NURSING AFTER SUNSET
Violence & Aggression from a
Night Shift Perspective
Mr. Joseph Galea RMN, RGN.
B.Sc.(Hons.) Mental Health Nursing, BBA(Hons.) Business Administration,
Cert. Subst. Misuse (UK)
Departmental Nursing Manager - MCH
MAPN Conference
2nd November 2012
Aims of the Presentation
1. Antecedents to Violence
& Aggression
2. Night-Shift & Violence
3. Effects of Violence &
Agression
4. Deescalation of a Crisis
5. Night-Shift
6. Effect of Night-Shift
7. Sleep Disorders &
Fatigue
8. Under-reporting of
Violence & Aggression
Incidents
9. Recommendations
2
Introduction (i)

Prevelance of violence in healthcare (Duncan et
al., 2001; Gerberich et al., 2004; Lanza, Zeiss & Reirdan, 2006a)

Particularly on nursing staff
(Findroff et al., 2004;
Hodgson et al., 2004; Lanza, Zeiss & Reirdan, 2006b)

Impact on the physical & psychological
health (Gerberich et al., 2004; Lanza, 1983, 1992; Lanza et al., 2006a; Woods &
Ashley, 2007)

Impact on the ward environment and
patients’ care (Flannery et al., 1995; Morrison, 1990)
3
Antecedents to Violence &
Aggression (i)

Perpetrators of physical violence = patients (Acik et al., 2008;
Chen et al., 2008)

Lateral violence = perpetrators of psychological
violence = staff members, co-workers & supervisors
(King & McInerney, 2006; Kwok et al., 2006; Johnson et al., 2007; Bigony et al., 2009)


Reasons for aggressive & violent behaviour – patients
and nurses disagree – patients: environmental
conditions + poor communication; nurses: patients’
mental illness (Duxbury & Whittington (2005)
Complex interactions of patients, staff and culture of a
specific unit (Hamrin et al., 2009)
4
ANTECEDENTS to
Violence and Aggression
1) Patient –
Patient
Interaction
8) Patient
Symptoms
2) Staff-Patient
Interaction
Medication Related
Containment
Any other
containment
Any other staff-patient
interaction
Violence &
Aggression
3) Patient
Conflict
Behaviors
7) Patient
Emotional
Cues
5) Structural
Issues
Environmental
Issues
4) External /
Personal Issues
Regime
Issues
6) Patient
Behavioral
Cues
5
Patient to Patient Interaction
(Bowers et al. 2011)


Physical contact
Intrusion into personal
psychological or physical
space (BAAEM, 2003; McPhauls & Lipscomb,
2008; May & Grubbs, 2002; Presley & Robinson,
2002)



Competition
Patient engaged in an activity
Reaction to sexual approach







Miscummunication
Victim doing something
patient wanted stopped
Retaliation
Patient victim characteristics
Teased / bugged
Provocation (Powell et al., 1994)
Difference in language and
culture (Mallet & Dougherty, 2000)
6
Staff-Patient Interaction

Limiting patients’ freedom:

(Sheridan et al., 1994; Lancee et al., 1995; Davis, 1991)
and the limit style of nursing staff
(Lancee et al., 1995; RCP, 2000)

Medication related
containment:



a) medication administration,
b) staff requesting patient to take
medication,
c) dispute over medication (Sheridan et al.,
1990; Powell et al., 1994; Lancee et al., 1995; Davis, 1991)

Any other containment:





a) restraint,
b) seclusion,
c) de-escalation,
d) ECT,
e) involuntary admissions (Fineberg et al.,
(Bowers et al. 2011)
Any othe staff-patient interaction:















a) provocation.
b) ordering patients,
c) intervening on fight or argument,
d) caring for patient,
e) searching patients,
f) negative staff attitude (OSHA, 2003; BAAEM, 2003),
g) physical contact,
h) patient engaged in an activity,
i) miscommunication,
j) staff too permissive,
k) staff victim characteristics,
l) staff errors,
m) violation of priority (Mallet & Dougerty, 2000),
n) lack of information (Mallet & Dougherty, 2000),
o) access to staff (McGeorge et al., 2000).
1990; Powell et al., 1994)
7

Patient conflict Behaviors
2011)









a) threatening behaviour,
b) abscondments,
c) substance misuse (BAAEM, 2003; Johnson, 1997),
d) verbal agression,
d) self-harm.
(Bowers et al. 2011)

