“But I still haven’t found what I’m looking for”
Searching for
Folktales and Films
in Cultural Heritage Repositories
Kathryn La Barre
CIRSS Symposium, Graduate School of Library and Information Science
September 2, 2011
Overview
• Recent conversations
• Where it all began
• Current projects
2
Recent Conversations
Returning the (faceted) gaze
Les Cahiers du numérique
Instantiation
A Semantic (Faceted)
Web?
Facet Theory:
Geographically
Bounded - or
Transcendent?
Traditions
Vagaries of language
Facet Analysis
Fundamental Categories
Object
vs Subject Facets
ISKO Spain/UK
Geography + Tradition
Formal coding
SKOS – OWL
Ontology building
Formal Concept Analysis
ISKO C/US
Aesthetics
Where It All Began: Brian Vickery
A structure such as facet may validly represent
certain aspects of a field, but only limited aspects.
Do we in fact need a much richer set of semantic
relationships such as some ontologies are trying
to achieve?
In short–what is the future of facets?
(FA) =Facet
Analysis
Digital
Resources
Information
Organization
FA
Information Architecture
Knowledge Management
LIS
Information
Retrieval
Terms
Facet
A generic term used to denote any component of a compound subject,
(Ranganathan, 1967, p. 88).
Groups of terms derived by taking each term and defining it, per genus et
differentiam, with respect for its parent class
(Vickery, 1960, p. 12).
Facet analysis (technique / theoretical framework)
Observing the rules of logical division.
(Broughton, 2001, p. 67; Mills, 2004, p. 268).
One characteristic of division is applied at a time [conceptual analysis]
Division steps should be logical and proximate
Division should be exhaustive
(Mills, 2004, pp. 551).
Peeling the Onion
In Calvin Mooers’ words,
“Facet provides an analytical
tool; that is, the idea of
facet allows you to peel
the onion of an idea.”
Brian Vickery. Faceted Classification Schemes. In
Susan Artandi (Ed.) Rutgers Series on Systems for the
Intellectual Organization of Information. V. 5. New
Brunswick, NJ: Graduate School of Library Science at
Rutgers University
Process
• Map
– (Context) Examine the domain
– (Content) Survey the literature
– (Users) Who? Information needs?
• Label/ sort
– Depth analysis
– Begin analysis with a list of “standard categories” (provisional guide)
– Result: set of homogeneous mutually exclusive groups (facets)
– Formulate every distinctive logical category and possible relation
• Cluster /order
– into arrays or groups which share a common characteristic
Collect
exemplars
archival sources
oral histories
What is facet analysis?
Analyze
instantiations
Codify
process
practice
Process?
Application?
Evidence /
Instantiations
ARTICULATION
Informed application
Formalized process
Theoretical extension
Theory > Practice
Practice> Theory
Heritage
• Universal Decimal Classification
– Otlet, La Fontaine -Documentalists
– 1904-1907 – scheme published
• Bliss Bibiliographic Classification
– Henry Evelyn Bliss
– 1908 (practice) 1923-1933 (theory)
• Colon Classification
– S. R. Ranganathan,
– 1933 (practice) 1937-1967 (theory)
Heritage – Beyond Classification
Application
Example
Purpose
Special subject schemes
(CRG)
English Electric Scheme (1958)
British Catalogue of Music (1960)
Classification of Enterprise
Activities (1966)
From practice to theory
(Richmond, 1988)
Cranfield Tests
Faceted Scheme for Aeronautics
(Cleverdon, 1962)
American Meteorological Society
(Freeman and Atherton, 1969)
FAST in early IR system
testing
Audacious
Test of UDC as mechanized
searching language (Atherton and
Freeman, 1967, 1968)
FAST in computerized
indexing and retrieval
Thesaurofacet
Classification and controlled
vocabulary for sci/tech
(Aitchison, Gomersall and Ireland,
1969)
Vocabulary for IR
PRECIS
PREserved Content Index System
(Austin, 1974)
Postulate-based Permuted Term
POPSI
Indexing (Bhattacharyya, 1979)
Generation of subject
indexing terms and
semantic relations
11
Facets
AIP (1961-1965):
LISA (1969/1963)
Property
Object
Method
Property
Material
Material
Operation
System
Operation
Process
Equipment
Emphasis
Type of work
Footer
API (1966)
Phenomenon
Operating condition
Place
Time
Place
Common Subdivision
Living organism
Collect
exemplars
archival sources
oral histories
What is facet analysis?
