Decision-making and Motor Behavior
Input
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Central
Processing
Output
Welford’s (1976) Hypothetical Model of Information
Processing
From: Welford, A.T. (1976) Skilled Performance: Perceptual and
Motor Skills. Scott, Foresman and Company: Palo Alto, CA.
What is the decision process?
In the decision process performers develop a plan or
strategy for the movement.
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What does reaction time measure?
Afferent flow of information
Processing of information by the brain
Efferent flow of information
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Fractionated Reaction Time
Premotor Reaction Time
Motor Reaction Time
Total Reaction Time
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From Magill, R.A. (2007). Motor Learning and Control:
Concepts and Applications (8th ed.). McGraw Hill: New
York, pp 183.
Reaction time= Premotor RT + Motor RT
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Define
Simple Reaction Time
Choice Reaction Time
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Memory Drum Theory
Franklin Henry provided the Memory Drum Theory
– Fischman, Christina, and Anson
– Klapp
– Hide’s thesis
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What is information and how is information measured?
Limited capacity of the decision process
Single channel processing
Bottleneck in the system
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Uncertainty
Number of possible alternatives (CRT)
– Number of stimuli
– Vary the probability of occurrence
– Sequential dependencies
Predictability
–
–
–
–
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Temporal uncertainty
Spatial uncertainty
Event uncertainty
Perceptual uncertainty
BITS
BITS measures the complexity and uncertainty of
information
Calculation of BITS
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Perceptual Discrimination
Just Noticeable Difference
– Being able to detect differences in stimuli if
they in fact exist
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/04/magazine/04Rivera-t.html?_r=1
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Psychological Refractory Period (The Fake)
The psychological refractory period is created when
two signals are presented in succession
It’s the time it takes to respond to a fake and realize it
is a fake when the real move is recognized and the
performer has to initiate a new response
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From Magill, R.A. (2007). Motor Learning and Control: Concepts and
Applications (8th ed.). McGraw Hill: New York.
Facts about the Psychological Refractory Period
 RT to the first signal is the same as when
stimulus 1 is presented alone
 RT to the second signal is almost always longer
 If the interstimulus interval (ISI) is less than 100
msec sometimes the performer responds to only
one signal
 Practice will not improve the psychological
refractory period
 The psychological refractory period can be
eliminated if the performer knows where stimulus
2 will occur
 The psychological refractory period is a central
phenomenon. It is not sensory or motor.
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Activity Groups
Temporal Uncertainty
Event Uncertainty
Perceptual Uncertainty
Spatial Uncertainty
Define the concept and provide a minimum of 3
examples of movement exemplars of these ideas
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Decision-making and Motor Behavior