:
a) money issues,
b) visit from family member or friend (Henry &



c) receiving bad news,
d) unresolved family problem.
a) overcrowding (Fineberg et al., 1990; Palmstierna et al., 1991; Lanza et
al., 1994),



b) confined environment,
c) noisy ward,
d) patients found weapons,
e) social environment such as boredom (RCP, 1998;
RCP, 2000).
b) admitting / transferring /
discharged & when pts ask to
discharge themselves against medical
advice (Sheridan et al., 1990; Powell et al., 1994; Lancee et al., 1995;
Davis, 1991),




c) excessive sensory stimulation,
d) lack of stimulation.
Patient Behavioral cues (Bowers et al. 2011) :

(Bowers et al. 2011)

a) inadequate staffing levels (McPhaul &
Lipscomb, 2008; Gilmore-Hall, 2001,
Structural & Environmental
issues
:

Regime issues (Bowers et al. 2011) :

Ginn, 2002) (BAAEM, 2003),


:
External / Personal

(Bowers et al.
a) agitation,
b) attention seeking behavior,
c) increased motor activity,
d) confusion.
Patient emotional / mood cues
(Bowers et al. 2011) :





a) anger,
b) sexual frustration,
c) irritability,
d) tobacco withdrawal,
e) Delusions (Humphreys et al., 1992) &
hallucinations (Dura, 1997), and stress due
pain or illness (ICN, 2002; McPhauls & Lipscomb, 2008).
8
Night-Shift & Violence (i)




Violence experienced during night-shifts (Arnetz et
al., 1996) particularly before 11pm.
Mostly occured during the afternoon – 3pm to
11pm (Bradley et al., 2001) – lack of structured
interaction (Drinkwater, 1982; Rice et al., 1989)
There is no consensus.
Specific times for aggression: during admission
– change of shifts – mealtimes (Pearson et al., 1986) –
visiting hours (Way et al., 1992) – administration of
medication (Walker & Siefert, 1994; Barnard et al., 1984; Depp, 1983).
9
Figure 1: Peak times for violent incidents
14
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
6.007.59
Bowers et al., 2011
8.0011.59
12.0011.59
14.0017.59
18.0019.59
20.0021.59
22.005.59
TIME
10
Night-Shift & Violence (ii)

Highest numbers of incident occurred between 7am –
3.30pm (morning shifts, 49% of the incidents); high
number on afternoon shift (36%); during night (15%)
(Barlow et al., 2000)

Aggression a daytime phenomenon (Barlow et al., 2000; Way et al.,
1992; Shah et al., 1991)

Patients on leave – evening on return to the ward (Nobel &
Rodger, 1989)




Preventing a patient leaving the ward (Walker & Siefert, 1994)
Staff uncertain of their roles (Katz & Kirkland, 1990)
Substitute nursing staff (James et al., 1990)
Higher staff to patient ratio (Morrison, 1990; Kalgerakis 1973; Depp, 1983)
– more than 1:1 (Lanza et al., 1994)
11
FIG 1: Peak shifts for
violent incidents
FIG 2: Location of
violent incidents
16
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y
30
14
25
12
%
10
20
8
15
6
10
4
5
2
0
0
Bathroom Bedroom
Day
Morning
Afternoon/Evening
Night
SHIFT
Corridor
Dining
Room
Lounge Nurse office Ward door
LOCATION
Bowers et al., 2011
12
Victims of in-patient
violence

Staff – nurses
(90% of incidents)
(Edwards et al., 1988; Noble &
Rodger, 1989)

Patients (30%)
were against
patients (Noble & Rodger,
1989)

Provoked by
patients, relatives
or visitors (Powell et al.,
1994).


Effects of Violence &
Aggression
Physical injuries (Chen et al., 2008)
Psychological trauma (Chen et al., 2008)
& PTSD (Caldwell, 1992; Mikkelsen & Einarsen, 2002;
Hansen et al., 2006; Bigony et al., 2009)



Negative impact on the mental
health of nurses (Pai & Lee, 2011)
Emotional reactions following
violence include antipathy
against perpetrator, insult and
fear (Astrom et al., 2004)
Negative organisational
outcomes (Estryn-Behar et al., 2008;
DHHS/NIOSH, 2002)
13
De-escalation of a Crisis

‘Calming the patient’ – shift from a dominantsubmissive connotation to collaboration (Richmond et
al., 2012).


