Universities, Internationalisation and the Ethics of Care Proposition We are the 3rd Most Important generations of humans who have EVER LIVED Humankind’s Majestic Quest: Humanity Why Internationalise? • Financial reasons including trade • Technical reasons: Disruptive technologies – MOOCS, etc • Political reasons • Academic reasons • Prestige reasons • Strategic reasons • Reasons like: Reasons to Internationalise • Internationalisation is conducive to the enjoyment and appreciation of the value of diversity, and so helps equip scholars to engage creatively with the challenges in ways which are sensitive to the more complex global context. Reasons to Internationalise • In an internationally vibrant context, settled conceptual frames from a particular culture are frequently challenged, making for more sophisticated thinking. This often has the effect in situations like ours of unlocking potential in people who have previously not seen themselves as able to enter the field with confidence. • Reasons to Internationalise • Internationalisation generally raises aspirations. This is particularly significant in situations like ours. Students with a social history of exclusion are particularly encouraged to recognise that they can aim high and take control of their situation. Internationalisation is more generally conducive to excellence through the same mechanism. Reasons to Internationalise • Internationalisation helps build long-term networks. These are between institutions who send students to one another, but are also personal, so that individuals have points of contact in other countries. These contacts become particularly valuable later. Reasons to Internationalise • Internationalisation is conducive to cooperative research. Research cooperation depends on trust, which is promoted by longer-term contact between institutions. Funding for cooperative research is also often easier to come by than for entirely domestic research, and applications from established partners have more credibility. Ethical Reasons • I want, however, to argue that fundamentally there are Ethical Reasons that have to do with the future of humankind and with the very notion of humanity. • I refer here particularly to the Ethics of Care, what I consider perhaps to be the most important responsibility of the University in this stage of human existence. Ethics of Care • The ethics of care is a normative ethical theory; that is, a theory about what makes actions right or wrong in human relationships. Ethics of Care • The basic beliefs of this theory are: • All individuals and organisations, including nations are interdependent for achieving their interests • Those particularly vulnerable to the choices of others and the outcomes of such choices deserve extra consideration to be measured according to : – the level of their vulnerability to other’s choices – the level of their affectedness by other’s choices Ethics of Care • According to Carol Gilligan "The shift in moral perspective is manifested by a change in the moral question from "what is just?" to "how to respond to those troubled situations?“ How to care! Universities, Ethical Care and Forms of Internationalisation Caravel : The Ship That Changed the World A Vehicle for Internationalisation Sent Across the Seas Caravels : J C Squire • • • • • • • • • • • • • • There was an Indian, who had known no change, Who strayed content upon a sunlit beach Gathering shells. He heard a sudden strange Commingled noise: looked up; and gasped for speech. For in the bay, where nothing was before, Moved on the sea, by magic, huge canoes, With bellying cloths on poles, and not one oar. And fluttering coloured signs and clambering crews. And he, in fear, this naked man alone, His fallen hands forgetting all their shells, His lips gone pale, knelt low behind a stone, And stared, and saw, and did not understand, Columbus’s doom-burdened caravels Slant to the shore, and all her seamen land. Caravels Stared and saw and did NOT understand This was a new thing a very new thing (And this made them vulnerable) Conquistadors The Agents for Internationalisation? Destructive Behaviour Political Map Scramble For Africa MOTIIVE NOT TO ENRICH, BUT TO BE ENRICHED Who Should Have Cared? • Perhaps the Catholic and Protestant Churches • Perhaps the Universities in England, Europe and USA. • Perhaps the fledgling nation-states Caravel “Stared and saw and did not understand” Because of history and geography the indigenous people’s • Did not have the knowledge needed for defence • Did not have the lens of experience to help make sense, and • Did not have the necessary technology With devastating consequences The Continents: To Scale • • • The land area of each territory is shown here. The total land area of these 200 territories is 13,056 million hectares. Divided up equally that would be 2.1 hectares for each person. A hectare is 100 metres by 100 metres. However, population is not evenly spread: Australia's land area is 21 times bigger than Japan's, but Japan's population is more than six times bigger than Australia's. Tertiary Education • The highest percentage of the student aged population enrolled is in Finland. Finland is 3.6 times the world average, with 140 times the chance of a tertiary education than in Mozambique. Science Research • • • Scientific papers cover physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering, technology, and earth and space sciences. The number of scientific papers published by researchers in the United States was more than three times as many as were published by the second highest-publishing population, Japan. There is more scientific research, or publication of results, in richer territories. This locational bias is such that roughly three times more scientific papers per person living there are published in Western Europe, North America, and Japan, than in any other region. New Patents • • • In 2002, 312 thousand patents were granted around the world. More than a third of these were granted in Japan. Just under a third were granted in the United States. A patent is supposed to protect the ideas and inventions that people have. Patenting something will then allow the owner of the patent to charge others for the usage of an idea or invention. The aim is to reward the creator for their hard work or intelligence. But patents can prevent people from using good ideas because they cannot afford to do so. A quarter of all territories had no new patents in 2002, so will not profit from these in future years as others will. HIV Prevalence • • • This map shows the number of people aged 15-49 years old living with HIV. In 2003, the highest HIV prevalence was Swaziland, where 38%, or almost 4 in every 10 people aged 15 to 49 years, were HIV positive. All ten territories with the highest prevalence of HIV are in Central and Southeastern Africa. South Africa • Two South African “stared and saw and did not understand” moments: Grand Apartheid and HIV The Torture and Murder of Steve Biko South Africa and HIV : 5.5 Million Infected South Africa • 36 South African Universities, as a significant force, could not/did not respond in terms of the Ethics of Care So, Again, Why Should Universities Internationalise? Answer From One South African University • :“the process of integrating international and intercultural dimensions into the teaching, research and service functions of an institution of higher learning” (Jane Knight 1994). • Equipping students and staff to cope with a rapidly changing world. Empowerment. UBC and the Ethics of Care A Powerful Statement University of British Columbia goes further “In a world where countries are increasingly interdependent, we share a common responsibility: to protect and conserve natural resources, promote global health and well-being, and foster international cooperation……..we must strengthen established links and develop new ones through enhanced student mobility and study abroad programs, faculty and staff exchange opportunities, and educational consortia. We shall encourage research projects that link UBC faculty and students with their peers around the world, including projects that address global problems in health, safety, economic opportunity, human rights, and environmental integrity.” Dalin’s Argument • Humankind would be so tested by this combination of incredible changes on so many levels that no nations would endure on its own. He added that all human cultures would have to undergo the kind of dramatic paradigm shifts last experienced in the 16th and 17th centuries when science began its direct challenge to all existing forms of knowledge. Failure to do so would lead to collapse, he warned. • • • • • • • • • • The World We Know is Changing Dramatically 1. 2. 3. 4. The knowledge and information revolution The population explosion Globalisation The economic revolution (More access demanded with less State financial support) 5. The technological revolution (Disruptive technologies) 6. The ecological revolution 7. The social/cultural revolution 8. The aesthetic revolution 9. The political revolution 10. The values revolution. Per Dalin Looking Ahead Dennis Meadows Are We Humans Equipped To Make Such Dramatic Shifts? And What Is The Responsibility of Universities? Our +-180 000 Year Existence Suggests That We Can Jerome Bruner • We are Cultural Creatures who are capable of change and we can contest with our instincts. We are driven by:5 Humanising factors: • Long childhood, Capacity to create a multiplicity of organisations, Language, Inquisitiveness and innovation • Add to this our moral predisposition • Add to this our majestic quest to relate to one another through the lens of humanity Share All Ways of Knowing And Create New Ways of Knowing • Science (experimental approach to the physical universe) • Philosophy (the abstract mind) • Rational/Scepticism (not accepting realities that are not immediately evident) • Religion (faith in divine revelation and social tradition) • Mysticism (experiences based on spiritual techniques) • Esotericism (intuitive speculation on cosmological worldviews) • Occultism (using psycho-physical techniques to access hidden realities) • Gnosis (innate wisdom and understanding) 15% SENSE-MAKING TOGETHER . 85% Humankind’s Majestic Quest Explore a Vision Like • • • • • • • • • 1. Living in harmony with nature 2. A just and fair democracy 3. From dominance to partnership in social relations 4. From a war to a peace economy 5. A decent living for all 6. Celebrate democracy 7. Work for all - newly defined 8. Use of technology for human growth 9. From standardisation to creativity The Challenge of Change • “But what remains to be said about the quantity and source of blood which thus passes is of so novel and unheard of character, that I fear not only injury to myself from the envy of a few, but I tremble lest I have all mankind at large for my enemies so much doth want and custom that become as another nature, and doctrine once sown, and that has struck deep root, and respect for antiquity, influence all men”. William Harvey 1628 Relationships and Knowledge: THE NEW CITADEL Sense-Making: Universities as the Citadel of Learning Institutions • DAMTEW TEFERRA: We must develop a new conception of the role of the university given the dramatic changes in our environment. We must forge a new global sense of academic partnerships based on the realisation that the “CITADEL of learning institutions” (universities) is at the heart of any prospect of human survival • Bastion, Acropolis, Kremlin ,Stronghold, Fastness Seven Strategic Partnerships with Our Species There are at least seven human developmental challenges that universities must champion. Governments can’t or won’t. They are: 1. To move humans in developed countries to understand that they have lived beyond their means and they must prepare themselves for a more humble future. 2. To move humans in developing countries to understand that they cannot use the developed nations as points of reference for their material expectations 3. To move all humans to understand that we must develop a wise relationship with our natural environment Seven Strategic Partnerships with Our Species 4. To move all humans to think of ourselves as earthlings who must work together to secure our future. This implies an internationalist perspective. 5. To move all humans to understand that there is a direct relationship between population growth and the availability of resources 6. To move all humans to understand that there is a direct relationship between ownership, competence and hard work on the one hand and development on the other 7. To move all humans to understand that safety lies in knowledge and partnerships WHAT IS THE RACE? Africa, Europe and The World Major Human Intellectual and technological leaps • • • • • • Classical antiquity Renaissance Scientific revolution Industrial revolution Digital revolution Analytic revolution Not evenly distributed across continents and nations. (Example: Africa) Amartya Sen He believes that what is needed to improve an unhappy situation that concerns the notion of justice is an agreement, based on public reasoning on rankings of alternatives that Can Be Realised. Amartya Sen In his reflections on the Idea of Justice Sen focuses on two approaches: "transcendental institutionalism (TI) " on the one hand and "realization-focused comparison" , on the other He argues that in TI the inquiry is aimed at identifying the nature of 'the just', rather than finding some criteria for an alternative, which makes things less unjust’.