Law Enforcement Organization
and Administration
Chapter 1
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Modern Day Law
Enforcement can be
traced to the
Metropolitan Police
in London, England,
created in 1829.
Industrial Revolution
• Industrial Revolution in England caused a
great surge of an uneducated and poorly
trained population to migrate to London.
• This surge led to an increase in crime, chaos
and poverty.
• These problems led to a proliferation of
private and special police forces that served
the needs of the diverse interest groups
needing protection.
• British Home
Secretary Sir Robert
Peel lobbied British
Parliament to from a
professional
organized police
force under
government control.
Metropolitan Police Act
• Outlined the first duty manual to prevent
crime and protect order.
• Established a police constabulary modeled
into a para-military organization with a
military style rank structure.
• Metropolitan Police
model was a success
and gradually extended
to all parts of England
and was exported to
America.
• Key component was
local control
Traditional Management 1750 - 1900
• Concept of local control
– Each county or city having control of the local
police or sheriffs department
• Department had Centralized Administration
– Control from top
– Limited decision making at the operational level
Pendleton Act
– Attempt to limit political influence by the creation
of a Civil Service to hire and promote personnel
– Placed federal employees under a merit system in
an attempt to reduce political interference
Scientific Management Model
1900 - Present
• Scientific Management – emphasis on
efficiency, orderliness, and output.
– Division of labor
– Unity of Command and centralization of decision
making
– One-way authority
– Narrow span of control
REFORMERS
O. W. Wilson
• Police Management Principals
– Professional police department
divorced from politics
– Rigorous police personnel
selection and training process
– Use of latest technology
innovations available for law
enforcement
O. W. Wilson
• Opposed civil service because it hampered
police chiefs from selecting most qualified
personnel in selection and promotion
• Organized police around
– Planning
– Activating
– Controlling
William H. Parker
• LAPD Chief 1950 -1966
– Implemented Scientific
Management in the LAPD
– Instituted probationary periods
for new officers
– Developed a method of operation
manual
– Implemented a research and
development division
– LAPD became model for hiring
standards, recruitment, training,
and technology
HUMAN RELATIONS MODEL
1925 TO PRESENT
• Participative Management
– The Police Executive is a team leader
– Manager is first among equals
– People oriented humanistic approach
• Manager defines limits in which decisions can be made
• Manager and the group jointly make decisions with
limits defined by organizational constraints
Behavioral Management
1945 to Present
Systems Management
1960 to Present
Management By Objectives
• Goal Orientated Philosophy and Attitude
• Focus on results, less concerned for method
• Program evaluation and review techniques
– Manner of determining goal achievement
• Planned programmed budgets
– Better identification of expenditures
– Tighter control of unit activities
• Organizational development
– Process of building a sound organizational structure
Community Policing
• Incorporates problem-solving policing, which
attempts to solve specific crime problems in
the community
Proactive Police Management
1980 to Present
Proactive Police Management
•
•
•
•
•
Focus Of The Text
Objective of policing is crime prevention
Strong commitment to community
involvement
Modern Bureaucracy
Full Service Police Department with multispecialist teams
Full use of modern communication
•
•
•
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Modern budgeting and accounting systems
Crisis Management Planning
Consultative Management
Data Driven Department with full use of
technology
• Emphasis on Operational Utility
INNOVATORS
WILLIAM BRATTON
• Instituted crime control
planning program known
as COMPSTAT (computer
statistics) while he was
New York City Police
Commissioner
Lee P. Brown
• Instituted
Neighborhood Oriented
Police model in
Houston, Texas.
• Oriented police officer
from enforcer of
neighborhood beats to
problem solver.
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Law Enforcement Organization and Administration