De-escalating a patient = form of a treatment =
develop internal locus of control (Richmond et al., 2012).
This involves rapid assessment & decisionmaking skills
14
Skills Needed (Richmond et al., 2012)









Good attitude
Observation skills – verbal &
non-verbal skills
Risk Assessment skills
Communication skills
Listening skills (active
listening)
Active listening skills
Emotional intelligence – selfmonitoring
Positive regard
Empathic









Quick decision making skills
Assertiveness skills
Team coordination skills
Coaching skills
Limit settings
Motor skills
Offer choices and optimism
Restraining skills
Debriefing skills
15
Night-Shift (i)



Work performed after 6pm and before 6am the
next day. (Abdalkaber & Hayajneh, 2008)
Activity at night = out of phase with the
circadian body temperature. = desynchronised
state. (Abdalkaber & Hayajneh, 2008)
This disorientation = health & psychological
effect of fatigue. (Abdalkaber & Hayajneh, 2008)
16
What these three sets of
pictures have in common?
(Rogers et al., 1997; Harrington, 2001)
17
Night-Shift (ii)


To ensure patient’s coverage nurses have to work nights,
weekends and holidays.
Night nurses have higher levels of fatigue (Muecke, 2005)
and mental tiredness (Tepas et al., 2004), chronic sleep loss,
sleep deprivation and on-the-job sleepiness (Hughes & Stone,
2004).



Rarely get the recommended 8 hrs of sleep (Akerstedt, 2003).
Suffer from sleep disturbances (Barton, 1994) – which may
have an impact on patients’ safety.
Less quality sleep then those working during the day
(Ruggiero, 2003; Frank & Ovens, 2002).

Sleep deprivaton – work performance outcomes –
safety and general health of the nurse (Rogers et al., 2004)
18
Night-Shift (iii)




The 2nd half of the night is where nurses reported that
they frequently struggle to stay awake (Berger & Hobbs, 2006).
Staff ’s circadian rhythm – social – family life – general
health affected (Rosa & Collingan, 1997).
Nurse who work nights are more depressed than day
nurses (Ruggiero, 2003) / there is an association between night
work and poor job satisfaction (Korompeli et al., 2009).
Staff performance: Significant associations between
night staff and error rate (Gold et al., 1992; Leff et al., 2008).
19
Effects of Night-Shifts

Two things wrong with shift-work:






Having to work when supposed to sleep
Having to sleep when supposed to be awake
For some people, this can result in performance, health and
social effects
Fatigue = less work performance + short staffing = less
the quality of patient care (Circadian Technologies, 2004)
Breast Cancer to be 60% higher in women night-shift
workers (Humm, 2005; Swerdlow, 2003; Steven & Davis, 1996) infertility,
cardiovascular disease, diabetes and gastrointestinal
disorders (Humm, 2005; Reid et al., 1997; Learhart, 2000).
Fatigue, irritability (Lushington et al., 1997; Reid et al., 1997), reduced
performance, decreased mental agility (Alward & Monk, 2003).
20
Circadian Rhythms

Fatigue = impair memory, vigilance, reaction time, and
communication = cyclic reductions in alertness and performance
(Howard et al., 2002).





Internal body clock – external world (zeitgebers)
High activity during the day – low activity during the night
Human race is diurnal
Health problems (Crofts, 1999), negative effects: for the individual &
the work place – decreased alertness & reduced job performance
– affect the quality of care (Koller, 1996; Brown & Erkes, 1998)
Optimum mental performance level (2-4pm) and maximum
general awareness is between (1-7pm. Performance levels are
lowest between 3.30 – 5.30am (Coffey et al., 1998)
21
Sleep Disorders (i)





Lack of sleep (Coffey et al., 1998)
Sleep disorder – tiredness – reduced functional capacity
Functional capacity may be halved after 24 hrs and after
48 hrs is at its lowest
Complex decisions (Akerstedt, 1999) though short term
memory recall is not effected (Allen, 1999)
Sleep deprivation – disrupt the circadian rhythm –
forces the body to function at night despite signals (i.e.
Decreased body temp. & increased melatonin (Hughes &
Stone, 2004)
22
Sleep Disorders (ii)






Sleep quantity and sleep quality affected especially with night
work
Daytime sleep not as deep or refreshing
Worse when room is not quite, not dark and not comfortable
Sleep quantity: Night shift (4-6 hrs) – Day shift (7.5 hrs) –
Evening (8.5 hrs)
Sleep quality: day sleep – less deep sleep (stage 3 – 4); Rotating
shift < Permanent shift
Sleep deprivation of 24 hours affect performance level (blood
alcohol levels of 0.10%) (Dawson & Reid, 1997). Mature vs young
night shift workers (Reid & Dawson, 2001).
23
The Combination of Night Shift
Nursing with Aggression & Violence
Night shift related fatigue and
sleep difficulties
Skills required when dealing with violence &
aggression
(Bonnet, 2000; Harrison & Horne, 2000)










