Principles of Training
Dr. Moran
EXS 558
Wednesday 10/26/05
Remaining Lectures
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10/26/05 – Principles of Training
11/2/05 – Resistance Training
11/9/05 – Endurance Training
11/16/05 – Anaerobic Training
11/23/05 – No class
11/30/05 – Plyometrics/Flexibility
12/7/05 – Class Presentations
Formatting Instructions for Paper
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Draft due before Thanksgiving
Times New Roman (font 12)
Justify text
Line Numbers
Tips for Scientific Writing
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Start with outline of section
Topic sentence
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Make sure the entire paragraph relates to main idea
Transition between paragraphs
Citations (Moran et al., 2002)
Avoid “sloppy references”
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Typically avoid direct quotations from studies
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Do not cite a review article citing the research
studies that actually completed the studies
Occasionally it is OK but it is better to paraphrase
Avoid writing “the authors”
Keep sentences simple, avoid long run-ons
Acronyms – be sure to identify initially
Why understand training theory?
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Ultimately it is to improve athletic
performance
Secondary Objectives:
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Prevent injury
Maximize human potential
Keys to developing successful training
paradigms
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KEEP RECORDS (very important)
Read relevant research reports
Be open to new techniques/ideas
Training Program Evaluation
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Goals: proper goals are necessary
for a training program to be
evaluated
Goals common to training programs
Increasing muscle strength
 Improving aerobic capacity
 Improving sports performance
 Improving body composition
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Acute Program Variables
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Specific training components that
can be altered from workout to
workout
Choice of exercise
 Order of exercise
 Intensity of exercise
 Volume of exercise
 Training frequency
 Rest interval
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Fleck & Kramer (1997)
Acute Program Variables (continued)
Basic Training Principles
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Specificity Principle
Overload Principle
Individuality Principle
Principle of Diminishing Returns
Principle of Reversibility
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Detraining
Additional Topic
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Overtraining
Specificity Principle
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Physiological adaptations are specific to
the muscles trained, intensity of exercise
and metabolic demands of exercise
Carryover Effect
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Ex: resistance training program supplements
most sport training
100% carryover NOT possible
Resistance exercise selection
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Similar NM coordination
Recruitment of correctly-targeted muscles
Overload Principle
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For adaptations to occur then the demand of the exercise
must exceed what the body is normally accustomed to
Yakovlev’s Model
Workout
Normal State
“Super”
Compensation
Time (days)
APV of workout, outside variables (sleep, nutrition), effect recovery time!!
Overload Principle (continued)
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Dr. Hans Selye
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(1936)
His model to describe the biological
reaction of an organism to
sustained and unrelenting stress;
there are several stages,
culminating in death in extreme
circumstances
Three Stages
1.) alarm reaction: initial
response to stimulus and
consists of both shock and
soreness
2.) adaptation: improvement
in performance is noted
during this time
3.) exhaustion: unable to
make further
improvements and chronic
fatigue is a possibility
Seyle’s General Adaptation Syndrome
Alarm
Reaction
Resistance
Exhaustion
Progression Principle
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Adaptations will occur as a result of
a training program
If training intensity does not change
(progress), then overall intensity
will get easier for the athlete
How often is it necessary to change
training intensity?
Individuality Principle
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20 athletes  same training
stimulus = 20 different responses!
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Athletes respond DIFFERENTLY to
training programs
Why?
1.) pretraining (training age)
2.) genetics
3.) gender
Principle of Diminishing Returns
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Performance gains are related to the level of training
experience (training age)
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As training continues, strength and performance
gains are more difficult to achieve
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Genetic ceiling
Point of frustation
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Ergogenic aids (?)
Principle of Diminishing Returns
Hoffman et al. (1991)
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Purpose: determine effectiveness of in-season
weight training program
Design: two groups (group 1: previous strength
training experience; group 2: minimal strength
training)
Results: no strength improvements in group 1 but
4% increase in upper-body strength in group 2
Understanding training age is crucial for interpreting performance
gains OR lack of gains!
Principle of Diminishing Returns
(continued)
Strength Increases
Genetic Potential
Duration of Training
Principle of Reversibility
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Once a training stimulus is removed
the performance gains will revert
back to their original state
(detraining)
How quickly will this occur?
