PowerPoint
Presentations for
Seventh Edition
Philip G. Zimbardo
Robert L. Johnson
Vivian McCann
Prepared by
Beth M. Schwartz
Randolph College
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display,
including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any
rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Chapter 9
Motivation and Emotion
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display,
including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any
rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-205-42428-7
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
What Motivates Us?
Motives are internal
dispositions to act in certain
ways, although they can be
influenced by multiple
factors, both internal and
external.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Types of Motivation
Motivation
• The processes involved in initiating,
directing, and maintaining physical and
psychological activities
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Types of Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
• Desire to engage in an activity for its
own sake
Extrinsic Motivation
• Desire to engage in an activity to
achieve an external consequence
(e.g., a reward)
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Measuring the Need for Achievement
Need for Achievement (n Ach)
• A mental state that produces a
psychological motive to excel or to reach a
certain goal
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Figure 9.1 Alternative Interpretations of an Ambiguous Picture
Story Showing High n Ach: The boy has just finished his violin lesson. He’s happy at his progress and is
beginning to believe that all his sacrifices have been worthwhile. To become a concert violinist, he will have to
give up much of his social life and practice for many hours each day. Although he knows he could make more
money by going into his father’s business, he is more interested in being a great violinist and giving people joy
with his music. He renews his personal commitment to do all it takes to make it.
Story Showing Low n Ach: The boy is holding his brother’s violin and wishing he could play it. But he knows it
isn’t worth the time, energy, and money for lessons. He feels sorry for his brother, who has given up all the fun
things in life to practice, practice, practice. It would be great to wake up one day and be a top-notch musician,
but it doesn’t happen that way. The reality is boring practice, no fun, and the likelihood that he’ll become just
another guy playing a musical instrument in a small-town band.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
A Cross-Cultural Perspective on
Achievement
Individualism
• View that places a high value on individual
achievement and distinction
Collectivism
• View that values group loyalty and pride
over individual distinction
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The Unexpected Effects of Rewards
on Motivation
Overjustification
• Extrinsic rewards displace internal
motivation
• e.g., when a child receives money for playing
video games
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
How Are Our Motivational
Priorities Determined?
A new theory combining
Maslow’s hierarchy with
evolutionary psychology
solves some long-standing
problems by suggesting that
functional, proximal, and
developmental factors set
our motivational priorities.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Theories of Motivation
Instinct Theory
• View that certain behaviors are determined
by innate factors
Fixed-Action Patterns
• Genetically based behaviors, seen across a
species, that can be set off by a specific
stimulus
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Theories of Motivation
Drive Theory
• View that a biological need (an imbalance
that threatens survival) produces a drive
that moves an organism to meet the need
Homeostasis
• The body’s tendency to maintain a
biologically balanced condition
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory
Motivation comes from the depths of the
unconscious mind.
• Id: contains two basic desires:
• eros
• thanatos
• both thought of as instincts
Developmental approach: motives change
from childhood to adulthood
• Focused on explaining behaviors
associated with mental disorders
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Maslow’s Humanistic Theory
Hierarchy of Needs
• The notion that needs occur in priority
order, with the biological needs as the
most basic
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Functional Level of Analysis
Functional: adaptive function in terms of
organism’s survival and reproduction
Proximal: stimuli in environment that can change
motivational priorities
Developmental: changes in developmental
progress that changes motivational priorities
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Evolutionary Revision of Maslow’s
Hierarchy
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Where Do Hunger and Sex Fit
into the Motivational Hierarchy?
Although dissimilar in many
respects, hunger and sex
both have evolutionary
origins, and each has an
essential place in the
motivational hierarchy.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The Multiple-Systems Model of
Hunger and Eating
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Biological Factors Affecting
Hunger and Eating
• Brain mechanisms
• Set point (homeostatic) mechanisms
• Sensors in the stomach
• Reward system preferences
• Exercise
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Psychological Factors Affecting
Hunger and Eating
• Emotional state
• Learning
• Culture
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
•
•
•
•
•
Less than 85 percent of desirable weight
Worries about being fat
Loss of appetite
Extreme dieting
Purging
Bulimia
• Binge eating
• Purging
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Women’s Body Images
Figure 9.5 Women’s Body Images
April Fallon and Paul Rozin (1985) asked female college students to give their current weight, their ideal weight,
and the weight they believed men would consider ideal. The results show that the average woman felt that her
current weight was significantly higher than her ideal weight—and higher than the weight she thought men would
like. To make matters worse, women also see their bodies as looking larger than they actually are (Thompson,
1986). When men were asked to rate themselves on a similar questionnaire, Fallon and Rozin found no such
discrepancies between ideal and actual weights. But, when asked what they saw as the ideal weight for women,
they chose a higher weight than women did. No wonder women go on diets more often than men and are more
likely to have a major eating disorder (Mintz & Betz, 1986; Striegel-Moore et al., 1993).
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Obesity and Weight Control
Sixty-five percent of Americans are
overweight.
• Thirty percent are classified as obese.
• Obesity is associated with health problems.