Negative mood
Sleep loss and fatigue
Lack of innovation and
creativity
Increased distractability
Inability to deal with
unexpected events
Inability to deviate from
previous problem-solving
strategies
Unreliable temporal memory
Impaired language skills
Motor skill performance can
be impaired (Eastridge et al., 2003;
Grantcharov et al., 2001)
Skill error increase (Taffinder et
al., 1998)

















Good attitude
Observation skills – verbal & non-verbal skills
Risk Assessment skills
Communication skills
Listening skills (active listening)
Active listening skills
Emotional intelligence – self-monitoring
Positive regard
Quick and empathic decision making skills
Assertiveness skills
Team coordination skills
Coaching skills
Limit settings
Motor skills
Offer choices and optimism
Restraining skills
Debriefing skills
24
Under-Reporting of Violence

Insufficient post-incident support (Pai & Lee, 2011; Kwok et al., 2006; Kamchuchat
et al., 2008)





Stigma of victimisation (Hoff, 1992)
Accepted as a hazard of the profession (Daldt, 1981); part of the
job (Poster, 1996; Prins, 1999)
Resistance from hospital administrators (Lanza, 1991)
Peer nursing pressure (Kinross, 1992)
Poor or ineffective reporting mechanisms (Lyon et al., 1981; Pearson et al.,
1986; Silver & Yudofsky, 1987; Lanza, 1988; Monahan, 1989)

Lack of support from organisation (Paterson et al., 1999) but staff was
supported by their immediate nursing colleagues (McGeorge et al.,
2000)

Lack of institutional reporting policies, employees beliefs
and concerns (Sofiel & Salmond, 2005); Ferns, 2005; May & Grubbs, 2002, US Dept of Labor, 2008)
25
Recommendations









Managment awareness – planning shift schedules – aware of
biological rhythms.
Regular medical screening & breast screeing for night female nurses
over 40 years of age
For health reasons – option to day work – option to night work
Critical incident stress debriefing or therapy
Training & Re-organisation of the ward routine (McGeorge et al., 2000)
Increasing face-to-face contact
Improving information sharing
Interaction with staff and patients
A significant amount of workplace aggression is preventable (DelBel, 2003).
Education programs for nurses on fatigue and night work (Circadian
Techologies, 2004)

Violence prevention programs (Kindy, 2005; Anderson & Parish, 2003; Gilmore-Hall, 2001;
McPhaul & Lipscomb, 2008; US Dept of Labor, 2008)
26
Conclusion





