Chapter Introduction Section 1: Characteristics of Psychological Tests Section 2: Intelligence Testing Section 3: Measuring Achievement, Abilities, and Interests Section 4: Personality Testing Chapter Objectives · Section 1 Characteristics of Psychological Tests Examine the characteristics that make a psychological test useful: reliability, validity, and standardization. Chapter Objectives · Section 2 Intelligence Testing Explore the ways in which IQ tests are used to measure intelligence and explain the various theories of what constitutes intelligence. Chapter Objectives · Section 3 Measuring Achievement, Abilities, and Interests Describe the various test psychologists have developed to assess special abilities and experiences. Chapter Objectives · Section 4 Personality Testing Explain how personality tests are used to assess personality characteristics and identify problems. Main Idea To be useful, tests have to be standardized and exhibit reliability and validity. Vocabulary • reliability • validity • percentile system • norms Objectives • Identify three ways of measuring reliability. • Explain test standardization and how test validity is assessed. What does the fairness and usefulness of a test depend on? A. Reliability B. Validity C. Standardization D. All of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Characteristics of Psychological Tests • A test can: – Predict how well a person might do in a career. – Assess an individual’s desires, interests, and attitudes. – Reveal psychological problems. Characteristics of Psychological Tests (cont.) • A standardized test can: – Provide comparable data about many individuals. – Show how an individual compares to others. – Help psychologists help people understand things about themselves more clearly. Characteristics of Psychological Tests (cont.) • The fairness and usefulness of a test depend on reliability, validity, and standardization. Which is NOT a way of determining a test’s reliability? A. Test-retest B. Scorer C. Split-half D. Time-retime 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Test Reliability • Reliability refers to the ability of a test to give the same results under similar conditions. • Three ways of determining a test’s reliability: – Test-retest reliability – Interscorer (and scorer) reliability – Split-half reliability Judging Reliability If every other student in a class receives a different test on the same subject matter, is this reliable? A. Yes B. No C. It depends on the results. 0% A A. A B. B C.0% C B 0% C Test Validity • Validity is the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure. • One of the chief methods for measuring validity is to find out its predictive validity— how well a test predicts performance. Judging Validity Test Validity (cont.) • Nothing can be said about a test’s validity unless the purpose of the test is absolutely clear. What is the chief method for measuring validity? A. Predictive validity B. Relevance C. Precision D. Accuracy 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Standardization • Standardization refers to two things: – Standardized tests must be administered and scored the same way every time. – Standardization refers to establishing the norm, or average score, made by a large group of people. Standardization (cont.) • Percentile system • Norms • Norms are not really standards; they only refer what has been found to be average for a particular group. Establishing Percentiles Standardization (cont.) • When you take a test and obtain your score, you should consider these questions: – Do you think that if you took the same test again, you would receive a similar score? – Does your performance on this test reflect your usual performance in the subject? – If you were to compare your score with those of your classmates, would it reflect your general standing within that group? What are the two things standardization refers to? A. Consistency and character B. Consistency and establishing norms C. Character and fairness D. None of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Main Idea Several IQ tests are used to measure intelligence, although there are many views about what constitutes intelligence. Vocabulary • Intelligence • cultural bias • two-factor theory • triarchic theory • emotional intelligence • intelligence quotient (IQ) • heritability Objectives • Explain the various views of intelligence. • Identify two kinds of IQ tests. Do you think IQ tests are good indication of intelligence? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 0% A A. A B. B C.0%C B 0% C Views of Intelligence • Intelligence • Two-factor theory of intelligence—a person’s intelligence is composed of a general ability level and specific mental abilities. Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Thurstone’s theory of intelligence— intelligence is composed of seven primary mental abilities: – Verbal comprehension – Numerical ability – Spatial relations – Perceptual speed – Word fluency – Memory – Inductive reasoning Thurstone’s Seven Primary Mental Abilities Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: – Verbal ability – Interpersonal skills – Logical-mathematical reasoning skills – Intrapersonal skills – Spatial ability – Musical ability – Body-kinesthetic ability – Naturalist intelligence – Experience of existence Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Gardner argues that the biological organization of the brain affects one’s strength in each of the eight areas. • His critics claim that some of the capacities are really just skills. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Sternberg’s Theory of Intelligence—the triarchic theory—a person’s intelligence involves analytical, creative, and practical thinking skills. • Emotional Intelligence Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Four major aspects of emotional intelligence: – The ability to perceive and express emotions accurately and appropriately. – The ability to use emotions while thinking. – The ability to understand emotions and use the knowledge effectively. – The ability to regulate one’s emotions to promote personal growth. According to Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, being skilled at distinguishing differences among large numbers of similar objects falls under which label? D. Naturalist A 0% D C. Interpersonal C B. Spatial A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D B A. Linguistic The Development of Intelligence Tests • The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale groups test items by age level. • The IQ, or intelligence quotient (IQ), is