Myers’ Psychology for
®
AP ,
2e
David G. Myers
PowerPoint Presentation Slides
by Kent Korek
Germantown High School
Worth Publishers, © 2014
AP® is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board ®, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
Unit 11:
Testing and Individual
Differences
Unit 11 - Overview
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Introduction to Intelligence
Assessing Intelligence
The Dynamics of Intelligence
Studying Genetic and Environmental
Influences on Intelligence
• Group Differences and the Question of Bias
Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
Module 60:
Introduction to Intelligence
Introduction
• Intelligence
• Intelligence test
Is Intelligence One General
Ability or Several Specific
Abilities?
Is Intelligence One General
Ability or Several Specific
Abilities?
• Spearman’s General intelligence (g)
–Factor analysis
–Comparison to athleticism
• Thurstone’s counter argument
g
Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities?
Theories of Multiples Intelligences:
Garner’s Eight Intelligences
• Savant syndrome
• Gardner’s Eight Intelligences
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Linguistic
Logical-mathematical
Musical
Spatial
Bodily-kinesthetic
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal
Naturalist
Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities?
Theories of Multiples Intelligences:
Garner’s Eight Intelligences
• Grit
Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities?
Theories of Multiples Intelligences:
Sternberg’s Three Intelligences
• Sternberg’s Three Intelligences
–Analytical (academic problemsolving intelligence
–Creating intelligence
–Practical intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
• Emotional intelligence
–Perceive emotions
–Understand emotions
–Manage emotions
–Use emotions for adaptive or creative
thinking
Is Intelligence Neurologically
Measurable?
Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable?
Brain Size and Complexity
• Brain size studies
• Brain complexity
studies
–Neural plasticity
–Gray matter
versus
white matter
Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable?
Brain Function
• Perceptual speed
• Neurological speed
Module 61:
Assessing Intelligence
Origins of Intelligence Testing
Origins of Intelligence Testing
• Francis Galton’s intelligence testing
–Reaction time
–Sensory acuity
–Muscular power
–Body proportions
• Hereditary Genius
Origins of Intelligence Testing
Alfred Binet: Predicting School
Achievement
• Alfred Binet
–Identifying French
school children in
need of assistance
–Mental age
–Chronological age
Origins of Intelligence Testing
Lewis Terman: The Innate IQ
• Stanford-Binet Test
–Lewis Terman
–New age norms
–Adding superior end
Origins of Intelligence Testing
Lewis Terman: The Innate IQ
• Intelligence quotient (IQ)
• IQ = (mental age/chronological age) X 100
• IQ of 100 is considered average
• World War I testing
Modern Tests of Mental
Abilities
Modern Tests of Mental
Abilities
• Achievement tests
• Aptitude tests
Modern Tests of Mental
Abilities
• Achievement tests
• Aptitude tests
Modern Tests of Mental
Abilities
• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
(WAIS)
–Wechsler Intelligence
Scale for Children
(WISC)
Principles of Test
Construction
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Standardization
–Normal curve (bell curve)
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Normal curve
(bell curve)
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Normal curve
(bell curve)
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Normal curve
(bell curve)
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Normal curve
(bell curve)
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Normal curve
(bell curve)
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Normal curve
(bell curve)
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Normal curve
(bell curve)
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Flynn effect
Principles of Test Construction
Standardization
• Flynn effect
Principles of Test Construction
Reliability
• Reliability
–Scores correlate
–Test-retest
reliability
–Split-half
reliability
Principles of Test Construction
Validity
• Validity
–Content validity
• Criterion
–Predictive
validity
Module 62:
The Dynamics of Intelligence
Stability or Change?
Stability or Change?
Aging and Intelligence
• Cross-Sectional Evidence
• Longitudinal Evidence
– Cohort
Stability or Change?
Aging and Intelligence
• It all depends
–Crystallized intelligence
–Fluid intelligence
Stability or Change?