Link = human interaction & violence
Less incidents during the night – atmosphere
tend to be more quiter
The organisation of ward routine
Staff-patient interaction = associated with
violence
Good practioner during day not necessarily
mean good practitioner during the night.
27
Final thought......
‘THE BEST FIGHTER IS NEVER ANGRY’
................ Lao Tzu
‘but never tired ’.......
28
THANK YOU
29
References
Abdalkader, R. H., & Hayajneh, F. A. (2008). Effect of Night Shift on Nurses Working in Intensive Care Units at Jordan University Hospital.
European Journal of scientific Research, 23 (1), 70-86.
Acik, Y., Deveci, S. F., Gunes, G., Gulbayrak, C., Dabak, S., Saka, G., Vural, G., Can, G., Bilgin, N. G., Dundar, P, E., Erguder, T., & Tokdemir, M.
(2008). Experience of workplace violence during medical speciality training in Turkey. Occupational Medicine 58, 361-366.
Akerstedt, T. (1996). Subjective and objective sleepiness in the active individual. International Journal of NeuroScience, 52, 29-37.
Allen, C. (1999). Summary of the Croet Seminar: Shift work. Retrieved from http://www.ohsu.edu/Croet/outreach/symposia/shiftwork.html.
Accessed on 10.03.04.
Anderson, C., & Parish, M. (2003). Report of workplace violence by Hispanic nurses. J Transcult Nurs. 14, 237-243.
Alward, R., & Monk, T. (1993). The Nurse’s Shift Work Handbook. Washington DC: American Nurses Publishing.
Arkestedt, T. (2003). Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Occupational Medicine, 53, 89-94.
Arnetz, J. E., & Arnetz, B. B., & Petterson, I. L. (1996). Violence in the nursing profession: occupational and life stule risk factos in Swedish nurses.
Work and Stress, 10, 119-127.
Astrom, S., Karlsson, S., & Sandvide, A. (2004). Staff ’s experience of and the management of violent incidents in elderly care. Scand J Caring Science,
18, 157-161.
Barlow, K., Grenyer, B., & Ilkiw-Lavalle, O. (2000). Prevalence and precipitants of aggression in psychiatric inpatients unit. Australian and New
Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 967-974.
Barnard, G., Robbins, L., & Newman, G. (1984). A study of violence within a forensic treatment facility. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry
and the Law, 12, 339-348.
Barton, J. (1994). Choosing to work at night: a moderating influence of individual tolerance to shift work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79 (3), 449454.
Berger, A., & Hobbs, B. (2006). Impact of shift work on the health and safety of nurses and patients. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 10 (4), 465470.
Bigony, L., Lipke, T. G., Lundberg, A., McGraw, C. A., Pagae, G. L., & Rogers, A. (2009). Lateral violence in the perioperative setting. AORN
Journal, 89, 688-700.
Bonnet, M H. (2000). Sleep deprivation. In M. H., Kryger, , T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Ed.), Principles and practive of sleep medicine (3rd ed., pp. 5371). Philadedelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Bowers. L., Stewart, D., Papadopoulos, C., Duck, C., Ross, J., Khanom, H., & Jeffery, D. (2011). Inpatient vilence and aggression: a literature review.
Institute of psychiatry, King’s College London.
British Association for Accident and Emergency Medicine. Violence in Accident and Emergency Departments. Notes of Guidance. Retrieved from
http://www.baem.org.uk. Accessed on 3/3/03.
Brown, A. (1998). Turning Body Times to Shift Time. Health Science Centre, 94, 51-52.
30
Caldwell, M. F. (1992). Incidence of PTSD amond staff victims of patient violence. Hospital Community Psychiatry, 43, 838-839.
Chen, W. C., Hwu, H. G., Kung, S. M., Chiu, H. J., & Wang, J. D. (2008). Prevalence and determinants of workplace violence of health
care workers in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. Journal of Occupational Health, 50, 288-293.
Circadian Technologies Inc. (2004). Human Resources Management in the Extended Hourse Workplace. Retrieved from
http://www.circadian.com/publications/nursing.html. Accessed on 14.09.2005.
Coffey, l., Skipper, J., & Jung, F. (1998). Nurses and Shift Work Effect on Job Performance and Job Related Stress. Journal of Advanced
Nursing, 13 (2), 245-254.
Crofts, L. (1999). Challenging shift work: A review of common rostering practices in UK Hospitals. Nursing Progress, 9 (30), 36-56.
Daldt, B. W. (1981). Anger: an alienation communication bazard for nurses. Nursing Outlook, 29, 640-644.
Davis, S. (1991). Violence by psychiatric inpatients: a review. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42, 585-590.
Dawson, D., & Reid, K. (1997). Fatigue, alcohol and performance impairment. Nature, 388 (6639), 235.
DelBel, J. C. (2003). Deescalating workplace aggression. Nurs Mange, 34 (9), 30-34.
Depp, F. C. (1983). Assualts in public mental hospital, in Assualts Within Psychiatric Facilities. Edited by Lino, J. R., & Reid, W. H. New York,
Grune & Stratton.
DHHS/NIOSH. (2002). Violence: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington,
DC.
Drinkwater, J. (1982). Violence in psychiatric hospitals, in Developments in the Study of Clinical Behavior, vol. 2: Violence. Edited by
Feldman P. Chichester, Wiley.
