Hope-Centred Career
Development with College
Students
Funded by CERIC
Norman Amundson, Spencer Niles, Hyung Joon Yoon, Barbara Smith, Lauri Mills,
Hyoyeon In, Stacey deShield, and Susan Forseille
The Hope-Centered Research Team
(University of British Columbia and The Pennsylvania State University)
CANNEXUS 13, January 28, 2013
Hope-Centered Career Development Research Team
Barbara
Agenda
• Introduction
• Part 1. Quantitative Study
• Part 2. Qualitative Study
• Part 3. Application of the Hope-Centered Model of
Career Development
• Discussions / Summary
Three Goals
• What are 3 goals you hope to accomplish in the next 3
years?
• Identify 3 action steps you will need to take to achieve
each goal (3 steps per goal).
• Rate yourself on a scale of 1-5 for each goal relative to
whether you think you can and will take the actions you
identified as necessary for achieving your goals.
– 1= Not gonna happen
– 5= It’s in the bag
Three Theories Converge into
the Hope-Centered Career Model
Snyder’s Hope Theory
•Goals
•Pathways
•Agency
Hall’s Protean Career Theory
•Self-identity (Self-clarity)
•Adaptability
Bandura’s Human Agency Theory
•Self-reflectiveness (Self-reflection)
•Forethought (Visioning)
•Intentionality (Goal Setting)
•Self-reactiveness (Implementing)
Hope-Centered Career Development Model
Hope-Centered Career Inventory (HCCI)
Purpose
•To assess clients’ hope-centered career competencies
Target Population
•8th graders or above
Items
•28 items and the following subscales:
1) hope
2) self-reflection
3) self-clarity
4) visioning
5) goal setting & planning
6) implementing
7) adapting
Reliability and Validity
•Internal consistency: Good (overall: .914, sub scales: .606 ~ .812)
•Construct validity (CFA): Good (RMSEA: .065, CFI: .96, NNFI: .95)
-Niles, Yoon, & Amundson, 2010
Part I. Quantitative Study
Purpose
1.To establish the baseline of the Hope-Centered Career
Inventory (HCCI) scores of students in Canada and the
United States.
2.To understand the role of hope in the relationships with
student engagement, academic achievement, and
vocational identity.
Conceptual Model
GPA
Hope
Student
Engagement
Vocational
Identity
Methods
• Sample: 1685 undergraduate students in Canada and
the U.S.
• Data Collection: A web-based survey was conducted
• Measures:
•
•
•
•
Hope-Centered Career Inventory (HCCI; Niles et al., 2010)
Vocational Identity Scale (Holland et al., 1980)
Student Engagement Questionnaire (Kuh, 2001)
Self-Reported GPA
• Data Analysis: Descriptive analyses, T-tests, Structural
Equation Modeling (SEM)
Demographics
Gender (%)
Race (%)
School Total (n)
Female
Male
White
Year in School (%)
Visible
1st, 2nd year
Minorities
Above 2nd
year
UBC(CA)
447
74.3
25.7
34.9
65.1
41.2
58.8
TRU(CA)
229
71.2
28.8
84.7
15.3
70.3
29.7
PSU(US)
643
64.1
35.9
79.8
20.2
94.6
5.4
PCT(US)
366
50.8
49.2
94.3
5.7
56.6
43.4
Total
1685
64.9
35.1
71.7
28.3
68.8
31.2
Results: Baseline Scores of the HCCI
Comparison between Canada and the US
Canada (n = 676)
US (n = 1009)
t
M
SD
M
SD
HCCI (Overall)
3.23
.38
3.40
.36
-9.12
Hope
3.25
.59
3.50
.49
-8.95
Self-reflection
3.27
.46
3.35
.44
-3.39
Self-clarity
3.19
.55
3.43
.48
-9.18
Visioning
3.34
.55
3.52
.50
-6.66
Goal setting and planning
3.08
.59
3.19
.59
-3.76
Implementing
3.10
.53
3.32
.51
-8.58
Adapting
3.39
.45
3.50
.44
-4.78
Results: Baseline Scores of the HCCI
Canada (University of British Columbia, Thompson Rivers University)
visioning
goal
setting/
planning
Implementing
adapting
overall
2.50
2.50
2.25
2.43
2.75
2.75
3.00
2.75
3.00
2.75
2.75
3.00
2.96
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.50
3.00
3.00
3.50
3.25
75
3.75
3.50
3.50
3.75
3.50
3.50
3.75
3.50
90
4.00
3.75
4.00
4.00
3.75
3.75
4.00
3.75
hope
selfreflection
selfclarity
10
2.50
2.75
25
3.00
50
Percentiles
Results: Baseline Scores of the HCCI
United States (Penn State University, Penn College)
visioning
goal
setting/
planning
Implementing
adapting
overall
2.75
2.75
2.25
2.50
3.00
2.89
3.00
3.00
3.25
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.18
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.75
3.25
3.25
3.50
3.43
75
4.00
3.75
3.75
4.00
3.75
3.75
4.00
3.68
90
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
3.86
hope
selfreflection
selfclarity
10
3.00
2.75
25
3.25
50
Percentiles