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Coyle et al. (1979): 4-6% reduction in
VO2 max after 2 weeks of inactivity
Coyle et al. (1986): 12% decrease in
SV is evident after 2-4 weeks of
detraining
Biokinetic Swim Bench and Strength Changes
Detraining
a
b
Physiologic Effects of Detraining
w Decreased performance may be related to losses in
cardiorespiratory endurance.
w Oxidative enzyme activity in muscles decreases (up to
60%).
w Glycolytic enzymes remain unchanged with up to 84 days
of detraining.
w Muscle glycogen content (and thus storage capacity)
decreases.
w Acid-base balance becomes disturbed.
w Muscle capillary supply and fiber type may change.
Principle of Reversibility (continued)
Principle of Reversibility (continued)
Principle of Reversibility (continued)
You can prevent rapid losses to your cardiorespiratory
endurance with a minimum of three training
sessions per
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week at an intensity of at least 70% VO2max.
Research Article
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Specificity and Reversibility of Inspiratory
Muscle Training
Romer & McConnell (2002)
Designing Training Programs:
When is enough, enough?
Designing Training Programs:
Definitions
Excessive training—well above what is needed for peak
performance, but does not strictly meet the criteria for
overreaching or overtraining. It can lead to chronic fatigue
and decrements in performance.
Overreaching—a brief period of heavy overload without
adequate recovery, thus exceeding the athlete’s adaptive
capacity. There is a performance decrement, but it is
relatively short-term, lasting several days to several weeks
Overtraining—that point at which an athlete starts to
experience physiological maladaptations and chronic
performance decrements, lasting weeks, months or
longer. Up and exceeding 6 months (Kreider et al., 1998)
Overreaching VS Overtraining
OVERREACHING
OVERTRAINING
Overreaching
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Athletes may plateau or see a
decrease in performance
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Typical response: frustration
Initial symptom of overreaching
Reduced stimulus provokes
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Overcompensation
Improved performance
Overtraining (OT)
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Produces an autonomic nervous system imbalance
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Results in a sympathetic system and/or parasympathetic
system dominance
(Israel, 1976)
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Sympathetic overdrive during rest
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Parasympathetic overdrive during exercise
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Restlessness
Weight loss
Increase in resting HR
Fatigue
Depression
Reduction in resting HR
Parasympathetic overtraining more severe case of OT
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Associated with exhaustion of neuroendocrine system
Detecting Overtraining
w Decline in physical performance with continued training
w Loss in muscular strength, coordination, and maximal
working capacity
w General fatigue
w Change in appetite and body weight loss
w Sleep disturbances
w Irritable, restless, excitable, anxious
w Loss of motivation
w Lack of mental concentration
w Feelings of depression
Overtraining Marker: Resting HR
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Reversal of Runner's Bradycardia with Training
Overstress
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Dressendorfer et al. (2000)
Bradycardia = slowness of the hearbeat, usually defined
(by convention) as a rate under 60 beats per minute.
PDR Medical Dictionary
Endocrine System Disturbances
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Testosterone/Cortisol
ratio has been
proposed as a monitor
of training stress
Anabolic to catabolic
relationship
If T/C decreases 30%,
then recovery is
insufficient
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Day 1: T/C = 1/1
Day 5: T/C = 12/-8
Day 10: T/C = 22/-12
Psychological Disturbances
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Mood states are sensitive to
training volume
(Morgan et al., 1997)
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Use as a monitoring tool?
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Profile of Mood States
(POMS; 1971)
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Self-report inventory
950+ research articles
have used POMS
“Iceberg Profile”
Overtrained athletes exhibit
lower confidence in their
ability to succeed
Use of POMS in
sport/exercise literature
Potential Causes of Overtraining
Potential Causes of Overtraining
MULTIFACTORAL
1.) Periods of excessive training and/or
emotional stress
2.) Abnormal responses in the autonomic nervous
system—sympathetic and parasympathetic
3.) Disturbances in endocrine function
4.) Depressed immune function
5.) Psychological factors
6.) Nutrition
A single factor may push an athlete over the top!
Treatment of Overtraining
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Best to avoid by detecting signs of
overtraining
Treatment: rest & recovery
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Remove stimulus to allow a full
recovery to normal values
Recovery can take many months to be
complete