Duncan, S. M., Hyndman, K., Estabrooks, C. A. Hesketh, K., Humphrey, C. K., Wong, J. S., et al. (2001). Nurses’ experience of violence
in Aloberta and British Columbia hospitals. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 32, 57-78.
Dura, J. (1997). Expressive communicative ability, symptoms of mental illness and aggressive behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53,
307-318.
Duxbury, J., Whittington, R. (2005). Causes and management of patient aggression and violence: staff and patient perspectives. Journal of
Advanced Nursing, 50 (5), 469-478.
Eastridge, B. J., Hamilton, E. C., O’Keefe, G. E., Rege, R. V., Valentine, R. J., Jones, D. J., et al., (2003). Effect of sleep deprivation on the
performance of simulated laparoscopic surgical skills. American Journal of Surgery, 186, 169-174.
Edwards, J. G., Jones, D., Reid, W. H., & Chu, C. C. (1988). Physical assualts in a psychiatric unit of a general hospital. American Journal of
Psychiatry, 145, 1568-1571.
Estryn-Behar, M., van der Heijden, B., Camerino, D., Fry, C., Le Nezet, O., Conway, P. M., & Hasselhron, H. (2008). Occupational Medicine,
58, 107-114.
31
Ferns, T. (2005). Violence in the accident and emergency department: an international perspective. Accid Emerg Nurs,
13, 180-185.
Frank, J., & Ovens, H. (2002). Shiftwork and emergency medical practice. Can J. Emerg Med. 4 (6), 421-436.
Findroff, M. J., McGovern, P. M., Rozman, J. M., & Gerberich, S. G. (2000). The cost of violence to healthcare
workers. Journal of Healthcare Safety: Compliance and Infection Control, 4, 209-217.
Flannery, R. B., Hanson, M. A., Penk, W. E., Goldfinger, S., Pastva, G. J., & Navon, M. A. (1998). Replicated declines
in assualt rates after implementation of the assualted staff action program. Psychiatric Services, 49, 241-243.
Gerberich, S. G., Church, T. R., McGovern, P. M., Hansen, H. E., Nachreiner, N. M., Geisser, M. S., et al., (2004).
An epidemiological study of the magnitude and consequences of work related violence: The Minnesota
Nurses’ Study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61, 495-503.
Gilmore-Hall, A. (2001). Violence in the workplace: are you prepared? Am J Nursing, 101 (7), 55-56.
Gold, D., R. Rogacz, S., Bock, N., Tosteson, T. D., Baum, T. M., & Spezer, F. E. (1992). Rotating shift work, sleep
and accidents related to sleepiness in hospital nurses. American Journal of Public Health, 82 (7), 1011-1014.
Grantcharov, T. P., & Bardram, L., Funch-Jensen, P., & Rosenberg, J. (2001). Laparoscopic performance after one
night on call in a surgical department: Prospective study. British Medical Journal, 323, 1222-1223.
Hansen, A. M., Hogh, A., Persson, R., Karlson, B., Garde, A. H., & Orbaek, P. (2006). Bullying at work, health
outocmes and physiological stress response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 73-72.
Hamrin, V., Iennaco, J., Olsen, D. (2009). A review of ecologival factors affectng inpatient psychiatric unit violence:
implication for relational and unit cultural improvements. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30 (4), 214-226.
Harrington, J. (2001). Health effects of shift work and extended hours of work. Occupational and Environmental
Medicine, 58 (1), 68-72.
Harrison, Y., & Horne, J. A. (2000). The impact of sleep deprivation on decision making: A review. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6, 236-249.
Henry, J., & Ginn, G. Violence prevention in healtcare organisations within a total quality management framework.
Journal of Nursing Administration 32, (9), 479-86.
Hodgson, M. J., Reed, R., Craig, T., Murphy, F., Lehmann, L., Belton, L, et al., (2004). Violence in healthcare
facilities: Lessons from the Veterans Health Administration. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 46,
1158-1165.
32
Hoff, L. A. (1992). Batterred women. Understanding, identification, and assessment – a psychosociocultural
perspective. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20, 627-634.
Howard, S., Rosekind, M., Katz, J., & Berry, A. (2002). Fatigue in anaesathesia: implications and strategies for patient
and provider safety. Anesthesiology, 97 (5), 1281-1294.
Hughes, R., & Stone, P. (2004). The perils of shift work – evening shift, night shift, and rotating shifts: are they fit
for you? Am J Nurs., 104 (9), 60-63.
Humm, C. (2005). In the dark. Nursing Standards, 19 (24), 20-21.
Humphreys, M. S., Johnstone, E. C., macMillan, J. E., & Taylor, P. J. (1992). Dangerous behavior preceding first
admission for shcizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 501-505.
Infantino, J. A. J., & Musingo, S. (1985). Assualts and injuries among staff with and without training in aggression
control techniques. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 36, 1312-1314.
International Council of Nurses. Wokplace violence in the health sector. Retrieved from
http://www.icn.ch/images/stories/documents/pillars/sew/sew_workplace_violence_in_the_health_sector_st
ate_of_the_art_paper.pdf Accessed on 01.10.12
James, D. V., Fineberg, N. A., & Shah, A. K. (1990). An increase in violence on an acute psychiatric ward: a study of
associated factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 846-852.