Results: The Role of Hope
After controlling for country, age, race, and parental educational level…
Data: ALL (Canada + US)
GPA
.031
Hope
.377*
.127*
HopeGPA
.078*
Student
Engagement
.100*
.370*
DF = 67
Chi-Square = 241.252*
RMSEA = .055
NNFI = .960
CFI = .974
Vocational
Identity
HopeVI
.407*
Conclusions
Above and beyond the effects of demographic variables
(country, age, race, and parental education),
• Hope directly and indirectly (via school engagement)
affects vocational identity (large b-weight, .407)
• Hope indirectly (via school engagement) affects GPA
• The effect of hope on GPA is minimal, although
significant
• School engagement mediates the effect of hope on
vocational identity (partially) and GPA (fully)
Limitations & Suggestions
• Limitations
–
–
–
–
Cross sectional data
Non-random convenience sampling
Limited to four institutions in the US and Canada
Self-reported measure
• Suggestions
–
–
–
–
Longitudinal study
More rigorous sampling procedure
More participation from across the nations
Use of objective approaches (observation,
institutional data, etc.)
Part II. Qualitative Study
Purpose
1.To understand how college and university
students in Canada and the U.S., in the
face of challenges, experience high levels
of hope. Specifically, what helps and
hinders their experiences of hope?
Inclusion Criteria
• Highest level of Hope on HCCI: 4.0
• Highest levels of self reported perceived barriers (McWhirter,
1992) of the highest level of Hope group: 2.81 – 3.71
• Sample items of the perceived barriers scale
– Money problems are ...
– Family problems are ...
– Not being smart enough is ...
– Not being prepared enough is...
– My gender is...
– Relationship concerns are ...
“currently a barrier to my educational aspirations”
Note. 1=strongly agree 5=strongly disagree
The total score may under represent the level of barriers
Inclusion Criteria
• Fluent in English
• 19 of 676 (2.8%) in Canada met inclusion criteria – 7
participated (36.8%)
• 27 of 1009 (2.6%) in U.S. met inclusion criteria – 8
participated (29.6%)
Note: Extremely high rate of participation relative to
sample size
Critical Incident Technique
• Helpful and hindering factors
• Incidents include antecedent information,
detailed description of experiences, descriptions
of the outcomes.
Data Collection
 Informed consent
 Primary Interview 45 – 90 minutes
 In-depth, semi-structured & open-ended
with clarifying questions
 15 interviews, by 5 telephone & 10 inperson
 Audio recorded with handwritten notes
 Follow-up contact via email and by phone
for data validation
Analysis & Rigour
Audiotaping & transcription
Experts to review transcripts
Exhaustiveness
Independent extraction
Independent category formation
Checking with participants
Focusing on primary categories
Determination of practical use of categories by an
expert
• Comparison with literature
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Participant Demographics
• 5 UBC, 2 TRU, 1 Penn
College, 7 Penn State
• 13 Female, 2 Male
• 7 U.S. / 7 Canadian / 1
international student
• Age range: 18-25
• Average age: 20.5
• 1 Married, 14 Single
• 8 Caucasian, 3 Asian, 2 African
American, 1 Asian &
Caucasian, 1 Middle Eastern
• 14 English as a first language;
1 Mandarin as first language
• All undergraduates in 1st & 2nd
year
• Diverse majors
Barriers
• physical and mental health, undiagnosed
learning disabilities, sexual, physical,
emotional and economic abuse, sexual
harassment, financial, parents divorce,
neglect, death of loved ones,
intergenerational conflict, body image,
expectations
Preliminary Helping Factors
Number of
Incidents
44
Number of
Participants
14
% of Total
Participants
100
2. Future Goals
19
10
100
3. Role Models
27
9
71%
4. Attitude
24
7
64%
5. Career & Academic Passion
13
7
50%
6. Possibilities & Opportunities
14
5
50%
7. School Experience
10
5
36%
8. Social & Professional Contribution
11
5
36%
8. Self-efficacy
5
4
36%
9. Spirituality
5
4
26%
10. Refocusing activities*
4*
4*
26%
Categories
1. Support
Support
• family, partners, friends, organization, Gus the Cat 
financial, emotional  social media, networking
• ”[mom’s] just been that strong person for me. And I
can call her … any time. She is really just that voice of
reasoning and hope for me."