a standardized measure of intelligence based on a scale in which 100 is average. Typical Items on the Stanford-Binet Test The Development of Intelligence Tests (cont.) • The Otis-Lennon Ability Test is often used today—this test seeks to measure the cognitive abilities that are related to a student’s ability to learn and succeed in school. The Development of Intelligence Tests (cont.) • The Wechsler Tests—These tests yield percentile scores in separate areas, such as vocabulary and arithmetic, which provide a more detailed picture of the individual’s strengths and weaknesses. Sample Items on the Wechsler Tests Which test seeks to measure the cognitive abilities that are related to a student’s ability to learn and succeed in school? A. Stanford-Binet B. Wechsler C. Otis-Lennon D. None of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D The Uses and Meaning of IQ Scores • IQ tests seem to be most useful when related to school achievement. • They are accurate in predicting which people will do well in schools, colleges, and universities. • However, critics wonder whether such tests actually measure intelligence. Distribution of IQ Scores What percentage of people score between 70 and 130 on IQ tests? A. 50 B. 75 C. 85 D. 95 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Controversy Over IQ Testing • The main question— – Do genetic differences or environmental inequalities cause two people to receive different scores on intelligence tests? Controversy Over IQ Testing (cont.) • Researchers test people with varying degrees of genetic relationships to help answer this question. • They have found a high degree of heritability • As genetic relationship increases, the similarity of IQ also increases. Controversy Over IQ Testing (cont.) • Factors such as the richness of the home environment, the quality of food, and the number of brothers and sister in the family also affect IQ. • So, research has proven that both heredity and environment have an impact on intelligence. Controversy Over IQ Testing (cont.) • A major criticism of intelligence tests is that they have a cultural bias. The Dove Counterbalance Intelligence Test Which do you think plays a greater factor in a person’s IQ, genetics or environmental factors? A. Genetics B. Environmental factors A. A B. B 0% A 0% B Main Idea Psychologists have developed tests to assess special abilities and experiences. Vocabulary • aptitude test • achievement test • interest inventory Objectives • Identify the most widely used aptitude tests, achievement tests, and interest inventories. • Explain the application of aptitude tests, achievement tests, and interest inventories. Which class do you best excel in? A. Math B. Science C. English D. History 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Aptitude Tests • Aptitude tests estimate the probability that the person will be successful in learning a specific new skill. • They are assessed in terms of their predictive validity. Aptitude Tests (cont.) • Examples: – Differential Aptitude Test (DATE) – General Aptittude Test Battery (GATB) – SAT – ACT The GATB Which test is used to measure how well a student will do in law school? A. SAT B. GATB C. LSAT D. MCAT 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Achievement Tests • Achievement tests are designed to measure how much a person has already learned in a particular area. • They are validated in terms of their content validity, or how well they measure a student’s mastery of a set of knowledge. Achievement Tests (cont.) • The distinction between aptitude and achievement tests rests more on purpose and validation than on content. Achievement Tests (cont.) • Computers are often used to administer adaptive testing. • The computer changes the question difficulty as it adapts the test to your performance. • If you answer several problems correctly, the computer challenges you with harder problems and vice versa. Achievement Tests (cont.) • Adaptive instruction—by increasing the questions posed on topics you are missing, the computer reinforces more careful studying in areas least understood. What kind of testing is used if harder questions are given to you when answer a couple questions correctly? A. Adaptive B. Computerized C. Innate D. Content validity 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Interest Inventories • Interest inventory—measures a person’s preferences and attitudes in a wide variety of activities to identify areas of likely success. • The purpose of these measures is to help people find the career that is right for them. The KPR What is the purpose of the Kuder Preference Record? A. To help people find the career that is right for them B. To measure intelligence 0% 0% D 0% C A 0% A B C D B A. C. To measure physical strength B. D. To help people find the C. college that is right for them D. Main Idea Personality tests are used to assess an individual’s characteristics and to identify problems. Vocabulary • personality test • objective test • projective test Objectives • Identify the most widely used personality tests. • Describe the use of personality tests. How many personality types did Hippocrates think there were? A. 4 B. 8 C. 12 D. 16 0% A A. B. 0% C. D. B A B 0% C D C 0% D Objective Personality Tests • Personality test • Objective test • The items on the MMPI reveal habits, fears, delusions, sexual attitudes, and symptoms of psychological disorders. Objective Personality Tests (cont.) • It was originally developed to help diagnose psychological disorders. • Scoring is based on patterns of responses. • Most psychologists feel that the scores should be supplemented and confirmed with interviews and observations. • Some critics question the test’s validity. Objective Personality Tests (cont.) • The MMPI can also differentiate demeanors such as introversionextraversion and assertiveness. • The CPI is similar to the MMPI, but does not have any of the questions that reveal psychiatric illnesses. • It measures traits such as responsibility, self-control, and tolerance. MMPI Scales Objective Personality Tests (cont.) • The Meyers-Briggs Test (MBTI) is used to predict things like adjustment to stress, leadership, and job success. • This test focuses on how a person takes in information, makes decisions, and approaches day-to-day tasks. Objective Personality Tests (cont.) • The MBTI characterizes personality on four different scales: – Extraversion vs. introversion – Intuition vs. sensing – Feeling vs. thinking – Judging vs. perceiving Objective Personality Tests (cont.) • The creators of the MBTI believe that each person’s personality is a combination