Analyze
instantiations
Codify
process
practice
Process?
Application?
Evidence /
Instantiations
ARTICULATION
Informed application
Formalized process
Theoretical extension
Theory > Practice
Practice> Theory
Contemporary Instantiations
•
•
•
•
E-Commerce
Library Catalogs
Cultural Heritage sites
Semantic Web
–
–
–
–
Formal coding
SKOS – OWL
Ontology building
Formal Concept Analysis
AFS Ethnographic Thesaurus
A General ethnographic concepts.
B Belief and worldview
C Ritual-belief manifest
D Health
E Migration and Settlement
F Human Dynamics
G Law and Governance
H Education
I Entertainment
J Art
K Language
L Verbal Arts and Literature
M Music
N Dance
P Material Culture
Q Foodways
R Work
S Performance
T Transmission
U Beings
V Space and Place
W Time
X Disciplines- Fields of study.
Y Research, Theory, and Methodology
Z Documentation
Current Projects
• Complex resources
• Poorly described
• Available in multiple formats
– Physical
– Digital (repositories)
• Heterogeneous users
Current Projects
Folktales and Facets (with Tilley)
Films and Facets (with Cordiero)
Folktales
Records/resources/tools
3 user types
3 films
Repository practices
2 cultures
Task / Facet
Film response / Facet
Development of codified process
Test of codified process
Folktale Obstacles
DISCIPLINARY
Tale names vary
Tale motif / theme variants
(Cinderella)
ACCESS / DISCOVERY
Misunderstand use of
type and motif indexes
Publication overtakes indexing
Catalogs have limited
cross-references
Desired Features
• Searchable fields for source notes, cultural attributions
• Descriptor fields for characters and other motifs
• Integration of learning standards, suggested audience for
performance
• Directed searching and serendipitous discovery
• Full-text or extended synopses
Folklore
FACETS
AGENT
author, translator, illustrator
AREA
of source, of story
ASSOCIATION
awards aggregations (WORK?)
CONTENT
characters, illustrations,
CONTEXT
age, audience, source language
GENRE
tale type
ORIGIN
culture, ethnic group
SOURCES
bibliographies, notes
TIME
of source, of story
TRANSMISSION
oral, print, function
VIEWPOINT
worldview, culture, ethnic group
Access in Film repositories
Film
FACETS
ASSOCIATION
Awards, Derivations, Collections, Ratings, Persons
GENRE
Type of movie
PRODUCTION VALUES
Color, length, format, rights, time of production,
location of production
AUDIENCE
COMMENTARY
Description, emotion, reviews, ratings, tags
MISE EN SCÈNE
Character, object (in film), Location (of action), Time (in
film
PLOT
Action, Setting/location, Time, Theme
OBJECT
culture, ethnic group
RELATION
bibliographies, notes
THEME
of source, of story
TIME
oral, print, function
VIEWPOINT
worldview, culture, ethnic group
Articulation Agenda
FACETS / FACET THEORY?
APPLIED CRITICAL PRACTICE
terminological vagaries
variant traditions
comparative instantiations
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Thank you!
References
•
Project homepage (dissertation): http://mypage.iu.edu/~klabarre/facetstudy.html
•
•
Hunter, Eric. (2002). Classification made simple. Gower/Ashgate.
Mills, J. (2004). Faceted classification and logical division in information retrieval.
Library Trends 52(3), 541-570.
Ranganathan, S. R. (1959). Elements of library classification. London: Association of
Assistant Librarians.
