Chapter
1
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
Wellness: New Health Goals

Reaching Wellness
Through Lifestyle Management
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Healthy people seek a state of overall
wellness rather than merely the absence of
illness
 Health: Overall condition of body
or mind and the presence
or absence of illness or injury
 Wellness: Expands the idea of health to
include the ability to achieve optimal
health
 Risk factor: Condition that increases one’s
chances of disease or injury
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
The Dimensions of Wellness
 Physical
 Emotional
 Intellectual
 Interpersonal
 Spiritual
 Environmental
 Financial
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Physical
 Includes fitness level and
ability to care for one’s self
Emotional
 Ability to understand/deal with feelings

Intellectual
 An active mind, able to detect problems,
find solutions, and direct behavior

Interpersonal
 Ability to develop and maintain
satisfying and supportive relationships
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Spiritual Wellness
 Guiding beliefs, principles, or values
that give meaning and purpose to life
Environmental Wellness
 Defined by the livability of surroundings
Financial Wellness
 Ability to live within one’s means and
manage money to gain peace of mind
Other Aspects of Wellness
 Occupational wellness: level of
satisfaction gained from your work
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Life expectancy has nearly
doubled since 1900
 2011: U.S. life expectancy 78.7 years
 In 1900, infectious disease was a top
concern
 In recent years, a new set of chronic
diseases have emerged as major health
threats
▪ Heart disease
▪ Cancer
▪ Chronic lower respiratory diseases
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 Chronic disease: Disease that develops
and continues over a long period of time;
e.g., heart disease, cancer, and lower
respiratory diseases
 Lifestyle choice: Conscious behavior that
can increase or decrease a person’s risk
of disease or injury; such behaviors
include smoking, exercising, eating a
healthy diet, and others
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SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics. 2012. Deaths: Preliminary
data for 2011. National Vital Statistics Reports 61(6).
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SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics. 2012. Deaths: Preliminary data
for 2010 (data release). National Vital Statistics Report 60(4).
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written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
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
The National Healthy People
Initiative aims to prevent disease
and improve Americans’ quality of life
 Achieve health equity, eliminate
disparities, and improve health of groups
 Create social and physical
environments that promote good health
 Promote healthy behaviors
for every stage of life
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 Be physically active
▪ Physical fitness: Set of physical attributes
that allow the body to respond to or adapt
to the demands and stress of physical effort
▪ Sedentary: Physically inactive
 Choose a healthy diet
 Manage stress effectively
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 Avoid tobacco and
drug use, and limit
alcohol consumption
 Protect yourself from
disease and injury
▪ Unintentional injury:
Injury that occurs without
harm being intended
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Take other steps toward wellness
 Develop meaningful relationships
 Plan for successful aging
 Learn about the health care system
 Act responsibly toward the environment
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Heredity, environment,
and adequate health
care interact
▪ Sedentary lifestyle combined
with genetic predisposition
for diabetes increases
a person’s risk for
developing the disease
 Behavior can tip
balance toward health
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Before a person can change, she or he
must know that the behavior is
a problem and that she or he can
change it
 Examine current health habits
 Think about your behavior
 Talk with friends and family members
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Behavior change:
Lifestyle management
process that involves
cultivating healthy
behaviors and working
to overcome
unhealthy ones
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 Chances of success are greater
if your behavior change goal is simple
▪ Target behavior: Behavior selected as
the object for a behavior change program
 Learn about your target behavior
 Assess how the target behavior
affects your level of wellness
 Find help
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Examining pros and cons of change
 Compare short- and
long-term benefits and costs
 Boost self-efficacy
▪ Self-efficacy: Belief in one’s ability to
take action and perform a specific task
▪ Locus of control: Figurative “place”
person designates as the source of
responsibility for the events in his or her life
▪ Visualization
▪ Self-talk: Person’s internal dialogue
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Boosting self-efficacy
 Role models and
other supportive
individuals

Identify and overcome
barriers to change
 List key obstacles
 Develop a
practical plan
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Precontemplation: No
intention of changing behavior
Contemplation: Intending to
take action within 6 months
Preparation: Planning to
take action within a month
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Action: Outwardly changing
behavior and environment
Maintenance: Successful
behavior change maintained
for 6 months or more
Termination: Exited the cycle of
change and are no longer tempted
to lapse into old behavior
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SOURCE: Adapted from Prochaska, J. O., C. C. Diclemente, and J. C. Norcross. 1992. In
search of how people change. American Psychologist 47(9): 1102– 14. Copyright © 1992 by the
American Psychological Association. Reprinted by permission
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Most people make several
attempts before they
successfully change behavior
 If
▪
▪
▪
a relapse occurs:
Forgive yourself
Give your self credit for progress
Move on
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Monitor behavior and gather data
 Analyze the data and identify patterns
 Be “SMART” about setting goals
 Devise a plan of action
•Get what you need
•Modify your environment
•Control related habits
•Reward yourself
•Involve the people
around you
•Plan for challenges
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
Commitment despite temptations
 Use strategies to make plan work
 Give yourself a pat on the back
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Possible sources of blocked progress:
 Social influences
 Levels of motivation and commitment
 Choice of techniques and level of effort
 Stress barrier
 Procrastinating,
rationalizing, and blaming

Take on your easier problems first, and
build on your success over time
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First attempts at making behavior
changes may never go beyond the
contemplation or preparation stage
Once you’ve started, don’t stop
Assume that health
improvement is forever
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