of these characteristics. Which test focuses on how a person takes in information, makes decisions, and approaches day-to-day tasks? A. MMPI B. CPI 0% D A 0% A B 0% C D C D. None of the above A. B. 0% C. D. B C. MBTI Projective Personality Tests • Projective test • The test taker projects his or her feelings, perspectives, and attitudes onto the test items. Projective Personality Tests (cont.) • The theory underlying the Rorschach inkblot test is that anything that someone does or says will reveal an aspect of that person’s personality. • Many researchers have criticized the test, charging that the scoring systems are neither reliable nor valid. Projective Personality Tests (cont.) • The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) consists of a series of 20 cards containing pictures of vague but suggestive situations. • The individual is asked to tell a story about the picture. Projective Personality Tests (cont.) • This test is used to: – urge clients to speak freely about their problems. – assess the motivation and personality characteristics of the individual. – assess personality problems of individuals. Projective Personality Tests (cont.) • Like the Rorschach, there are many different scoring systems. Approaches to Reducing Test Anxiety Do you feel that an objective or a projective test would yield the most information about a person? A. Objective B. Projective C. Not sure 0% A A. A B. B 0% C. C B 0% C Judging Reliability On the left, the test scores obtained by seven individuals are ordered on a scale. On the right, the corresponding scores on a second version of the same test, given at a later time, are ordered. In the upper diagram, the two sets of scores correspond very closely—meaning the test is highly reliable. Judging Validity The upper diagram represents the result of comparing the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale scores with school grades. The lower diagram represents the comparison of scores on the head size test of intelligence with school grades. (The head size test is simply measuring the size of a student’s head.) Establishing Percentiles The range of possible raw scores on a test is shown in relation to an idealized curve that indicates the proportion of people who achieved each score. The vertical lines indicate percentiles, or proportions of the curve below certain points. Thus, the line indicated as the 1st percentile is the line below which only 1 percent of the curve lies. Thurstone’s Seven Primary Mental Abilities Thurstone’s theory of intelligence did not include the idea of a general intelligence. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Gardner proposed that each person has numerous and unrelated intelligences. He points out that a person can be outstanding in some intelligences and not in others. Sample Items on the Wechsler Tests These test items are similar to those included in the various Wechsler intelligence scales. Distribution of IQ Scores This normal curve displays intelligence as measured by the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests. The mean IQ score is 100; the standard deviation is 15. The Dove Counterbalance Intelligence Test In the 1960s, psychologist Adrian Dove developed the Counterbalance Intelligence Test to stress that cultural background can influence performance on an intelligence test. The GATB Samples of items from the GATB testing verbal skills, mathematical skills, and manual skills are shown here. The KPR Shown are items from the Kuder Preference Record (KPR). The individual taking the test chooses from among three possible activities the one he or she would most like to do and the one he or she would least like to do. MMPI Scales The MMPI is a truefalse self-questionnaire that is designed to assess major patterns of personality and emotional disorders. Clinical scales identify the specific areas whose content includes references to a specific disorder. Validity scales assess whether the test taker was lying or faking answers. Approaches to Reducing Test Anxiety Many people worry about taking any kind of test. When someone comes to a psychologist complaining of test anxiety, the psychologist may approach the problem in a variety of ways, depending on his or her theoretical orientation. Typical Items on the Stanford-Binet Test Howard Gardner 1943– “I’m sure there are lots of different intelligences. I’m sure an educational approach that pays attention to this is going to be more effective than one that denies it.” Chapter Concepts Transparencies Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Aptitude and Achievement Tests Select a transparency to view. reliability: the ability of a test to give the same results under similar conditions validity: the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure percentile system: ranking of test scores that indicates the ratio of scores lower and higher than a given score norms: standard of comparison for test results developed by giving the test to large, well-defined groups of people intelligence: the ability to acquire new ideas and new behavior, and to adapt to new situations two-factor theory: proposes that a person’s intelligence is composed of a general ability level and specific mental abilities triarchic theory: proposes that a person’s intelligence involves analytical, creative, and practical thinking skills emotional intelligence: interpersonal and intrapersonal abilities needed to understand and use knowledge of emotions effectively intelligence quotient (IQ): standardized measure of intelligence based on a scale in which 100 is average heritability: the degree to which a characteristic is related to inherited genetic factors cultural bias: an aspect of an intelligence test in which the wording used in questions may be more familiar to people of one social group than to another group aptitude test: estimates the probability that a person will be successful in learning a specific new skill achievement test: measures how much a person has learned in a given subject or area interest inventory: measures a person’s preferences and attitudes in a wide variety of activities to identify areas of likely success personality test: assesses an individual’s characteristics and identifies problems objective test: a limited- or forcedchoice test in which a person must select one of several answers projective test: an unstructured test in which a person is asked to respond freely, giving his or her own interpretation of various ambiguous stimuli To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. 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