, 01-June-2011 http://www.coar-repositories.org
Positioning ourselves
for the future
Support for
creating
collecting
describing
curating
disseminating
preserving
information.
What is a library? What do librarians do?
What is most important?
The information ecosystem is global.
We need to move past artificial silos.
We are all information producers, consumers, and collectors.
We need to facilitate and prioritize
discoverability
and usability of content, not simply access.
Metadata matters, open licensing matters.
Emphasis on research.
New Roles, New Skills
•Advocacy.
•Changing relationship with faculty and researchers.
•Changing relationship with publishers.
•Organizational challenges are vast.
•Technical challenges are significant.
Model of
Technology
Adoption
4. Redefinition
3. Modification
2. Augmentation
Transformative
Not Transformative
1. Substitution
A Matrix Model for Designing and Assessing Network-Enhanced Courses
http://www.hippasus.com/resources/matrixmodel/puentedura_model.pdf
Ruben R. Puentedura, Ph.D. 2003. Accessed 12/7/08.
Libraries in Transition
From Book Collections & Union Catalogues to
Open Access & Digital Repositories
Abby Clobridge
Director, Clobridge Consulting
[email protected]
CASLIN 2011
Brno, Czech Republic
14 June 2011