• Causes:
•
•
•
•
poor diet (large portions, high fat and sugar)
genetics
level of activity
evolutionary influence
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Sexual Motivation
• Not a homeostatic drive like hunger and
thirst
• Linked with diverse motives in the
hierarchy
• Roots in survival; but a lack thereof does
not pose threat to survival (of oneself)
• Extensive culture-specific rules
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Scientific Study of Sexuality
Table 9.2 Sexual Preferences and Behaviors of Adult Americans
Source: Adapted from Michael, R. T., Gagnon, J. H., Laumann, E. O., & Kolata, G. (1994). Sex in America: A
definitive survery. New York: Little, Brown. Table based on survey of 3,432 scientifically selected adult
respondents. There has not been a major survey of American sexual preferences and behaviors since 1994.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The Sexual Response Cycle
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The Origins of Sexual Orientation
Sexual Orientation
• One’s erotic attraction toward members of
the same sex, the opposite sex, or both
sexes
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
How Do Our
Emotions Motivate Us?
Emotions are a special class
of motives that help us
attend and respond to
important (usually external)
situations and communicate
our intentions to others.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
What Are Emotions Made of?
Emotion is a four-part process:
• Physiological arousal
• Cognitive interpretation
• Subjective feelings
• Behavioral expression
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The Evolution of Emotions
Emotions have survival value and have
been shaped by natural selection
Individuals vary tremendously in emotional
responsiveness
Emotions are not entirely programmed by
genetics
More than 500 emotional terms
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The Emotion Wheel
Figure 9.7 The Emotion Wheel
Robert Plutchik’s emotion wheel arranges eight primary emotions on the inner ring of a circle of opposite
emotions. Pairs of adjacent emotions can combine to form more complex emotions noted on the outer ring of the
figure. For example, love is portrayed as a combination of joy and acceptance. Still other emotions, such as envy
or regret (not shown), emerge from still other combinations of more basic emotions portrayed on the wheel.
Source: Plutchik, R. (1980, February) A language for the emotions. Psychology Today, 13(9), 68–78. Used with
permission of Psychology Today © 2008.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Cultural Universals in
Emotional Expression
People everywhere can recognize seven
basic emotions (according to Ekman):
sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt,
happiness, and surprise.
There are, however, huge cultural
differences in the context and intensity of
emotional displays (display rules).
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Identifying Facial Expressions of
Emotion
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
What Processes Control
Our Emotions?
Research has clarified the
processes underlying both
our conscious and
unconscious emotional lives,
shedding light on some old
controversies.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The Neuroscience of Emotion
Figure 9.8 Two Emotion-Processing Pathways
Two emotion systems are at work when the hiker sees a snake. One is fast and unconscious; the other operates
more slowly and consciously. The fast system routes incoming visual information through the visual thalamus to
the amygdala (dotted pathway), which quickly initiates fear and avoidance responses—all occurring
unconsciously. The slower pathway involves the visual cortex, which makes a more complete appraisal of the
stimulus and also sends an emotional message to the amygdala and other lower brain structures. The result of
this is a conscious perception of the situation and a conscious feeling of fear.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The Neuroscience of Emotion
The biological mechanisms at work behind
our emotions include:
• The cerebral cortex
• lateralization of emotion
• The limbic system
• The autonomic nervous system
• Hormones
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Responses Associated with Emotion
Copyright © 2012, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Arousal, Performance, and the
Inverted “U”
Inverted “U” Function
• Describes the relationship between arousal
and performance; both low and high levels
of arousal produce lower performance than
does a moderate level of arousal
High
Performance
Low
Low
High
Arousal Level
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Arousal, Performance, and the
Inverted “U”
Sensation Seekers
• Individuals who have a biological need for
higher levels of stimulation than do most
other people
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Psychological Theories of Emotion
James-Lange Theory
• An emotion-provoking stimulus produces a
physical response that, in turn, produces an
emotion
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Psychological Theories of Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory
• An emotional feeling and an internal
physiological response occur at the same
time
• One is not the cause of the other.
• Both are the result of a cognitive appraisal of
the situation.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Psychological Theories of Emotion
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
• Emotion results from the cognitive
appraisal of both:
(1) physical arousal
(2) emotion provoking stimulus
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
JamesLange
Theory
CannonBard
Theory
TwoFactor
Theory
Stimulus
snake
Stimulus
snake
Stimulus
snake
Physiological arousal
trembling
increased heart rate
Emotion
fear
Physiological arousal
trembling
increased heart rate
Emotion
fear
Physiological arousal
trembling
increased heart rate
Cognitive interpretation
“I feel afraid!”
Emotion
fear
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Developing Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
• Perceiving emotions
• Using emotions
• Understanding emotions
• Managing emotions
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Detecting Deception
Deception Cues
• Repeated observations necessary for accurate
detection
• Longer pauses in speech
• Constrained movement/gesturing
• Speech errors
• Nervous gestures
• Rhythmic body movements
• Reduced blinking
• Less smiling
“Lie detectors”: Do they really work?
Polygraph: measures of physical arousal
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved