Behavior Assessment System for
Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)
Cecil R. Reynolds, Ph.D.
Distinguished Research Scientist and Professor
Texas A & M University
R.W. Kamphaus, Ph.D.
Distinguished Research Professor and Department Head
University of Georgia
Acknowledgements and Disclosure
• Cecil R. Reynolds, BASC 2 senior author, Rob Altmann and Mark
Daniel of AGS
• Co-researchers Andy Horne, Carl Huberty, and Michele Lease of
UGA, Jean Baker of Michigan State, Christine DiStefano of Louisiana
State University, Linda Mayes of Yale Child Study Center, Patrick
Schniederjan of Grand Junction CO, David Pineda of Universidad de
Antioquia
• Student research team members Anne Winsor, Ellen Rowe, Jennifer
Thorpe, Cheryl Hendry, Amanda Dix, Erin Dowdy, Anna Kroncke,
Sangwon Kim, Chris Stokes, Meghan VanDeventer
• Alumni research team members Drs. Nancy Lett, Shayne Abelkop,
Martha Petoskey and Ann Heather Cody
• Some BASC Research was supported in part by grant number
R306F60158 from the At-Risk Institute of the Office of Educational
Research and Improvement of the United States Department of
Education, to R. W. Kamphaus, J. A. Baker, & A. M. Horne.
• R. Kamphaus is co-author of the BASC 2 with a significant financial
interest in the product
Categorical Diagnosis
• Presence of marker symptoms or deviant signs defines the syndrome
(e.g. schizotypal affect) as espoused originally by Kreapelin
• Syndromes are mutually exclusive (e.g. mental retardation, autism,
versus pervasive developmental disorder) but potentially comorbid
(e.g. ADHD and Tourettes)
• Diagnosis is dichotomous; that is one either has the disorder or not and
subsyndromal psychopathology is not considered (Cantwell, D. P. (1996).
Classification of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology
and Psychiatry, 37, 3-12.)
• Severity of symptoms in categorical systems is not measured. In other
words criteria do not exist to define “severe” ADHD.
• Differential diagnosis of syndromes (e.g. ADHD, CD, and ODD)
remains controversial
Dimensional Diagnosis
• Measures “latent traits” or “latent constructs” made up of
multiple indicators (i.e. items) or behaviors (Kamphaus, 2001;
Kamphaus & Frick, 2002)
• Traits are distributed dimensionally in the population thus
making it possible to assess “severity” or amount of the latent
trait possessed. Positive or adaptive traits are of relatively greater
interest
• Norm referencing to a population is used to define deviance.
“Subsyndromal” as well as “hypersyndromal” cases can be
identified for both clinical and research purposes (Scahill et al.,
1999)
• Measures are well suited for assessing response to treatment or
intervention because of known reliability and validity (e.g.
effectiveness of medications)
Phenomenology of TRS-C Type 3
Disruptive Behavior Problems (8%) (Kamphaus, R. W.,
Huberty, C. J., Distefano, C., & Petoskey, M. D. (1997). A typology of teacher rated child behavior for a
national U. S. sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 253-263.)
80
70
60
T-Score
50
Study Skills
Social Skills
Leadership
Adaptability
Withdrawal
Atypicality
Learning
Attention
Somatization
Depression
Anxiety
Conduct
Hyperactivity
30
Aggression
40
Multi-Dimensional-Multi-Method
• SDH: Structured Developmental History (Some changes)
• SOS: Student Observation System (No Changes, BASC POP)
• TRS: Teacher Rating Scales (Some changes)
• PRS: Parent Rating Scales (Some changes)
• SRP: Self-Report of Personality (Some changes)
• SRP-Col: Self-Report of Personality College (New)
• SRP-I: Self-Report of Personality Interview (New; ages 6-7,
Available in 2005)
• CPRF: Child-Parent Relationship Form (New)
Additional Components
• Spanish-Language SRP, SDH, and PRS forms
• BASC Spanish version for Spain and Latin
America now available
• Spanish and English language administration CDs
• Parent Feedback Forms
• BASC Portable Observation Program
• www.psychologicalforum.com
Changes - The Bottom Line
• BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 80s
and 90s for the TRS
• BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 70s
and 80s for the PRS
• BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 60s
and 70s for the SRP
BASC-2 Item Totals
BASC–2
BASC
P
100
109
C
139
148
A
139
138
P
134
131
C
160
138
A
150
126
C
139
152
A
176
186
Col
185
TRS
PRS
SRP
BASC–2 TRS and PRS Scales
• Activities of Daily
Living (PRS only)
• Adaptability (new to A)
• Aggression
• Anxiety
• Attention Problems
• Atypicality
• Conduct Problems
(C, A)
• Depression
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Functional Communication
Hyperactivity
Leadership (C, A)
Learning Problems
(TRS–C, A)
Social Skills
Somatization
Study Skills (TRS–C, A)
Withdrawal
BASC–2 TRS and PRS Scales
• Activities of Daily Living (PRS only) (MR PRS = 34-36;
Motor PRS 36-38)
– Acts in a safe manner.
– Needs to be reminded to brush teeth.
– Organizes chores or other tasks well.
• Adaptability (new to A) (Bipolar TRS = 36, PRS = 30-36)
– Adjusts well to changes in family plans.
– Recovers quickly after a setback.
• Aggression
– Hits other children.
– Seeks revenge on others.(recognition of concept of relational
aggression)
BASC–2 TRS and PRS Scales
• Anxiety (Somatization still key symptom of anxiety in childhood)
– Is nervous.
– Worries about making mistakes.
• Attention Problems (sub-clinical problems may cause impairment; Scahill, L.,
Schwab-Stone, M., Merikangas, K. R., Leckman, J. F., Zhang, H., & Kasl, S. (1999).
Psychosocial and clinical correlates of ADHD in a community sample of school-age
children. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 38, 976-984.) (ADHD TRS = 60-61,
PRS = 64)
– Listens to directions.
– Pays attention.
• Atypicality (preschool imaginary friends persist into early elementary school with
27% in preschool and 31% at ages 6 and 7, Taylor, M. (2004) Developmental
Psychology, 40) (ASD TRS = 66-71, PRS = 75-76)
– Sees things that are not there.
– Acts strangely.
BASC–2 TRS and PRS Scales
• Conduct Problems
– Lies to get out of trouble.
– Deceives others.
• Depression (clinical sample PRS = 76-80, TRS = 65)
– Is sad.
– Seems lonely.
• Functional Communication (MR TRS = 32-39, PRS = 29-31;
Speech-Lang 41-38; Motor PRS 36-38; Hearing PRS 42-46)
– Is unclear when presenting ideas.
– Responds appropriately when asked a question.
– Is able to describe feelings accurately.
BASC–2 TRS and PRS Scales
• Hyperactivity (ADHD TRS = 61, PRS = 64-66; evidence of cross-cultural
validity in Pineda, D.A., Aguirre, D.C., Garcia, M.A., Lopera, F.J., Palacio, L.G., &
Kamphaus, R.W. (in press). Validation of Two Rating Scales for ADHD Diagnosis in
Colombian Children. Pediatric Neurology.)
– Cannot wait to take turn.
– Acts out of control.
• Leadership (C, A) (group collaboration assessed)
– Gives good suggestions for solving problems.
– Is good at getting people to work together.
• Learning Problems (TRS–C, A) (LD TRS = 61-62)
– Had reading problems.
– Has trouble keeping up in class.
BASC–2 TRS and PRS Scales
• Social Skills
– Compliments others.
– Offers help to other children.
• Somatization
– Has stomach problems.
– Complains of being sick when nothing is wrong.
• Study Skills (TRS–C, A)
– Reads assigned chapters.
– Tries to do well in school.
• Withdrawal (ASD PRS = 72-73, TRS = 66-71)
– Avoids other children.
– Quickly joins group activities.
BASC–2 TRS and PRS
Composite Scales
• Externalizing Problems
– Hyperactivity
– Aggression
– Conduct Problems (C/A only)
• Internalizing Problems
– Anxiety
– Depression
– Somatization
BASC–2 TRS and PRS
Composite Scales
• Adaptive Skills
– Adaptability
– Social Skills
– Functional Communication
– Leadership (C and A only)
– Study Skills (TRS-C/A only)
– Activities of Daily Living (PRS only)
• School Problems (TRS–C, A)
– Attention Problems
– Learning Problems
BASC–2 TRS and PRS
Composite Scales
• Behavioral Symptoms Index (BSI)
– Hyperactivity
– Aggression
– Depression
– Attention Problems
– Atypicality
– Withdrawal
BASC–2 TRS and PRS
Validity Indexes
• F Index
• Consistency Index
• Number of Omitted/Unscoreable Items
• Patterned Responses
BASC-2 Software
• ASSIST
• Unlimited use
–
–
–
–
–
–
Basic scoring and reporting
Fast, efficient item entry with optional verification
Multi-rater report comparisons
Windows 98 SE +and MAC OSX compatible
Scannable version available for Windows
Network compatible
BASC-2 Software
• ASSIST Plus
– Unlimited use
– Advanced scoring and reporting
• DSM-IV diagnostic criteria
• Content scales
• Extended narrative
– Multi-rater report comparisons
– Fast, efficient item entry with optional verification
– Windows 98 SE + and MAC OSX compatible
– Scannable version available for Windows
– Network compatible
Terry – Mild mental retardation, ADHD
combined type, clinical depression
• 10 year old third grader diagnosed with MR in
grade 1
• Full Scale IQ = 66, Vineland Adaptive Behavior
Composite = 61
• Diagnosed as ADHD in first grade as well
• Ritalin has not worked as well for the past two
months as she has become more emotional
• Her mother reports “I think she needs more nerve
medicine”
Terry’s depression and school stress
•
•
•
•
Recent trouble getting to sleep and staying asleep
Recent crying spell at school in the lunch room
Refusing to go to school and is bullied by others
She reports, “Most of them pick on me and laugh about it.” When
asked why teased she said, ”I’m too slow, and I can’t do my work.”
• She said that the same boy pushes her onto the same girl’s desk every
day. The girl gets angry at her and Terry feels bad the remainder of the
day.
• Terry says that the teasing makes her so angry that she cries
• Her mother cannot manage her at home. She is disobedient and refused
to help around the house. Her mother is very stressed and says, “I can’t
take it any more.”
Terry - Maternal Ratings
Hyperactivity
Aggression
Conduct Problems
Anxiety
Depression
Somatization
Atypicality
Withdrawal
Attention Problems
Social Skills
Leadership
Adaptability
73
71
79
61
88
56
93
73
68
17
21
22
Terry - Teacher Ratings
Hyperactivity
75
Aggression
72
Conduct Problems
51
Anxiety
95
Depression
100
Somatization
98
Atypicality
87
Learning Problems
74
Withdrawal
77
Attention Problems
73
Adabtability
25
Social Skills
42
Leadership
44
Study Skills
36
Under-diagnosis of ADHD in
Children with MR
• Pearson and Annan (1994) concluded,“Findings suggest
that chronological age should be taken into consideration
when behavior ratings are used to assess cognitively
delayed children for ADHD. However, the results do not
support guidelines stating that mental age must be used to
determine which norms should be applied when such
children are evaluated clinically.” (p. 395)
• The use of mental age as a consideration in making the
ADHD diagnosis for children with mental retardation may
result in the denial of somatic and behavioral treatments
that are known to have demonstrated efficacy (Reynolds &
Kamphaus, 2002).
BASC–2 SRP Changes
• Mixed item format (T/F and MC)
• Age range expansion
– College-form edition
– Interview format for ages 6–7 (available 2005)
• New scales
Response Format Change: Sample
Relations with Parents Item Loadings
Item
TF
Item
I like to be close to my parents.
.46
MC
Item
.56
My mother and father like my friends.
.31
.71
My parents are proud of me.
.37
.83
Response Format Change: Sample
Depression Item Loadings
Item
TF
Item
I feel like my life is getting worse and
worse.
.56
MC
Item
.62
I think that nothing about me is right.
.44
.72
I feel like I just don’t care anymore.
.65
.27
Response Format Change: Sample
Anxiety Item Loadings
Item
TF
Item
I worry about something bad
happening to me.
.61
MC
Item
.38
I worry when I go to bed at night.
.50
.79
I worry most of the day.
.70
.68
BASC–2 SRP Scales
• Locus of Control
• Alcohol Abuse (COL)
• Relations with Parents
• Anxiety
(Bipolar SRP-A = 43)
• Attention Problems (ADHD SRP-C = • School Maladjustment
58, SRP-A = 57) (Bipolar SRP-A = 61)
(COL)
• Attitude to School (C, A)
• Self-Esteem (Depression SRP-A
= 43)
• Attitude to Teachers (C, A)
• Self-Reliance (Bipolar SRP-A =
• Atypicality
43)
• Depression (Depression SRP-A = 55)
• Sensation Seeking (A)
• Hyperactivity (ADHD SRP-C = 57, SRP- • Sense of Inadequacy
A = 56) (Bipolar SRP-A = 59)
• Social Stress (ASD SRP-C = 55,
SRP-A = 57)
• Interpersonal Relations (ASD SRPC = 45, SRP-A = 41) (Bipolar SRP=-A = 44)
• Somatization (A) (Depression
SRP-A = 56)
BASC–2 SRP Composite Scales
• School Problems (Formerly School Maladjustment;
C, A)
– Attitude to School (C, A)
– Attitude to Teachers (C, A)
– Sensation Seeking (A)
BASC–2 SRP Composite Scales
• Internalizing Problems (Formerly Clinical Maladjustment; cluster
found in US population by Kamphaus, DiStefano, & Lease, 2003, A Self-Report
Typology of Behavioral Adjustment for Young Children. Psychological Assessment,
15, 17-28)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Atypicality
Locus of Control
Social Stress
Anxiety
Depression
Sense of Inadequacy
Somatization (A, COL)
BASC–2 SRP Composite Scales
• Inattention/Hyperactivity Composite
– Attention Problems
– Hyperactivity
• Personal Adjustment
– Relations with Parents
– Interpersonal Relations
– Self-Esteem
– Self-Reliance
BASC–2 SRP Composite Scales
• Emotional Symptoms Index (ESI)
– Social Stress
– Anxiety
– Depression
– Sense of Inadequacy
– Self-Esteem
– Self-Reliance (replaces Interpersonal Relations)
BASC–2 SRP Validity Indexes
• F Index
• L Index (new to C level)
• V Index
• Consistency Index (new)
• Number of Omitted/Unscoreable Items
• Patterned Responding
Maleco – False Positive
• Third grade boy referred for suspected ADHD
with an abrupt onset of symptoms of inattention,
hyperactivity and conduct problems at the
beginning of second grade. He has been cited for
hitting others, setting another child’s hair ablaze,
running away from school, teacher defiance,
cursing, and anger outbursts. He is about to be
suspended from school unless his behavior
improves significantly. His teachers hope that
medication will improve his behavior.
Maleco - History
• He is an only child who moved across country to a new school at the
beginning of second grade. Up until this time he was raised by his
maternal grandparents. His development was normal until the
beginning of second grade and he is considered to be an intelligent
child by all. He was described by his first grade teacher as exceedingly
well behaved, high achieving, obedient, and curious. He has been
acting out at home with anger outbursts, crying spells, setting a garage
on fire, and tearing up shrubs in his mother’s yard. His mother does not
think that he has any serious problems such as ADHD and is concerned
about placing him on stimulant medication. He is currently receiving
play therapy to help him control his behavior and emotions better.
Maleco – Cognitive Results
• Composite intelligence test score of 118
• Academic achievement test scores ranging
from a low of 116 in mathematics
computation to a high of 128 in reading
comprehension
• Grades have been all As and Bs but are
beginning to suffer due to refusal to
complete work at school
Maleco – Mother’s Ratings
Hyperactivity
Aggression
Conduct Problems
Anxiety
Depression
Somatization
Atypicality
Withdrawal
Attention Problems
Social Skills
Leadership
Adaptability
56
51
58
61
49
56
44
50
60
55
49
45
Maleco - Teacher Ratings
Hyperactivity
Aggression
Conduct
Problems
Anxiety
Depression
Somatization
Atypicality
Learning
Problems
Withdrawal
71
78
70
51
49
55
60
44
45
Maleco – Self Report
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scale
T-Score
Anxiety
66
Depression
75
Sense of Inadequacy 78
Social Stress
73
Atypicality
71
Locus of Control
59
Attitude to School
68
Attitude to Teachers 75
Relations with Parents 51
Interpersonal Relations 35
Self-Esteem
46
Self-Reliance
36
Maleco – Critical Items
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Life is getting worse and worse
Sometimes voice tell me to do bad things
No one understands me
I cannot stop myself from doing bad things
I cannot control my thoughts
Nobody ever listens to me
Other kids hate to be with me
I am always in trouble at home
Sometimes I want to hurt myself
I give up easily
Nothing goes my way
Assessment for
Diagnosis and Classification
(Kamphaus, R. W., & Frick, P. J. (2002). Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent
Personality and Behavior. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.)
• Assess core constructs/symptoms (DSM IV) and
severity (rating scales)
• Assess age of onset (history), developmental
course (history), and multiple contexts (history,
observations, and rating scales)
• Rule out alternative causes (history and rating
scales)
• Rule in comorbidities (history, DSM IV, IDEA,
and rating scales)
History SDH
• Age and rapidity of symptom onset (e.g. ADHD, Pandas - pediatric
autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection caused
OCD; ocfoundation.org; differentiates ADHD from low birth weight, Johnson-Cramer,
N.L., 1999. Assessment of school-aged children with comorbidity of attention deficit
disorder and low birth weight classifications, Dissertation Abstracts Internationl,
Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 59, 7A, 2344)
• Developmental course (e.g. Episodic reading problems)
• Assessment of etiology (e.g. Depression associated with Interferon therapy
for cancer)
• Solution focused intervention design or asking “when, or
under what conditions does she or he behave well” (e.g. Prozac
related relapse or Cheryl’s head banging)
• Assessment of risk and resilience factors (e.g. family resemblance
for depression, peer substance use or abuse, recreational strengths such as music or
sports)
• Available in Spanish
Principles for Interpretation
• All raters possess evidence of validity
– Parent/Teacher predictive validity (Verhulst, F. C., Koot, H. M., & Van
der Ende, J. (1994). Differential predictive value of parents’ and teachers’ reports of children’s
problem behaviors: a longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 531-546.)
– Teachers accurately assess effects of medication
(Conners,1956)
– SRP possesses concurrent validity with peer ratings
(Kamphaus, R. W., DiStefano, C. A., & Lease, A. M. (2003). A Self-Report
Typology of Behavioral Adjustment for Young Children. Psychological
Assessment, 15, 17-28)
• Simple interpretation schemes work as well as
complex schemes (Piacentini, 1991)
SRP-C Type 9, Internalizing yoked ratings
(7.4% of 8-11 year olds, 47%f; low self-confidence, uncooperative, too sensitive, anxious/shy,
unhappy/sad, disruptive, loses things, seems odd, unlikeable, unpopular, fewer friends)
80
SRP-C
PRS-C
TRS-C
70
60
50
40
30
Anx
Rel Par
Att
Schl
Att
Teach
Atyp
Dep
Inter
S of I
Loc
Con
Se Est Se Rel
Soc
Stre
Agg
Att
Hyper
Interpretation Step 1: Validity
Congruence of findings
Lie index
F index
Omitted items
Patterned responding
Consistency index
Reading proficiency
Interpretation Step 2: Classification
Adaptive Scales
Clinical Scales
T-score Range
Very High
Clinically
Significant
70 and above
High
At-Risk
60 – 69
Average
Average
41 – 59
At-Risk
Low
31 – 40
Clinically
Significant
Very Low
30 and Below
Interpretation Step 3. Ratings
• Identify all scales with T scores in the at-risk
range
• Confirm or disconfirm the importance of each
with available evidence
• Collect additional evidence as needed
• Draw conclusions regarding classification,
diagnosis, and intervention
Impairment and Diagnosis –
Guidelines
• 70+ Functional impairment in multiple
settings, Often diagnosable condition
• 60-69 Functional impairment in one or more
settings, sometimes diagnosable condition
• 45-59 No functional impairment or
condition
• <45 Notable lack of symptomatology
Report Writing SRP
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ATTITUDE TO SCHOOL Indicates
negative attitudes toward school; child
may display or report:
Bad feelings about school
Boredom in school
ATTITUDE TO TEACHERS Indicates
negative attitudes toward teachers;
child may report:
Not being cared about
Being treated unfairly
SENSATION SEEKING
(ages 12 – 21 only) Indicates a
relatively high level of sensation
seeking; child may report:
Getting into fights
Taking risks
ATYPICALITY Indicates an aboveaverage number of unusual behaviors or
thought; child may report:
Lacking thought control
Hearing strange voices
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LOCUS OF CONTROL Indicates a
below-average sense of control; child
may report:
Being controlled by parents
Bad things happening
SOCIAL STRESS Indicates a relatively
high number of stressful feelings in
social situations; child may report:
Being lonely
Feeling out of place
ANXIETY Indicates a relatively high
number of anxious feelings; child may
report:
Being nervous
Worrying
DEPRESSION Indicates a relatively
high number of depressed feelings;
child may report:
Not caring about things
Not feeling understood
Report Writing SRP (cont’d)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SENSE OF INADEQUACY Indicates a
relatively high number of feeling of
inadequacy; child may display or
report:
Quitting easily
Sense of failure
SOMATIZATION (ages 12 – 21
only)Indicates a relatively high number
of health worries or complains; child
may excessively complain of:
Headaches
Stomachaches
ATTENTION PROBLEMS Indicates
problematic levels of paying attention;
child may report:
Having a short attention span
Forgetting things
HYPERACTIVITY Indicates
problematic levels of activity: child
may report:
Having trouble sitting still
Being too noisy
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RELATIONS WITH PARENTS
Indicates problematic relationship with
parents; child may display or report:
Lack of trust
Not being close with parents
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
Indicates relatively poor interpersonal
relations; child may display or report:
Not being liked
Not being respected
SELF-ESTEEM Indicates belowaverage levels of self-esteem; child may
display or report:
Concerns about looks
Wanting to be someone else
SELF-RELIANCE Indicates belowaverage levels of self-reliance; child
may display or report:
Lack of dependability
Difficulty making decisions
TRS/PRS Report Writing
•


•


•
•


HYPERACTIVITY Indicates
problematic levels of activity; child
may display or engage in:
Bothering other children
Rushing through things
AGGRESSION Indicates problematic
levels of aggression; child may display
or engage in:
Threats
Hitting others
CONDUCT PROBLEMS
(ages 6 – 21 only)Indicates a
problematic levels of conduct
problems; child may engage in:
Lies
Breaks rules
•
•
•
•


•


•


ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING
Indicates below average daily living
skills that may include:
Needs help dressing
Acts safely
ANXIETY Indicates problematic levels
of anxiety; child may display:
Nervousness
Worry
DEPRESSION Indicates problematic
levels of depression; child may display
or complain of:
Sadness
Being overwhelmed
SOMATIZATION Indicates
problematic levels of somatization;
child may display or complain of:
Headaches
General pain
TRS/PRS Report Writing (cont’d)
•


•


•


•


ATTENTION PROBLEMS Indicates
problematic levels of paying attention;
child may display:
Trouble listening
Being distracted
LEARNING PROBLEMS (ages 6 – 21
only) Indicates problems with learning
in areas that may include:
Reading/math
Organization skills
ATYPICALITY Indicates problematic
levels of unusual behavior or thoughts;
child may display or engage in:
Strange behavior
Babbling
WITHDRAWAL Indicates problematic
levels of withdrawal; child may display
or report:
Trouble making friends
Avoidance of others
•


•


•


•


•


ADAPTABILITY Indicates belowaverage adaptability; that may include:
Difficulty switching tasks
Difficulty adjusting to change
SOCIAL SKILLS Indicates belowaverage social skills that may include:
Does not complement others
Unwillingness to volunteer
LEADERSHIP Indicates below-average
leadership that may include:
Indecisiveness
Makes poor suggestions
STUDY SKILLS (ages 6 – 21 only)
Indicates below-average study skills
that may include:
Incomplete homework
Poor study habits
FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION
Indicates below-average
communication skills that may include:
Unclear communication
Cannot describe own feelings
Assessment for Intervention
• Define target behaviors via history, interviews,
rating scales, and observations
• Establish baseline behavioral adjustment using
rating scales and/or observations
• Assess intervention/treatment effectiveness with
minimum of three (3) rating scales and/or
observations
• Adjust intervention/treatment based on findings
Student Observation System
(SOS)
• Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are observed
• Multiple methods are used including, A) clinician rating,
B) time sampling, and C) qualitative recording of
classroom functional contingencies
• A generous time interval is allocated for recording the
results of each time sampling interval (27 seconds)
• Operational definitions of behaviors and time sampling
categories are included in the BASC manual
• Inter-rater reliabilities for the time sampling portion are
high which lends confidence that independent observers
are likely to observe the same trends in child’s classroom
behavior (Lett, N. J., & Kamphaus, R. W. (1997). Differential validity of the BASC
Student Observation System and the BASC Teacher Rating Scale. Canadian Journal of
School Psychology, 13, 1-14)
SOS
• Part A - Treatment/IEP Planning; frequency, range,
and disruptiveness of classroom behavior
• Part B - Treatment/Program evaluation of
effectiveness (track change with ADHD Monitor
software)
• Part C - Functional analysis of antecedents,
behavior, and consequences (e.g. teacher position)
SOS Scales
• Adaptive Scales
•
•
•
•
Response to teacher
Work on school subjects
Peer interaction
Transition movement
• Behavior Problem
Scales
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inappropriate movement
Inattention
Inappropriate vocalization
Somatization
Repetitive motor
movements
Aggression
Self-injurious behavior
Inappropriate sexual
behavior
Bowel/bladder problems
Using Part B
• There is typically no need to select target behaviors to
observe (Tallent, 1999)
• Schedule the observation period at a time of day and, in a
class, where problems are known to be of teacher or parent
concern so that problem behaviors can be observed. In
addition, the examiner may want to also observe in a class
where problems are not present
• Use an observer who is either already familiar to the
school, or introduced to the teacher ahead of time
• Develop a timing mechanism (BASC POP recommended)
SOS Part B Scoring
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Response to Teacher/Lesson This category describes the student’s
appropriate academic behaviors involving the teacher or class. This category
does not include working on school subjects (see Category 3)
Peer Interaction This category assesses positive or appropriate interactions
with other students
Work on School Subjects This category includes appropriate academic
behaviors that the student engages in alone, without interacting with others
Transition Movement This category is for appropriate and nondisruptive
behaviors of children while moving from one activity or place to another.
Most are out-of-seat behaviors and may be infrequent during a classroom
observation period.
Inappropriate Movement This category is intended for inappropriate motor
behaviors that are unrelated to classroom work
Inattention This category includes inattentive behaviors that are not disruptive
Inappropriate Vocalization This category includes disruptive vocal
behaviors. Only vocal behavior should be checked.
SOS Part B Scoring (cont’d)
•
•
•
•
Somatization This category includes behaviors regardless of inferred reason
(e.g., a student may be sleeping because of medication, boredom, or poor
achievement motivation).
Repetitive Motor Movement This category includes repetitive behaviors
(both disruptive and non-disruptive) that appear to have no external reward.
Generally, the behaviors should be of 15-second duration or longer to be
checked, and may be more likely to be checked on Part A than on Part B
because of their repetitive nature. They may, however, be checked during
either part.
Aggression This category includes harmful behaviors directed at another
student, the teacher, or property. The student must attempt to hurt another or
destroy property for the behavior to be checked in this category. Aggressive
play would not be included here.
Self-Injurious Behavior This category includes severe behaviors that attempt
to injure one’s self. There behaviors should not be confused with selfstimulatory behaviors. This category is intended to capture behaviors of
children with severe disabilities who are being served in special classes in
schools and institutions.
BASC + IDEA
• Impaired relations = Social Stress, Interpersonal
Relations, Social Skills, Relations with Parents,
Withdrawal, Atypicality
• Inability to learn = Learning Problems and any
clinical scale elevations
• Inappropriate behavior = Atypicality, Withdrawal
• Unhappiness/depression = Depression, Sense of
Inadequacy
• Physical symptoms/complaints = Somatization
Optional Content Scales
• Empirically based scales designed to identify
potential problems of particular interest that may
warrant further exploration
• Developed for all levels of TRS/PRS; SRP-A and
SRP-COL levels
• Available only on BASC-2 ASSIST Plus Software
Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales
• Anger Control - The tendency to become irritated
and angry quickly and impulsively, coupled with an
inability to regulate affect and control during such
periods
• Bullying - The tendency to be intrusive, cruel, or
threatening toward others, or to use force in order to
be manipulative or to get want is wanted
Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales
• Developmental Social Disorders - The tendency to
display behaviors characterized by deficits in social
skills, communication, interests, and activities. Such
behaviors may include self-stimulation, withdrawal,
and inappropriate socializations
• Emotional Self-Control - The ability to regulate one’s
affect and emotions in response to environmental
changes
Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales
• Executive Functioning - The ability to control behavior by
planning, anticipating, inhibiting, maintaining goaldirected activity, and reacting appropriately to
environmental feedback in a purposeful, meaningful way
• Negative Emotionality - The tendency to view everyday
interactions or events in an overly negative or aversive
way and to react negatively to any changes in plans or
routines
• Resiliency - The ability to access support systems, both
internal and external, to alleviate stress and overcome
adversity or difficult circumstances
Optional SRP-A/COL
Content Scales
• Anger Control - The tendency to become irritated and
angry quickly and impulsively, coupled with an inability
to regulate affect and control during such periods
• Ego Strength - The expression of a strong sense of one’s
identity and overall emotional competence, including
feelings of self-awareness, self-acceptance, and
perception of one’s social support network
Optional SRP-A/COL
Content Scales
• Mania - The tendency to experience extended periods of
heightened arousal, excessive activity (at times with an
obsessive focus), and rapid idea generation without the
presence of normal fatigue
• Test Anxiety - The tendency to experience irrational
worry and fear of taking routine structured school tests
of aptitude or academic skills regardless of the degree of
preparation or study or confidence in one’s knowledge of
the content to be covered
Morgan – Chronic depression
and anxiety
Morgan is an 8th grade student referred for determination of ADHD and
Learning Disabilities. Previous diagnoses included Major Depression
and Generalized Anxiety Disorder, for which she is on medication.
Morgan’s current medications include Prozac and Respiradol for
depression and Zantac for stomach pain. She is currently engaged in
psychotherapy.
Concentration problems have been particularly evident since grade 7.
Reportedly, Morgan requires absolute quiet to complete assignments
and she has difficulty remaining on task. Morgan’s mother denied
complaints of inattention and concentration problems when Morgan
was in elementary school.
With regard to academic attainment, Morgan has evidenced academic
difficulties since grade 2. In the past 1 1/2 years her marks have
significantly decreased.
Morgan’s mother indicated that Morgan exhibits considerable oppositional
defiant behavior with temper outbursts when denied a request.
Morgan’s mother also noted that she is quite emotional with frequent
crying outbursts.
Morgan’s BASC Results
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scale
Hyperactivity
Aggression
Conduct Problems
Anxiety
Depression
Sense of Inadequacy
Somatization
Social Stress
Atypicality
Locus of Control
Withdrawal
Attention Problems
Adaptability
ADL
FCom
Social Skills
Leadership
Attitude to School
Attitude to Teachers
Sensation Seeking
Relations with Parents
Interpersonal Relations
Self-Esteem
Self-Reliance
Parent Rating
52
57
70
45
100
70
Teacher (English)
55
49
60
63
67
72
77
68
61
79
40
51
55
38
34
70
50
55
49
38
33
Self-Report
48
61
80
65
63
55
73
84
67
71
74
60
30
54
26
32
Development of the BASC–2
• Items selected based on:
–
–
–
–
Standardized item loading in SEM analyses
Item-total correlation
Item bias statistics (5 items removed)
Construct relevance
• Approximately 1/3 new items on TRS/PRS
forms
Item Development Sample
Form
TRS-P
TRS-C
TRS-A
PRS-P
PRS-C
PRS-A
SRP-C
SRP-A
SRP-COL
Items
185
252
248
243
306
284
198
256
270
Sample Size
1,023
2,010
1,536
1,368
2,231
1,886
2,033
3,180
705
BASC–2 Standardization Sample
• General normative sample was be stratified by:
– Sex by race/ethnicity
– Sex by region
– Sex by mother’s education level
TRS General Norm Sample
Form
TRS
Ages
Female
Male
Total
N
%
N
%
N
2–3
200
50
200
50
400
4–5
325
50
325
50
650
6–7
300
50
300
50
600
8–11
600
50
600
50
1,200
12–14
400
50
400
50
800
15–18
500
50
500
50
1,000
PRS General Norm Sample
Form
PRS
Ages
Female
Male
Total
N
%
N
%
N
2–3
250
50
250
50
500
4–5
350
50
350
50
700
6–7
300
50
300
50
600
8–11
600
50
600
50
1,200
12–14
400
50
400
50
800
15–18
500
50
500
50
1,000
SRP General Norm Sample
Female
Form
SRP
Male
Total
Ages
N
%
N
%
N
8–11
750
50
750
50
1,500
12–14
450
50
450
50
900
15–18
500
50
500
50
1,000
Clinical Norm Samples Offered
• Conditions
– All Clinical Conditions (Ages 4-18), Combined,
Female, Male
– Learning Disability (Ages 6-18) , Combined, Female,
Male
– ADHD (Ages 6-18) , Combined, Female, Male
• Age ranges
– 4-5
– 6-11
– 12-18
TRS Reliabilities: Median & Range
Level
P
C
A
Alpha
Test-Retest
.86
(.75–.92)
.88
(.78–.94)
.87
(.80–.95)
.83
(.72–.92)
.88
(.65–.92)
.79
(.66–.91)
PRS Reliabilities: Median & Range
Level
P
C
A
Alpha
Test-Retest
.81
(.70–.88)
.85
(.73–.88)
.85
(.72–.88)
.76
(.66–.88)
.84
(.65–.87)
.82
(.72–.87)
SRP Reliabilities: Median & Range
Level
C
A
Alpha
Test-Retest
.80
(.72–.86)
.80
(.67–.88)
.73
(.64–.82)
.75
(.63–.84)
Effects of Child Sex and Culture
• Parent ratings are invariant in level across 12 countries
with consistent patterns for age and child sex (e.g. China,
Sweden, India, U.S. etc.; Crijnen, Achenbach, & Verhulst,
1999)
• Teacher and Parent ratings for BASC were invariant in
level between Medellin, Colombia and U.S. with
consistent patterns for age and child sex (Kamphaus &
DiStefano, 2001)
• Cluster analyses across metropolitan, rural, and Medellin
samples reveal a similar structure of behavioral adjustment
(DiStefano, Kamphaus, Horne, & Winsor, 2003;
Kamphaus, DiStefano & Lease, 2003; DiStefano &
Kamphaus, 2001; Kamphaus, Huberty, DiStefano, &
Petoskey, 1997).
Effects of Culture
12
10
8
Colombian
White
African-Am
U.S. Hispa
6
4
2
0
PRS
Hyp
TRS
Hyp
PRS
Att
TRS
ATT
PRS
Con
TRS
Con
Effects of Child Sex
14
12
10
8
Girls
Boys
6
4
2
0
PRS
Hyp
TRS PRS Att TRS
Hyp
ATT
PRS
Con
TRS
Con
It’s as Easy as ABC
(i.e., ASEBA, BASC-2,
CRS-R): A Comparison
(2005, National Assoc of School Psychologists, Atlanta)
Rob Altmann, MA
AGS Publishing
Cecil Reynolds, PhD
Texas A&M University
Sample for PRS Studies
PRS-P
PRS-C
PRS-A
CBCL
CBCL
CPRS-R
CBCL
CPRS-R
Sex
F, M
29, 24
31,34
30, 30
35, 32
29, 26
Race
AA, H,
O, W
3, 7,
1, 42
13, 12,
2, 38
7, 5,
5, 43,
13, 6,
4, 44
11, 4,
3, 37
Region
NE, NC,
S, W
10, 16,
11, 16
2, 28,
16, 19
6, 28,
18, 8
15, 12,
20, 20
8, 14,
17, 16
Mother’s Ed.
3, 25,
<11, HS/GED,
22, 15
1-3 yrs., 4+ yrs.
3, 25,
22, 15
1, 19,
21, 19
3, 28,
21, 14
4, 19,
20, 12
Aggression
Atn. Prob.
Somat.
Anxiety
Total Prob.
Ext. Prob.
Int. Prob.
PRS-P with CBCL 1 ½-5
60
55
50
BASC-2
CBCL
45
40
Cond.
Prob.
Aggression
Atn. Prob.
Somat.
Depression
Anxiety
Total Prob.
Ext. Prob.
Int. Prob.
PRS-C with CBCL 6-18
60
55
50
BASC-2
CBCL
45
40
Cond.
Prob.
Aggression
Atn. Prob.
Somat.
Depression
Anxiety
Total Prob.
Ext. Prob.
Int. Prob.
PRS-A with CBCL 6-18
60
55
50
BASC-2
CBCL
45
40
40
Atn.
Prob./DSM
Inatn.
Hyp./DSM
Hyp.
Somatization/
Psycosom.
Anxiety/
AtnxiousShy
Hyperact.
Atn. Prob./
Cog. Prob.Inatn.
Aggression/
Oppositional
PRS-C with CPRS-R
60
55
BASC-2
50
CPRS-R
45
40
Atn.
Prob./DSM
Inatn.
Hyp./DSM
Hyp.
Somatization/
Psychosom.
Anxiety/
Anxious-Shy
Hyperact.
Atn. Prob./
Cog. Prob.Inatn.
Aggression/
Oppositional
PRS-A with CPRS-R
60
55
BASC-2
50
CPRS-R
45
Aggression
Atn. Prob.
Somat.
Anxiety/
Anx. Dep.
BSI/ Total
Prob.
Ext. Prob.
Int. Prob.
TRS-P with TRF 1 -5
60
55
50
BASC-2
TRF
45
40
Cnd. Prb./
Rule Brk.
Aggression
Atn. Prob.
Somat.
Dep./ With.
Dep.
Anx./ Anx.
Dep.
BSI/ Total
Prob.
Ext. Prob.
Int. Prob.
TRS-C with TRF 6-18
60
55
50
BASC-2
TRF
45
40
Cnd. Prb./
Rule Brk.
Aggression
Atn. Prob.
Somat.
Dep./ With.
Dep.
Anx./ Anx.
Dep.
BSI/ Total
Prob.
Ext. Prob.
Int. Prob.
TRS-A with TRF 6-18
60
55
50
BASC-2
TRF
45
40
40
Atn.
Prob./DSM
Inatn.
Hyp./DSM
Hyp.
Anxiety/
Anx.-Shy
Hyperact.
Atn. Prob./
Cog.
Prob.-Inatt.
Aggress./
Opposit.
TRS-C with CTRS-R
60
55
50
BASC-2
CTRS-R
45
40
Atn.
Prob./DSM
Inatn.
Hyp./DSM
Hyp.
Anxiety/
Anx.-Shy
Hyperact.
Atn. Prob./
Cog. Prob.Inatt.
Aggress./
Opposit.
TRS-A with CTRS-R
60
55
50
BASC-2
CTRS-R
45
Development of PRS and SRP
Spanish Forms
• Firm experienced in translating psychological tests
completed initial translation
• Bilingual psychologists from across US reviewed the
materials
• Additional rounds of changes made to develop
standardization item sets
• Psychometric properties of Spanish items were
evaluated prior to making final item selections
• Forms completed by Spanish speakers were included
in the norming samples
A Comparative Study Using Parent
Behavior Rating Scales, Spanish
Editions
(2005, National Association of School Psychologists, Atlanta)
Rob Altmann, MA
AGS Publishing
Randy W. Kamphaus, PhD
University of Georgia
AGS Publishing gratefully acknowledges Yahaira
Marquez for her assistance with this project.
Method
• Participants: 83 parents from Puerto Rico and 167 parents from
the United States
• Measures:
– Parent Rating Scales-Child (Ages 6-11)
– Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (Ages 6-18)
• Procedure: Parents in Puerto Rico were asked to voluntarily
complete a PRS-C form as part of a larger dissertation project;
parents in the United States voluntarily completed the PRS-C
form as part of the BASC-2 standardization project; all parents
were paid a nominal amount for their participation
Results
Table 1. Sample Characteristics
United States
Puerto Rico
167
83
Median Age (Years)
9
9
Sex (Female, Male)
76, 91
41, 42
Race (Hispanic, White, Other)
167, 0, 0
62, 10, 3
Rater (Mother, Father, Other)
138, 27, 2
77, 3, 3
122, 31,
5, 9
10, 30,
24, 17
Sample Size
Rater Education (< HS, HS/GED,
1-3 yr. college*, 4+ yr. college)
Note.* 1-4 yr. college for Puerto Rico sample.
Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities
Composite
Externalizing Problems
Internalizing Problems
Adaptive Skills
Behavioral Symptoms
Index/Total Problems
United States
Puerto Rico
PRS-C
PRS-C CBCL 6-18
.90
.89
.88
.78
.82
.77
.91
.92
-.92
.91
.89
Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities (cont.)
Scale
United States
Puerto Rico
PRS-C
PRS-C CBCL 6-18
Hyperactivity/ADHD
.74
.80
.78
Attention Problems
.76
.82
.84
Aggression
.79
.75
.89
Conduct Problems/Rule
Breaking, Conduct Prob.
.76
.81
.50, .67
Oppositional Defiant Prob.
--
--
.78
Anxiety/Anxiety-Dep.,
Anxiety Prob.
.61
.71
.72, .63
Depression/Affective Prob.
.79
.74
.54
Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities (cont.)
United States
Puerto Rico
Scale
PRS-C
PRS-C CBCL 6-18
Som./Som. Cmp., Som. Prb.
.68
.75
.55, .61
Atypicality/Thought Problems
.74
.75
.68
Withdrawal/Withdrawn-Dep.
.65
.69
.58
Adaptability
.67
.71
--
Social Skills/Social Problems
.74
.82
.61
Leadership
.75
.75
--
Activities of Daily Living
.68
.70
--
Functional Communication
.76
.79
--
Median (All Scales)
.74
.75
.65
Table 3. PRS-C and CBCL 6-18 Correlations
BASC-2
Ext. Prob.
Int. Prob.
Adt. Skills
BSI
CBCL 6-18
Ext. Prob. Int. Prob. Total Prob.
.72
.30
-.48
.69
.31
.63
.63
.48
-.33
.52
-.60
.78
40
Cond. Prob./
Rule Brk.
Aggression/
Agg. Beh.
Atn. Prob.
Somat./
Som. Comp.
Depression/
Wdl. Dep.
Anxiety/ Anx.
Dep.
BSI/Total
Prob.
Ext. Prob.
Int. Prob.
Figure 1. PRS-C and CBCL 6-18 Mean Score Comparisons
60
55
50
BASC-2
CBCL
45
PROCESO DE ADAPTACIÓN
1- Traducción de los cuestionarios.
2- Revisión de la traducción.
3- Elaboración de 2 ítems nuevos para cada escala.
4- Revisión de los cuestionarios.
5- Aplicación del S2 y S3 a 170 sujetos de diferentes
niveles socioeconómicos para comprobar la
comprensión de los ítems.
6- Modificación de la redacción de algunos ítems.
7- Selección ítems en función de: índice de atracción,
consistencia interna, correlación y saturación.
8 – Muestra total 1.900 aprox.
9 – Fiabilidad: Test – retest – 3 meses.
Mayor puntuación
en varones
T
Mayor puntuación P
en varones
Mayor puntuación
en mujeres
Mayor puntuación
en mujeres
Diferencias en función del sexo – T y P
***
***
**
***
Agres ividad
*
***
***
***
Hiperactividad
***
***
Problem as de
conducta
***
***
***
Problem as de
atención
***
Problem as de
aprendizaje
***
***
*
***
*
***
***
***
**
***
Atipicidad
***
Depres ión
**
Ans iedad
***
***
Retraim iento
**
T3
T2
*
T1
***
***
***
Som atización
*
Adaptabilidad
***
**
***
Habilidades
s ociales
***
***
**
**
Liderazgo
Habilidades de
es tudio
***
***
-10
-5
0
5
10
-10
-5
0
5
10
BASC Contacts/Information
• psychologicalforum.com includes sample cases, research
bibliography, and discussion centers for BASC users
• Randy Kamphaus, [email protected] or Cecil Reynolds,
[email protected]
• AGS, 4201 Woodland Road, P.O. Box 99, Circle Pines,
MN 55014-1796 1 800 328 2560 www.agsnet.com
• PSYCAN Corporation,12-120 West Beaver Creek Road,
Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 1L2, 1 800 263 3558
• Reynolds, C.R. & Kamphaus, R.W. (2002). A clinician’s
guide to the BASC. Guilford Publications, guilford.com
• TEA Ediciones, Madrid, Manual Moderno, Mexico City