Myers’ Psychology for ® AP , 2e David G. Myers PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, © 2014 AP® is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board ®, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. Unit 11: Testing and Individual Differences Unit 11 - Overview • • • • Introduction to Intelligence Assessing Intelligence The Dynamics of Intelligence Studying Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence • Group Differences and the Question of Bias Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. Module 60: Introduction to Intelligence Introduction • Intelligence • Intelligence test Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? • Spearman’s General intelligence (g) –Factor analysis –Comparison to athleticism • Thurstone’s counter argument g Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiples Intelligences: Garner’s Eight Intelligences • Savant syndrome • Gardner’s Eight Intelligences – – – – – – – – Linguistic Logical-mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Naturalist Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiples Intelligences: Garner’s Eight Intelligences • Grit Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiples Intelligences: Sternberg’s Three Intelligences • Sternberg’s Three Intelligences –Analytical (academic problemsolving intelligence –Creating intelligence –Practical intelligence Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence • Emotional intelligence –Perceive emotions –Understand emotions –Manage emotions –Use emotions for adaptive or creative thinking Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Brain Size and Complexity • Brain size studies • Brain complexity studies –Neural plasticity –Gray matter versus white matter Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Brain Function • Perceptual speed • Neurological speed Module 61: Assessing Intelligence Origins of Intelligence Testing Origins of Intelligence Testing • Francis Galton’s intelligence testing –Reaction time –Sensory acuity –Muscular power –Body proportions • Hereditary Genius Origins of Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet: Predicting School Achievement • Alfred Binet –Identifying French school children in need of assistance –Mental age –Chronological age Origins of Intelligence Testing Lewis Terman: The Innate IQ • Stanford-Binet Test –Lewis Terman –New age norms –Adding superior end Origins of Intelligence Testing Lewis Terman: The Innate IQ • Intelligence quotient (IQ) • IQ = (mental age/chronological age) X 100 • IQ of 100 is considered average • World War I testing Modern Tests of Mental Abilities Modern Tests of Mental Abilities • Achievement tests • Aptitude tests Modern Tests of Mental Abilities • Achievement tests • Aptitude tests Modern Tests of Mental Abilities • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) –Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Principles of Test Construction Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Standardization –Normal curve (bell curve) Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Normal curve (bell curve) Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Normal curve (bell curve) Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Normal curve (bell curve) Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Normal curve (bell curve) Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Normal curve (bell curve) Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Normal curve (bell curve) Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Normal curve (bell curve) Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Flynn effect Principles of Test Construction Standardization • Flynn effect Principles of Test Construction Reliability • Reliability –Scores correlate –Test-retest reliability –Split-half reliability Principles of Test Construction Validity • Validity –Content validity • Criterion –Predictive validity Module 62: The Dynamics of Intelligence Stability or Change? Stability or Change? Aging and Intelligence • Cross-Sectional Evidence • Longitudinal Evidence – Cohort Stability or Change? Aging and Intelligence • It all depends –Crystallized intelligence –Fluid intelligence Stability or Change? Stability Over the Life Span Extremes of Intelligence Extremes of Intelligence The Low Extreme • Intellectual disability –Mental retardation –Down syndrome • 21st chromosome –Mainstreamed Extremes of Intelligence The High Extreme • Terman’s study of gifted • Self-fulfilling prophecy • Appropriate developmental placement Module 63: Studying Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence Twin and Adoption Studies Twin and Adoption Studies • Identical twin studies –Polygenetic –Heritability • Adoptive children studies Heritability Heritability Heritability Heritability Heritability Heritability Environmental Influences Environmental Influences • Early environmental influences –Tutored human enrichment –Targeted training • Schooling and intelligence –Project Head Start Module 64: Group Differences on the Question of Bias Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores • • • • • • Gender Similarities and Differences Spelling Verbal ability Nonverbal ability Sensation Emotion-detecting ability Math and spatial aptitudes Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences • Ethnic similarities • Ethnic differences The Question of Bias The Question of Bias • Two meanings of bias –Popular sense –Scientific sense • Test-taker’s expectations –Stereotype threat The End Teacher Information • Types of Files – This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint. • Animation – Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible. • Adding slides to this presentation – Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section. • Unit Coding Teacher Information – Just as Myers’ Psychology for AP 2e is color coded to the College Board AP Psychology Course Description (Acorn Book) Units, so are these Powerpoints. The primary background color of each slide indicates the specific textbook unit. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Psychology’s History and Approaches Research Methods Biological Bases of Behavior Sensation and Perception States of Consciousness Learning Cognition Motivation, Emotion, and Stress Developmental Psychology Personality Testing and Individual Differences Abnormal Psychology Treatment of Abnormal Behavior Social Psychology Teacher Information • Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple). – Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title and module title slide, a page can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. – Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation. These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation. For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the email address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation. Teacher Information • Continuity slides – Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes. • By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. • By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation. • To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides. • Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations. Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown, WI 53022 262-253-3400 [email protected] Division title (red print) subdivision title (blue print) • xxx –xxx –xxx Division title (red print in text) subdivision title (blue print in text) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished Definition Slide = add definition here Definition Slides Intelligence = mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. Intelligence Test = a method of assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores. General Intelligence (g) = a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. Factor Analysis = a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify difference dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score. Savant Syndrome = a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. Grit = the in psychology, grit is passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals. Emotional Intelligence = the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. Mental Age = a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8. Stanford-Binet = the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ=ma/ca X 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100, with scores assigned to relative performance above or below average. Achievement Tests = tests designed to assess what a person has learned. Aptitude Tests = tests designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) = the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests. Standardization = defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. Normal Curve = a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes. Reliability = the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test or on retesting. Validity = the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to. Content Validity = the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest. Predictive Validity = the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior (also called criterion-related validity). Cohort = a group of people from a given time period. Crystallized Intelligence = our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age. Fluid Intelligence = our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. Intellectual Disability = a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life. • Formerly referred to as mental retardation Down Syndrome = a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. Hereditability = the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The hereditability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied. Stereotype Threat = a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.