Ranganathan, S. R. (1937/1957/ 1967). Prolegomena to library science. New York:
Asia Publishing.
Vickery, B. (1960). Faceted classification: A guide to construction and use of special
schemes. London: Aslib.
Sites:
•
•
•
•
– CompUSA: http://www.compusa.com
– Endeca: http://endeca.com
– Images of England: http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk
Definition
Planes of work
• Idea: The work of FA takes place in the Idea plane,
where an entity is analyzed into component parts
• Verbal: FA continues here as further sorting and
transformation of the selected categories/facets or
terms occur.
• Notational: work of FC -- translating selected terms
into notation.
High level categories
Ranganathan Shera/Egan
Prieto-Diaz
Aitchison
Aristotle
>Personality
>Matter
>Energy
>Space
>Time
>Function
>Objects
>Medium
>Systemtype
>Functional
area
>Setting
>Entities, things,
objects
>Kinds or types/
systems and
assemblies
>Actions and
activities
>Applications
and purposes
>Space, place,
location and
environment
>Time
>Substance
>Quality
>Quantity
>Relation
>Place
>Time
>Position
>State
>Action
>Affection
>Product
>Agent
>Tools
>Act
>Object of
action
>Space
>Time
Classification- assigning objects to
classes
Objects to be classified into a system are called elements, cases, units, exemplars,
specimens or items. They are the sources or `carriers' of properties, characteristics or
variables.
A property can only be useful in a classification, if it varies within the set of objects, that is,
if at least two different values (categories, states, labels) on the respective property
occur in the sample.
When more than one property is used to characterize an object, the object can be
described as a vector of values, a profile, a set of symptoms, or a pattern of features.
The crucial assumption underlying classification is that objects are elements of a
class, of a set, of a partition or-in biology-of a taxon. In other terminologies, the
terms `category' or `cluster' are also used.
Classification is the process of finding classes and of assigning entities to these classes.
The end product of this order-creating process, however, is often also referred to as
`classification.' To stress this distinction, the term `classification system' can be used
for the end-product, although in clinical psychology and biology the word `taxonomy'
is more common. Identification is the assignment of a specific case or object to
(usually only) one of the classes.
H. Feger (2001). Classification: Conceptions in the Social Sciences. International Encyclopedia of the Social and
Behavioral Sciences, pp. 1966-1973.
PLANES OF WORK
IDEA
“The destiny of any idea created by one mind is the minds of the others.
The others too need the ideas to be communicated to them.”
thoughts - emotions - context
VERBAL
“Along with the capacity to create ideas, came also the capacity to
develop an articulate language as medium for communication.”
organization - translation
NOTATIONAL
“Words are often replaced by symbols pregnant with precise meaning.
Ordinal numbers are used as helpful symbols. … Uniqueness of the idea
represented by an ordinal number and the total absence of homonyms and
synonyms are the distinctive features of the notational plane, when
compared with the verbal plane.”
formalization - coding
PROLEGOMENA (1967)
Folktales and Facets
[P1] scholar [P2] practitioner [P3] lay user
RQ1) What kinds of information seeking tasks are
evident for people seeking folktales? Are tasks
shared across groups?
RQ2) What characteristics of an information
retrieval interface best support tasks?
RQ3) To what extent do current bibliographic
records support tasks? What improvements are
suggested by facet and task analysis?
Study Overview : Facet Analysis
Agent (may include author/narrator, translator, adapter etc)
Area (of source) (of story)
Association (award) (aggregations of stories) (related
materials) (source) (work) (RDA = enhancements)
Content (characters) (illustrations) (language) (mood)
(moral) (motif) (narrative structure)
Context (age of story) (audience) (function of story) (source
language) (manner of dissemination) (style) (variant type)
Documentation (bibliographies or indexes)
Genre (tale type)
Origin (cultural) (ethnic) (geographical) (theoretical)
Time (of source) (of story)
Transmission (oral) (print) (function)
Viewpoint (cultural) (ethnic) (theoretical)
orange text = elements currently found in bibliographic records