Groups and Teams
How can we move this heavy box?
The Five Dysfunctions of a Team
Patrick Lencioni (2002)
“Dysfunctions are absence of trust, fear of
conflict, lack of commitment, avoidance of
accountability and inattention to results”
“Not finance. Not strategy. Not technology. It
is teamwork that remains the ultimate
competitive advantage, both because it is so
powerful and so rare.”
Describe the basic nature of groups: the dynamics of group
formation and the various types of groups.
Discuss the implications that research on groups has for the
practice of management.
Explain the important dynamics of informal groups and
Analyze the impact of groupthink.
Present the newly emerging team concept and practice.
Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere
Task well understood & accepted
Members listen well & participate
People express feelings & ideas
Conflict & disagreement center
around ideas or methods
Group aware of its operation & function
Consensus decision making
Clear assignments made & accepted
The Dynamics of Group Formation
 Propinquity
 George Homans- AIS
 Balance Theory
 Exchange Theory
Group Stages
Types of Groups
 Primary Groups
 Coalitions
 Other Types of Groups
Reference Group
Norms of Behavior - the
standards that a work
group uses to evaluate the
behavior of its members
Group Cohesion - the
“interpersonal glue” that
makes members of a group
stick together
Social Loafing - the failure of
a group member to
contribute personal time,
effort, thoughts, or other
resources to the group
Loss of Individuality - a
social process in which
individual group members
lose self-awareness & its
accompanying sense of
accountability, inhibition,
and responsibility for
individual behavior
Implications from Research on Group
 The Schachter Study
 Implications of the Schachter Study
Group/Team Effectiveness
The Dynamics of Informal Groups
Norms and Roles in Informal Groups
Strongly enforced if:
- Aid in group survival and provision of benefits
- Simplify or make predictable behavior expected
- Help avoid embarrassing interpersonal problems
- Express values and goals of the group and
clarify identity
Norm Violation- limited
research support
Role Ambiguity and
 Risky Shift
 Dysfunctions in
Sucker effect
 Group Size
 Lack of performance feedback
 Tasks that are not intrinsically motivating
 Lack of individual assessment capability
What do we as managers and group members do about this?
Cross-Functional Teams
 Between divisions
 Trend toward flatter organizations
Virtual Teams
 Sky-rocketing in use
 Recent Research: Next several years ¾ of the U.S. population
will spend 10 times longer per day interacting virtually.
 Level of virtuality and media richness is worth considering
Self-Managed Teams
 Performance, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment
How to Make Teams More Effective
 Team Building
 Group Leadership
 Cultural/Global Issues

(Textbook) Organizational Behavior, 10ed (Fred