Johnson, C., Maritn, S., & Markle-Elder, S. (2007). Stopping verbal abuse in the workplace. The American Journal of
Nursing, 107, 32-34.
Johnson, S. (1997). Dual diagnosis of sever mental illness and substance misuse: a case for specialist services? British
Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 205-208.
Kalogerakis, M. G. (1973). The assualtive psychiatric patient. Psychiatric Quaterly, 45, 372-381.
Kamachuchat, C., Chongsuvivatwong, V., Oncheunjit, S., Yip, T. W., & Sangthong, R. (2008). Workplace violence
directed at nursing staff at a general hospital in southern Thailand. Journal of Occupational Health, 50, 201-207.
Katz, P.,, & Kirkland, F. R. (1990). Violence and social structure on mental hospital wards. Psychiatry, 53, 262-277.
Kindy, D., Peterson, S., Parkhurst, D. (2005). Perilous work: nurses’ experiences in psychiatric units with high risk of
assualt. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 19 (4), 169-175.
King, L. A., & McInerney, P. A. (2006). Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to
their resignation in the Durban metropolitan area. Curationis, 29, 70-81.
33
Kinross, l. (1992). Nurse assualt: overcoming the barriers to prevention. The Nursing Report. Canadian Nursing Management
(Supplement) 49, 4-8.
Kok, R. P. W., Law, Y. K., Li, K. E., Ng, Y. C., Cheung, M. H., Fung, V. K. P., Tong, J. M. K., Yen, P. F., & Leung, W. C.
(2006). Prevalencce of workplace violence against nurses in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 12, 6-9.
Koller, M. (1996). Occupational Health Services for Shift and Night Workers. Applied Ergonomics, 27 (1), 31-37.
Korompeli, A., Sourtzi, P., Tzavara, C., & Velonakis, E. (2009). Rotating shift-related changes in hormone levels in
intensive care unit nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65 (6), 1274-1282.
Lancee, W. J., Gallop, R., McCay, E., & Toner, B. (1995). The relationship between nurses’ limit setting styles and anger in
psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric Services, 46, 409-613.
Lanza, M. L. (1983). The reactions of nursing staff to physical assualt by a patient. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34,
44-47.
Lanza, M. L. (1988). Factors relevant to patient assualt. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 9, 239-258.
Lanza, M. L. (1991). Patient assualts: a comparison study of reporting methods. Journal of Nursing Quarterly Assurance, 5,
60-68.
Lanza, M. L. (1992). Nurses as patient assualt victimsL An update, synthesis and recommendations. Archives of Psychiatric
Nursing, 6, 163-171.
Lanza, M. L., Kayne, H. L., & Hicks, C. (1994). Environmental characteristics realted to patient assualt. Issues in Mental
Health Nursing, 15, 319-335.
Lanza, M., Zeiss, R., & Rierdan, J. (2006a). Violence against psychiatric nurses: Sensitive research as science and
intervention. Contemporary Nurse, 21, 71-84.
Lanza, M., Zeiss, R., & Rierdan, J. (2006b). Non-physical violence: A risk factor for physical violence in healthcare settings.
American Association of Occupational health Nursing Journal, 54, 397-402.
Lanza, M. L., Rierdan, M. F. A., Forester, L., & Zeiss, R . (2009). Reducing Violence Against Nurses: The Violence
Prevention Community Meeting. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30, 745-750.
Leahart, S. (2000). Health effects of internal rotation of shifts. Nursing Standard 14, (47), 34-36.
34
Lee, S. S., Gerberick, S. G., Waller, L. A., Anderson, A., & McGovern, P. (1999). Work-related assualt injuries among nurses. Epidemiology,
10, 685-691.
Leff, D. R., Aggarwal, R., Rana, M., Nakhjavani, B., Purkayastha, S., Khullar, V. et al. (2008). Laparoscopic skills suffer on the first shift
of sequential night shifts: program directors beware and residents prepare. Annals of Surgery, 247 (3), 530-539.
Lehmann, L. S., McCormack, R., A., & Kizer, K. W. (1999). A survey of assualtive behaviour in Veteran Health Administration facilities.
Lushington, W., Lushington, K., & Dawson, D. (1997). The percieved social and domestic consequences of shiftwork for femal shiftworkers (nurses) and their partners. Journal of Occupational Health and Safety-Australia and New Zealand, 13, (5), 461-469.
Lyon, J. R., Snyder, W. & Merrill, G. (1981). Undereporting of assualts on staff in a state hospital. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 32,
497-498.
Mallett, J., & Dougherty, L., (2000). The Royal Marsden Manual of Clinical Nursing Procedures, (5th ed.). Blackwell Science.
May, D. D., & Grubbs, L. (2002). The extent, nature, and precipitating factors of nurse assault among three groups of registered nurses
in a regional medical center. J Emerg Nurs, 28 (1), 11-17.
McPhaul, K. M., & Lipscomb, J. A. Workplace violence in healthcare: recognised but not regulated. Online J Issues Nurs. 2004;9.
Available at
http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume92004
/No3Sept04/ViolenceinHealthCare.html. Accessed on 01.10.12
Mikkelsen, E. G., & Einarsen, S, (2002). Basic assumptions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress among victims of bullying at work.
European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, 11, 87-111.
Monahan, J. (1989). Predicting Violence among the mentally Ill (sound cassette). Audio Digest-Psychiatry.
