Development Cooperation
in Fragile Contexts
Presentation on the Occasion of the
5th Annual Meeting of the Practitioners‘ Network
Isabelle Steimer
Promotional Policy, EU & international Development Cooperation
Jens Clausen
Crisis Response & Governance Asia
Contents
1.
Financial Cooperation in Fragile States
2.
Case Example 1: The Peace Fund in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
3.
Case Example 2: Pakistan-Afghanistan-Tajikistan Regional Integration
Programme (PATRIP)
Financial Cooperation in Fragile States –
Escaping the Vicious Circle
State-Building;
„Legitimate State“
Weak
Government
Risk of
Crisis/
Violence
Rapid Successes have
Psychological Impact:
„Peace Dividend“
Urgent Need
of Reconstruction
Investment in Economy
and Infrastructure
3
Financial Cooperation in Fragile States
Areas of conflict in the design of projects in fragile states:
Non-Governm. Actors
Partners
Governmental Actors
Sectoral Objectives
Objectives
Stabilisation Objectives
Non-Discrimination
Target Group
Positive Discrimination
Quick Impact
Sustainability
Structural Reconstr.
Predictability
Structure
Flexibility
44
The Peace Fund in the DR Congo
Case Example 1:
The Peace Fund in the
Democratic Republic of the Congo
5
DR Congo – Situation Then and Now
● Disastrous civil war from 1997 to 2002
● Peace agreement in 2002 and first free elections in 2006
 improvement of security situation; high economic growth rate
● But still…
…continuous regional fightings between army and rebel groups
…DR Congo is one of the least developed countries in the world
…economic situation is marked by high unemployment, high corruption rate and
insufficient legal security
● Especially in the east part the trust of the
population in the state is very low
● Lack of perspectives leads to incentives
to join criminal activities
6
The Concept of the Peace Fund:
Creating Perspectives, Supporting Peace-Building
● Three main kinds of projects:
● Social infrastructure, economic
infrastructure and agriculture
● Programme Objective:
● The different projects create
income and employment
● Regional business circles are stimulated
● Overall Development Objective:
● People get a perspective and lose
incentives to engage in criminal activities
● Reconstruction of the State-Society
Relationship: People gain trust in their
government
 Peace Fund supports the consolidation of peace and the reduction of poverty
7
The Peace Fund in the DR Congo
Main areas of rebel activity
Area 1 of the
project
Area 2 of the
project
8
Facts
● The Peace Fund started in 2008
● Total commitments by the BMZ (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and
Development): EUR 50m (EUR 20m in preparation)
● 45 projects in the regions of Kinshasa, Maniema and Nord-/South-Kivu
● Status quo of project development:
● 472 class rooms built
● 41 health centers rehabilitated
● 2.842 hectares of land re-cultivated
● 446 rural roads rehabilitated
● Rehabilitation of the essential transport axis
between Obokote and Punia
● Over 1600 permanent posts created
● More than 70.000 months of short term
contracts
9
Project Regions
Kinshasa
North-Kivu
Maniema
South-Kivu
10
The Peace Fund:
Special Situations need Special Requirements
● Trade-off State <-> NGO:
● Involvement of Congolese government necessary to build up legitimate state
 But: state often has low capacities and/or little development-orientated policies
 Alternative: working with NGOs (local NGOs know the needs of the population)
● Solution: the administrative structure of the
Peace Fund involves both actors (s. fig.)
● State is involved in the decision process;
 population observes the state as a
supporter of development
● Local NGOs have the possibility to suggest
projects (allows Peace Fund to react flexibly with upcoming problems)
● Additionally, the civil society is represented in the Comité de Pilotage
11
Administrative Structure of the Peace Fund
German Federal Ministry
for Economic Cooperation
and Development (BMZ)
Provides equity and
commitments for projects
Mandate of
Congolesian
Ministry of Planning
Contracts
Implementation
KfW
GOPA
(Management
of Fund)
Preselects
(Dis-)approves decisions
Comité de Pilotage
(Composed of members of
civil society, church,
economy and state)
Suggests pre-selection of NGOs
(Dis-)approves pre-selection
Make suggestions
Selects
Local and international NGO‘s
carry out projects
12
Lessons Learned:
Strengths and Challenges of the Peace Fund
Strengths
● ysd
Challenges
● Quick impact
 Intensive
support
● Large project intervention area  needed
● Large target group
● Conflicting interests of state actors
● Employment generation
● Reduced sustainability
● Visibility due to large volume („Light House“)
● Security situation  high costs
● High flexibility
● Low capacities of NGO
● Strengthening civil society
● Accompanying measures (DNH, HIV/Aids,
Visibility)
13
Outlook
● The fifth stage of the Peace Fund (EUR 20m) is planned to begin at the end of 2012
● Perspectives:
● Higher integration of governmental
administration into the planning process
● Further increase of sustainability
of projects
● Higher cooperation between
donor organisations
● Additional component:
violence prevention in Kinshasa
Thanks for your attention!
