Hazardous Attitudes
Dr Claude Preitner - Senior Medical Officer CAA
Definition

at·ti·tude (t-td, -tyd) n.

1. A position of the body or manner of carrying oneself: stood in a graceful
attitude. See Synonyms at posture.
 2. The orientation of an aircraft's axes
relative to a reference line or plane, such as the horizon.
 3. A state of mind or a feeling or disposition:
Having a positive attitude about work of being
arrogant or hostile.


4. The orientation of a spacecraft relative to its direction of motion.
5. A position similar to an arabesque in which a ballet dancer stands on one leg
with the other raised either in front or in back and bent at the knee.
Hazardous
Great
“Give me the child before age 7
and I will give you the man”
 Francis Xavier, born
Francisco de Jasso y
Azpilicueta (7 April
1506 – 3 December
1552) was a
pioneering Roman
Catholic missionary
born in the Kingdom
of Navarre and cofounder of the Society
of Jesus = Jesuits.
Carl Gustav Jung 26 July 1875 – 6
June 1961
 Swiss psychiatrist , an
influential thinker and
the founder of
Analytical
Psychology (psychoanalysis)
Definition
 Attitude is one of Jung’s 57 definitions in
Chapter XI of Psychology types. Jung's
definition of attitude is a
"readiness of the psyche to
act or react in a certain way"
(Jung, [1921] 1971:par. 687). Attitudes very often come in
pairs, one conscious and the other unconscious. Within this
broad definition Jung defines several attitudes.
Personality – 5
characteristics (Jung)
Openness
(inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious).
Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure,
unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of
experience.
Personality – 5
characteristics (Jung)
Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized
vs. easy-going/careless). A tendency to show
self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for
achievement and planned rather than
spontaneous behaviour.
Personality– 5
characteristics (Jung)
Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs.
solitary/reserved). Energy, positive
emotions, urgency, and the tendency to
seek stimulation in the company of others.
Personality– 5
characteristics (Jung)-
Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate
vs. cold/unkind). A tendency to be
compassionate and cooperative rather than
suspicious and antagonistic towards others.
Personality - – 5
characteristics (Jung)
Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs.
secure/confident).
A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions
easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression,
or vulnerability
Personality – Nature vs
Nurture ~ 50% – 50%
 Openness to Experience 57%
 Extraversion 54%
 Conscientiousness 49%
 Neuroticism 48%
 Agreeableness 42%
Other models
• Type A and Type B personality
• Sanguine quick, impulsive, and relatively short-lived
reactions. (hot/wet)
phlegmatic a longer response-delay, but short-lived
esponse. (cold/wet)
choleric short response time-delay, but response sustained
for a relatively long time. (hot/dry)
melancholic (Also called "Melancholy") long response
time-delay, response sustained at length, if not, seemingly,
permanently. (cold/dry)
Other common model
FAA - Civil Aerospace Medical
Institute (CAMI)
Oklahoma City
Pilot medical certification
Aerospace medical education
Aerospace medical and human
factors research
Aviation industry drug and
alcohol testing
Occupational Health
Attitude in aviation Aeronautical Decision Making
FAA Research on ADM showing (1987) :
training in ADM  10 – 50 % less ADM
related accident.
 FAA publication on Aeronautical Decision
Making (ADM): AC #60-22
(December 1991)



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Approach to risk management
How Attitude affects ADM
Attitude self-profiling
How attitude can be changed
Definitions (AC #60-22)
 ADM: Systematic approach to the
mental process used by pilots to
consistently determine the best course
of action in a given set of
circumstances
 Personality is the embodiment of
personal traits and characteristic of an
individual that are set at a very early
age and extremely resistant to change
Attitude
 Attitude is a personal motivational
predisposition to respond to persons,
situation, or events in a given manner.
 Attitude management is the ability to
recognisee hazardous attitudes in
oneself and the willingness to modify
them as necessary
 FAA recognises 5 hazardous attitudes
in aviation
Antiauthority
 Don’t tell me what
to do
Antidote
 Follow the rules
Invulnerability
 It want happen to me
Antidote
 It could happen to me
Macho
 I can do it
Antidote:
 Taking chances is
foolish
Impulsivity
 Do something
quickly
Antidote
 Not so fast
I want
this now
Resignation
 What’s the use ?
Antidote
 I am not helpless,
I can make a
Well so
difference
be it !
What is this guy’s attitude ?
Example of Good Attitude
 All who are practically concerned
with aerial navigation agree that the
safety of the operator is more important
to successful experimentation than any
other point.
 The history of past investigation demonstrates
that greater prudence is needed rather than
greater skill.
(Wilbur Wright – 1901 – two 2 years before first flight)
Attitude Change
 Attitudes are relatively constant
but not necessarily permanent
 Role of experience
 Attitude change through cognition
(learning)
 Attitude change through emotions
Conclusion
Good ADM depends on:
 Safe attitude:
 Is knowing one’s attitude
 Ability to modify one’s attitude
 Ability to cope with stress
 Learning the pitfalls
 Avoiding the pitfalls
Steps for good ADM
 Identifying personal hazardous attitudes
 Learning behavioural modification
techniques
 Learning how to recognise and cope
with stress
 Develop risk assessment skills
 Using all resources
 Evaluating the effectiveness of one’s
ADM skills
Knowing Operational Pitfalls






Flying when unwell
Neglect of preparation
Peer pressure
Mind set
Get-there-itis
Duck under syndrome
(IFR approach)
 Scud running
 VFR in IMC
 Getting behind
aircraft
 Loss of situational
awareness
 Low fuel reserve
 Descent below minima –
en route
 Flying outside the aircraft
envelope
Resource
 FAA – AC # 60-22
 Will help you with passing on
the message to sudents
Safe attitude is also about
acknowledging what we
don’t know
What I
Don’t
want to
know
What I
think
I know
What I
don’t know
I don’t
know
What I
know
I know
What I
know
What I
know
I don’t
know
What I
don’t know
I know
Example of Good Attitude
 All who are practically concerned
with aerial navigation agree that the
safety of the operator is more important
to successful experimentation than any
other point.
 The history of past investigation demonstrates
that greater prudence is needed rather than
greater skill.
(Wilbur Wright – 1901 – two 2 years before first flight)
Herman Geiger
Questions ?
Rosa Blanche
Glacier – 1964
10’000 ft
Dr Preitner Senior