Morrison, E. F. (1990). The tradition of toughness. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 22, 32-38.
Morrison, E. F. (1990). Violent psychiatric inpatients in a public hospital. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 4, 6582.
Mueckem S. (2005). Effects of rotating night shifts: literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50 (4), 433-9.
Noble, P., & Rodger, S. (1989). Violence by psychiatric in-patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 384-390.
Pai, H. C., & Lee, S. (2011). Risk factors for workplace in clinical registered nurses in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20, 1405-1412.
Palmstierna, T., Huitfeldt, B., & Wistedt, B. (1991). The relationship of crowding and aggressive behavior on a psychaitric intensive care
unit. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42, 1237-1240.
Pearson, M., Wilmont, E., & Padi, A. (1986). A study of violent behavior among in-patients in a psychiatric hospital. Journal of Psychiatry,
149, 232-235.
35
Powell, G., Caan, W., & Crowe, M. (1994). What events precede violent incidents in psychiatric hospitals? British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 107112.
Presley, D. & Robinson, G. (2002. Violence in the emergency department: nurses contend with prevention in the healthcare arena. Nurs Clin
North Am, 37 (1), 161-169.
Reid, K., Roberts, T., & Dawson, D. (1997). Imrpving shiftwork management ii:shiftwork and health. Journal of Occupational Health and SafetyAustralia and New Zealand, 13, (5), 439-450.
Reid, K., & Dawson, D. (2001). Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in youn and older subjects. Occupational and
Environmental Medicine, 58 (1), 58-62.
Richmond, J. S., Berlin, J. S., Fishkind, A, B., Holloman, G. H., Zeller, S, L., Wilson, M. P., Rifia, M. A., & Ng, A. T. (2012). Verbal De-escallation
of the Agitated Patient: Consensus statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA De-escallation
Workgroup. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, VolXIII, no. 1, 17-25.
Rice, M. E., Harris, G. T., & Varney, G. W. (1989). Violence in Institutions. Toronto, Hogrefe & Huber.
Rosa, R. R., & Colligan, M. J. (1997). Plain Language About Shiftwork. US Department of health and Human Services Public Health Service,
Centers for Disease and Prevention. Cincinnati.
Rogers, N., Roberts, T., & Dawson, D. (1997). Improving shift work management 1: understanding shiftwork. Journal of Occupational Health and
Safety-Australia and new Zealand, 13 (5), 429-437.
Rogers, A. E., Hwang, W., Scott, L. D., Arken, L. H., & Dubges, D. F. (2004). The working hours of hospital staff nurses and patient safety.
Health Affairs (Millwood, Va.) 23, (4), 202-212.
Ruggiero, J. S. (2003). Correlates of fatigue in critical care nurses. Research in Nursing & Health, 26 (6), 434-444.
Shah, A. K., Fineberg, N. A., & James, D. V. (1991). Violence among psychiatric inpatients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 84, 305-309.
Silver, J. M., & Yodofsky, S. C. (1987). Documentation of aggression in the assessment of the violent patient. Psychiatric Annals, 17, 375-384.
Sheridan, M., Henrion, R. E., Robinson, L., Baxter, V. (1990). Precipitants of violence in a psychiatric inpatient setting. Hospital and Community
Psychiatry, 41, 776-780.
Sofield, L., & Salmond, S. W. (2003). A focus on verbal abuse and intent to leave the organisation. Orthop Nurs. 22 (4), 274-283.
Stevens, R. G., & Davis, S. (1996). The melatonin hypothesis: eclectic power and breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspective, 104, (1), 135-140.
Swerdlow, A. (2003). Shift work and breast cancer: a critical review of the Epidemiological Evidence. Norwich: Her majesty’s Stationery Office,
Health and Safety Executive. Retrieved from www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr132.pdf. Accessed on 10.10.12
Tepas, D. I., Barnes-Farrell, J. L., Bobko, N., Fischer, F. M., Iskra-Golec, I., & Kaliterna, L. (2004). The impact of night work on subjective
reprots of well-being: an exploratory study of health care workers from five nations. Rev Saude Publica (Journal of Public Health), 38
(supplement), 26-31.
US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2004). Guidelines for preventing workplace violence for health care & social
workers. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3148.html#test1. Accessed on 07.01.08.
US Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2004). Workplace violence: issues in response. Retrieved from
http://www.fbi.gov/publications/violence.pdf. Accessed on 07.01.08
Walker, Z. & Seifert, R. (1994). Violent incidents in a psychiatric intensive care unit. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 826-828.
Way, B. B., Braff, J. L., Hafemeister, T. L., & Banks, S. M. (1992). The relationship between patient-staff ratio and reported patient incidents.
Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 361-365.
Woods, P., & Ashley, C. (2007). Violence and aggression: a literature review. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 14 (7), 652-660.36
Download

Violence & Aggression: From a Night Shift Perspective