Stability Over the Life Span
Extremes of Intelligence
Extremes of Intelligence
The Low Extreme
• Intellectual disability
–Mental retardation
–Down syndrome
• 21st chromosome
–Mainstreamed
Extremes of Intelligence
The High Extreme
• Terman’s study of gifted
• Self-fulfilling prophecy
• Appropriate developmental
placement
Module 63:
Studying Genetic and
Environmental Influences on
Intelligence
Twin and Adoption Studies
Twin and Adoption Studies
• Identical twin studies
–Polygenetic
–Heritability
• Adoptive children
studies
Heritability
Heritability
Heritability
Heritability
Heritability
Heritability
Environmental Influences
Environmental Influences
• Early environmental influences
–Tutored human enrichment
–Targeted training
• Schooling and
intelligence
–Project Head
Start
Module 64:
Group Differences on the
Question of Bias
Group Differences in
Intelligence Test Scores
Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores
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Gender Similarities and
Differences
Spelling
Verbal ability
Nonverbal ability
Sensation
Emotion-detecting ability
Math and spatial aptitudes
Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores
Racial and Ethnic Similarities
and Differences
• Ethnic similarities
• Ethnic differences
The Question of Bias
The Question of Bias
• Two meanings of bias
–Popular sense
–Scientific sense
• Test-taker’s
expectations
–Stereotype threat
The End
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Psychology’s History and Approaches
Research Methods
Biological Bases of Behavior
Sensation and Perception
States of Consciousness
Learning
Cognition
Motivation, Emotion, and Stress
Developmental Psychology
Personality
Testing and Individual Differences
Abnormal Psychology
Treatment of Abnormal Behavior
Social Psychology
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Kent Korek
Germantown High School
Germantown, WI 53022
262-253-3400
[email protected]
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Definition Slide
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Definition
Slides
Intelligence
= mental quality consisting of the ability to
learn from experience, solve problems,
and use knowledge to adapt to new
situations.
Intelligence Test
= a method of assessing an individual's
mental aptitudes and comparing them with
those of others, using numerical scores.
General Intelligence (g)
= a general intelligence factor that,
according to Spearman and others,
underlies specific mental abilities and is
therefore measured by every task on an
intelligence test.
Factor Analysis
= a statistical procedure that identifies
clusters of related items (called factors) on
a test; used to identify difference
dimensions of performance that underlie a
person’s total score.
Savant Syndrome
= a condition in which a person otherwise
limited in mental ability has an exceptional
specific skill, such as in computation or
drawing.
Grit
= the in psychology, grit is passion and
perseverance in the pursuit of long-term
goals.
Emotional Intelligence
= the ability to perceive, understand,
manage, and use emotions.
Mental Age
= a measure of intelligence test performance
devised by Binet; the chronological age
that most typically corresponds to a given
level of performance. Thus, a child who
does as well as the average 8-year-old is
said to have a mental age of 8.
Stanford-Binet
= the widely used American revision (by
Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s
original intelligence test.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
= defined originally as the ratio of mental
age (ma) to chronological age (ca)
multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ=ma/ca X 100).
On contemporary intelligence tests, the
average performance for a given age is
assigned a score of 100, with scores
assigned to relative performance above or
below average.
Achievement Tests
= tests designed to assess what a person
has learned.
Aptitude Tests
= tests designed to predict a person’s future
performance; aptitude is the capacity to
learn.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Scale (WAIS)
= the WAIS is the most widely used
intelligence test; contains verbal and
performance (nonverbal) subtests.
Standardization
= defining uniform testing procedures and
meaningful scores by comparison with the
performance of a pretested group.
Normal Curve
= a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that
describes the distribution of many physical
and psychological attributes. Most scores
fall near the average, and fewer and fewer
scores lie near the extremes.
Reliability
= the extent to which a test yields consistent
results, as assessed by the consistency of
scores on two halves of the test, on
alternate forms of the test or on retesting.
Validity
= the extent to which a test measures or
predicts what it is suppose to.
Content Validity
= the extent to which a test samples the
behavior that is of interest.
Predictive Validity
= the success with which a test predicts the
behavior it is designed to predict; it is
assessed by computing the correlation
between test scores and the criterion
behavior (also called criterion-related
validity).
Cohort
= a group of people from a given time
period.
Crystallized Intelligence
= our accumulated knowledge and verbal
skills; tends to increase with age.
Fluid Intelligence
= our ability to reason speedily and
abstractly; tends to decrease during late
adulthood.
Intellectual Disability
= a condition of limited mental ability,
indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or
below and difficulty in adapting to the
demands of life.
• Formerly referred to as mental retardation
Down Syndrome
= a condition of mild to severe intellectual
disability and associated physical
disorders caused by an extra copy of
chromosome 21.
Hereditability
= the proportion of variation among
individuals that we can attribute to genes.
The hereditability of a trait may vary,
depending on the range of populations
and environments studied.
Stereotype Threat
= a self-confirming concern that one will be
evaluated based on a negative stereotype.