Regional Studies Association Research Network
Governing Metropolitan Regions Within a Localist Agenda
HOUSING POLICIES AND
GOVERNANCE OF THE
METROPOLITAN REGION:
LONDON AND PARIS
Lydie LAUNAY
Docteur en sociologie
UMR CNRS LAVUE/Mosaïques
Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense
21 septembre 2012, University of Westminster, London
HOUSING POLICIES AND GOVERNANCE OF THE
METROPOLITAN REGION:
LONDON AND PARIS
Paris/London comparison of housing local policies
contributions:
-Issues
of affordability and segregation
-Different
political contexts at the national and local
levels : no existing metropolitan governance of the Ilede-France
-Similarities:
notions and policy transfers
1. PROMOTING SOCIAL MIX TO SUPPORT
ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIAL COHESION OF
THE REGIONS
“The danger is social polarisation: a two-track city of increasing
wealth and entrenched social exclusion. Housing has a key role to
play, in supporting economic growth, in achieving better social
inclusion, and in meeting the different needs of London’s diverse
communities”. (Mayor of London, 2003, London Housing Strategy,
p. 3)
« Paris should not become the city for « the richest and the most
subsidised » (…) with finally, the gradual disappearance of middle
classes, comparing to what is happening in capitals like London. To
be balanced and functional, Paris should also permit middle classes,
whose also participate to the dynamism of the city, to stay » (Mairie
de Paris, Programme local de l’habitat, 2003, p. 10).
1. PROMOTING SOCIAL MIX TO SUPPORT
ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIAL COHESION OF
THE REGIONS
“The danger is social polarisation: a two-track city of increasing
wealth and entrenched social exclusion. Housing has a key role to
play, in supporting economic growth, in achieving better social
inclusion, and in meeting the different needs of London’s diverse
communities”. (Mayor of London, 2003, London Housing Strategy,
p. 3)
« Paris should not become the city for « the richest and the most
subsidised » (…) with finally, the gradual disappearance of middle
classes, comparing to what is happening in capitals like London. To
be balanced and functional, Paris should also permit middle classes,
whose also participate to the dynamism of the city, to stay » (Mairie
de Paris, Programme local de l’habitat, 2003, p. 10).
2. TWO TYPES OF LOCAL GOVERNING SYSTEM:
SIMILARITIES AND DIVERGENCES OF THE
HOUSING STRATEGIES
Similarities:
1- Affordable housing as a tool and objective of
creating « mixed communities »:
-
-
The Plan local de l’Urbanisme (PLU), the Programme local
de l’habitat (PLH): 25% of social housing;
The London Plan and the London Housing Strategy: 50
private /50 affordable
2- Central governments: key actors on planning
2. TWO TYPES OF LOCAL GOVERNING SYSTEM:
SIMILARITIES AND DIVERGENCES OF THE
HOUSING STRATEGIES
Divergences:
1- Reforms of national housing policies:
-
London: Mix tenure
Paris: mainly social rented (not affordable ownership)
2- Local governance:
-
Cooperation between GLA and boroughs
Domination of Mayor of Paris and its housing service on
arrondissements
3. A NEW METROPOLITAN GOVERNANCE FOR
THE ILE-DE-FRANCE?
THE CREATION OF THE AUTORITÉ
ORGANISATRICE DU LOGEMENT (AOL)
-
A project of Paris Metropole
-
Housing strategy for the region:
-
-
Planning document: the Programme Regional de
l’Habitat;
Financial balancing out;
Elected metropolitan Authority: AOL
3. A NEW METROPOLITAN GOVERNANCE FOR
THE ILE-DE-FRANCE?
THE CREATION OF THE AUTORITÉ
ORGANISATRICE DU LOGEMENT (AOL)
Strong Incertainties:
-
Concrete involvements and agreements between local actors
-
Multiplicity of local actors and entanglement of institutional
competences (councils and inter-communalités: main actors)
-
Implications and tensions with central government: Grand
Paris through the Contrats de développement Territorial
3. A NEW METROPOLITAN GOVERNANCE FOR
THE ILE-DE-FRANCE?
THE CREATION OF THE AUTORITÉ
ORGANISATRICE DU LOGEMENT (AOL)
HOUSING POLICIES AND GOVERNANCE OF
THE METROPOLITAN REGION:
LONDON AND PARIS
-
Issue of leadership
-
Effects of political scene, games of power and alliances
at the local and national levels
-
The AOL: 4 conditions to build a leadership (as GLA):
1- « To develop and to tell a coherent vision of the future,
2- To form alliances with actors who have to support and
implement this vision,
3- To drive the process,
4- To legitimate in the eyes of the greatest number » (Christian
Lefebvre, 2012).
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