Future Goals
• educational including getting degree or going to grad
school, starting careers, starting a family, being
independent
• "knowing I'm going to school and there will be a change
and I can see my life hitting a major goal, that's what is
inspiring and hopeful to me …"
Role Models
• People in participants' personal lives such as family or
friends, professionals such as counsellors, or public
figures who inspired the participants
• "seeing how positively [working with her] affected my
own thoughts and person in life, it really made me
want to have that influence on someone else. I really
wanted to ... be able to say, "hey, I helped that one
person and I changed their life in some way …"
Attitude
• Beliefs or perspectives which sometimes included selftalk
• "it could be worse”
• 7 participates endorsed “attitude” but they all
exhibited it
Preliminary Hindering Factors
Number of
Incidents
Number of
Participants
% of Total
Participants
1. Negative & Unsupportive People
17
12
86%
2. Negative Feelings & Thoughts
20
8
57%
3. Situations Outside of One’s Control
13
6
43%
4. Economic and Financial Challenges
10
5
36%
5. School
10
5
36%
6. Physical & Mental Health*
5
4
26%
Categories
Situations Outside of One’s Control
• Negative and or unexpected situations that they could
not control and produced feelings of uncertainty
• Examples included: unexpected eviction, parents’
divorce, being bullied, negative consequences at Penn
State, the environment, social and political concerns
including religious freedom and corruption,
• "I'm a really planned, meticulous person, … I usually
have my life planned out three months in advance, so
the entire idea of the uncertainty of the future
definitely did add in to the removal of hope"
Part III. Application of the Hope-Centered
Model of Career Development
• Use of HCCI as a preliminary career assessment tool
• Exploring the applicability of the model and the use of
the HCCI with a university population.
• Future studies looking at other groups (unemployed,
multi-barriered, aboriginal, cross-cultural)
Case of Emily
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
An incoming senior year student in Psychology at a large public university.
She is the oldest of two children and a first generation college student.
She has a 3.79 cumulative GPA and has received positive feedback from professors.
She enjoys interacting with people and tries to help out wherever she can.
She volunteered as a camp counsellor for elementary school students over the past
two summer vacations with her close friends (rewarding experience for her.). Other
than this, she does not have any work/internship experience.
She has thought about becoming a professor because of its flexibility and
contribution to the development of students.
She is considering studying at a master's program but could not decide a major yet
Her options include clinical psychology, developmental psychology, industrial and
organizational psychology, school counselling, and human development.
Financially, her parents won’t be able to support her graduate education.
It is difficult for her to narrow down her future possibilities and take action toward
a specific goal.
Emily’s HCCI Result
Hope
Adapting
Self-Reflection
Implementing
Goal Setting & Planning
Self-Clarity
Visioning
Your
Emily’s
Score
Group
25%
Group
75%
Discussion Questions for Emily’s Case
• What are Emily’s main career concerns?
• Look at his HCCI results. What are her strengths? What
are some of her challenges?
• As her career counselor, what would be some potential
interventions regarding her career concerns?
Contact Information
• Dr. Norman Amundson
• Dr. Spencer Niles
• Dr. Hyung Joon Yoon
• Barbara Smith
• Lauri Mills
• Hyoyeon In
• Stacey deShield
• Susan Forseille
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
A Web-based system for HCCI
• Web-based HCCI: the only available format at this
moment
• Both practitioners and researchers can request the use
of the web-based HCCI by contacting Dr. Hyung Joon
Yoon ([email protected])
• Individuals who have a pass code can take the HCCI and
download an automated report in a PDF format
.
.
.
.
.
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Thank You!
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Hope-Centered Career Development with College Students