Law Enforcement Organization and Administration Chapter 1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Modern Day Law Enforcement can be traced to the Metropolitan Police in London, England, created in 1829. Industrial Revolution • Industrial Revolution in England caused a great surge of an uneducated and poorly trained population to migrate to London. • This surge led to an increase in crime, chaos and poverty. • These problems led to a proliferation of private and special police forces that served the needs of the diverse interest groups needing protection. • British Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel lobbied British Parliament to from a professional organized police force under government control. Metropolitan Police Act • Outlined the first duty manual to prevent crime and protect order. • Established a police constabulary modeled into a para-military organization with a military style rank structure. • Metropolitan Police model was a success and gradually extended to all parts of England and was exported to America. • Key component was local control Traditional Management 1750 - 1900 • Concept of local control – Each county or city having control of the local police or sheriffs department • Department had Centralized Administration – Control from top – Limited decision making at the operational level Pendleton Act – Attempt to limit political influence by the creation of a Civil Service to hire and promote personnel – Placed federal employees under a merit system in an attempt to reduce political interference Scientific Management Model 1900 - Present • Scientific Management – emphasis on efficiency, orderliness, and output. – Division of labor – Unity of Command and centralization of decision making – One-way authority – Narrow span of control REFORMERS O. W. Wilson • Police Management Principals – Professional police department divorced from politics – Rigorous police personnel selection and training process – Use of latest technology innovations available for law enforcement O. W. Wilson • Opposed civil service because it hampered police chiefs from selecting most qualified personnel in selection and promotion • Organized police around – Planning – Activating – Controlling William H. Parker • LAPD Chief 1950 -1966 – Implemented Scientific Management in the LAPD – Instituted probationary periods for new officers – Developed a method of operation manual – Implemented a research and development division – LAPD became model for hiring standards, recruitment, training, and technology HUMAN RELATIONS MODEL 1925 TO PRESENT • Participative Management – The Police Executive is a team leader – Manager is first among equals – People oriented humanistic approach • Manager defines limits in which decisions can be made • Manager and the group jointly make decisions with limits defined by organizational constraints Behavioral Management 1945 to Present Systems Management 1960 to Present Management By Objectives • Goal Orientated Philosophy and Attitude • Focus on results, less concerned for method • Program evaluation and review techniques – Manner of determining goal achievement • Planned programmed budgets – Better identification of expenditures – Tighter control of unit activities • Organizational development – Process of building a sound organizational structure Community Policing • Incorporates problem-solving policing, which attempts to solve specific crime problems in the community Proactive Police Management 1980 to Present Proactive Police Management • • • • • Focus Of The Text Objective of policing is crime prevention Strong commitment to community involvement Modern Bureaucracy Full Service Police Department with multispecialist teams Full use of modern communication • • • • Modern budgeting and accounting systems Crisis Management Planning Consultative Management Data Driven Department with full use of technology • Emphasis on Operational Utility INNOVATORS WILLIAM BRATTON • Instituted crime control planning program known as COMPSTAT (computer statistics) while he was New York City Police Commissioner Lee P. Brown • Instituted Neighborhood Oriented Police model in Houston, Texas. • Oriented police officer from enforcer of neighborhood beats to problem solver.