14
Contact
Carla Berke
Division Chief
Peace and Conflict Division
South and Central Africa
KfW Development Bank
Palmengartenstraße 5–9
60325 Frankfurt am Main
Phone: 069 / 7431-3826
[email protected]
Philipp Wyrsch
Principal Projectmanager
Peace and Conflict Division
South and Central Africa
KfW Development Bank
Palmengartenstraße 5–9
60325 Frankfurt am Main
Phone: 069 / 7431-4643
[email protected]
15
Regional Integration
of Border Areas
Pakistan-Afghanistan-Tajikistan
Regional Integration Programme
PATRIP Foundation
Jens Clausen
Division Chief
Crisis Response & Governance Asia
PATRIP
Regional integration of border areas
Tajik
● Ethnic groups overlap
the border areas between
Pakistan – Afghanistan Tajikistan
● Regional integration
crossing the border lines
is therefore necessary
● This contributes to
stabilization of fragile and
underdeveloped areas.
Baluchi
Pashtun
17
Pakistan – Afghanistan – Tajikistan Regional
Integration Programme (PATRIP)
● PATRIP is a governance
programme in fragile border
areas where well – rooted NGOs
support (weak) local and
provincial governments to find
access to the local population
which have little confidence in
their government.
● Through the PATRIP Foundation
international donors provide
pooled funds for NGOs.
● Total funds so far provided by
PATRIP total to about EUR 20
million.
18
PATRIP
Objectives and Concept
● PATRIP aims to improve legal cross-border traffic
which will contribute to integration of these border areas
and finally to stability
● Programm Area: close border districts in Afghanistan,
Pakistan and Tajikistan
● Measures: small to mid-scale social and economic
infrastructure
● Selection: by the local communities, local administration
and / or by non-governmental organisations
● Implementation: by international or national non-
governmental organisations in consultation with local
governments
19
PATRIP: Close border Projects
Afghanistan -Tajikistan
●
Total Funds donated by the German Federal Foreign Office and
by Luxembourg for this area: EUR 14 million
●
Programme area: the border areas between Afghanistan and
Tajikistan
●
Main Implementing Partner here is the Aga Khan Development
Afghanistan
Network (AKDN)
Vanj Bridge and river stabilization along Panj river -
close border road
20
PATRIP – Projects between Tajikistan and Afghanistan
Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN)
AKDN:
Bridges,
roads, river
stabilization,
transmission
lines from
Tajikistan to
Afghanistan
along the
border river
21
PATRIP: Border projects between
Afghanistan and Tajikistan
● Bridges and
adjacent close
border markets
promote regional
exchange
● River bank
Vanj Bridge along border
River bank stabilization close to border
stabilization to
preserve
agricultural land
● Close border
markets
stimulate
economic
development in
fragile areas
Markets close to bridges and border lines
22
PATRIP – Projects in border areas
of Afghanistan - Pakistan
Projects in FATA by NGO „CAMP“
esp. roads & bridges across the border
Projects in Paktia (AFG) by NGO “ORD“
(e.g. schools for Pakistani and Afghan
students in Afghan border area)
Projects in Balochistan by NGO “BRSP“
23
Organizational Set - up
The PATRIP
Foundation
welcomes
other donors to
provide funds
for these
border area
programme to
be
implemented
by NGOs.
24
Contact
Jens Clausen
Division Chief
Crisis Response and Governance
Asia
KfW Development Bank
Palmengartenstraße 5–9
60325 Frankfurt am Main
Phone 069 / 7431-2623
[email protected]
Daniela Henrike Klau-Panhans
Principal Projectmanager
Crisis Response and Governance
Asia
KfW Development Bank
Palmengartenstraße 5–9
60325 Frankfurt am Main
Phone 069 / 7431-2634
[email protected]
25
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