and the Ethics of Care
We are the 3rd Most
Important generations of
humans who have
Humankind’s Majestic Quest:
Why Internationalise?
• Financial reasons including trade
• Technical reasons: Disruptive technologies –
MOOCS, etc
• Political reasons
• Academic reasons
• Prestige reasons
• Strategic reasons
• Reasons like:
Reasons to Internationalise
• Internationalisation is conducive to the
enjoyment and appreciation of the value of
diversity, and so helps equip scholars to
engage creatively with the challenges in ways
which are sensitive to the more complex
global context.
Reasons to Internationalise
• In an internationally vibrant context, settled
conceptual frames from a particular culture
are frequently challenged, making for more
sophisticated thinking. This often has the
effect in situations like ours of unlocking
potential in people who have previously not
seen themselves as able to enter the field with
Reasons to Internationalise
• Internationalisation generally raises
aspirations. This is particularly significant in
situations like ours. Students with a social
history of exclusion are particularly
encouraged to recognise that they can aim
high and take control of their situation.
Internationalisation is more generally
conducive to excellence through the same
Reasons to Internationalise
• Internationalisation helps build long-term
networks. These are between institutions who
send students to one another, but are also
personal, so that individuals have points of
contact in other countries. These contacts
become particularly valuable later.
Reasons to Internationalise
• Internationalisation is conducive to
cooperative research. Research cooperation
depends on trust, which is promoted by
longer-term contact between institutions.
Funding for cooperative research is also often
easier to come by than for entirely domestic
research, and applications from established
partners have more credibility.
Ethical Reasons
• I want, however, to argue that fundamentally
there are Ethical Reasons that have to do with
the future of humankind and with the very
notion of humanity.
• I refer here particularly to the Ethics of
Care, what I consider perhaps to be the
most important responsibility of the
University in this stage of human
Ethics of Care
• The ethics of care is a normative ethical
theory; that is, a theory about what makes
actions right or wrong in human relationships.
Ethics of Care
• The basic beliefs of this theory are:
• All individuals and organisations, including
nations are interdependent for achieving their
• Those particularly vulnerable to the choices of
others and the outcomes of such choices deserve
extra consideration to be measured according to
– the level of their vulnerability to other’s choices
– the level of their affectedness by other’s choices
Ethics of Care
• According to Carol Gilligan "The shift in moral
perspective is manifested by a change in the
moral question from "what is just?" to "how
to respond to those troubled situations?“
How to care!
Universities, Ethical Care
Forms of Internationalisation
Caravel : The Ship That Changed the
A Vehicle for Internationalisation
Sent Across the Seas
Caravels : J C Squire
There was an Indian, who had known no change,
Who strayed content upon a sunlit beach
Gathering shells. He heard a sudden strange
Commingled noise: looked up; and gasped for speech.
For in the bay, where nothing was before,
Moved on the sea, by magic, huge canoes,
With bellying cloths on poles, and not one oar.
And fluttering coloured signs and clambering crews.
And he, in fear, this naked man alone,
His fallen hands forgetting all their shells,
His lips gone pale, knelt low behind a stone,
And stared, and saw, and did not understand,
Columbus’s doom-burdened caravels
Slant to the shore, and all her seamen land.
Stared and saw and
did NOT understand
This was a new thing a very new thing
(And this made them vulnerable)
The Agents for Internationalisation?
Destructive Behaviour
Political Map
Scramble For Africa
Who Should Have Cared?
• Perhaps the Catholic and Protestant Churches
• Perhaps the Universities in England, Europe
and USA.
• Perhaps the fledgling nation-states
“Stared and saw and did not understand”
Because of history and geography the indigenous
• Did not have the knowledge needed for defence
• Did not have the lens of experience to help make
sense, and
• Did not have the necessary technology
With devastating consequences
The Continents: To Scale
The land area of each territory is shown here.
The total land area of these 200 territories is 13,056 million hectares. Divided up equally that
would be 2.1 hectares for each person. A hectare is 100 metres by 100 metres.
However, population is not evenly spread: Australia's land area is 21 times bigger than
Japan's, but Japan's population is more than six times bigger than Australia's.
Tertiary Education
• The highest percentage of the student aged population
enrolled is in Finland. Finland is 3.6 times the world average,
with 140 times the chance of a tertiary education than in
Science Research
Scientific papers cover physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research,
engineering, technology, and earth and space sciences.
The number of scientific papers published by researchers in the United States was more than three times
as many as were published by the second highest-publishing population, Japan.
There is more scientific research, or publication of results, in richer territories. This locational bias is such
that roughly three times more scientific papers per person living there are published in Western Europe,
North America, and Japan, than in any other region.
New Patents
In 2002, 312 thousand patents were granted around the world. More than a third of these were granted in
Japan. Just under a third were granted in the United States.
A patent is supposed to protect the ideas and inventions that people have. Patenting something will then
allow the owner of the patent to charge others for the usage of an idea or invention. The aim is to reward
the creator for their hard work or intelligence. But patents can prevent people from using good ideas
because they cannot afford to do so.
A quarter of all territories had no new patents in 2002, so will not profit from these in future years as
others will.
HIV Prevalence
This map shows the number of people aged 15-49 years old living with HIV.
In 2003, the highest HIV prevalence was Swaziland, where 38%, or almost 4 in
every 10 people aged 15 to 49 years, were HIV positive.
All ten territories with the highest prevalence of HIV are in Central and
Southeastern Africa.
South Africa
• Two South African “stared and saw and did
not understand” moments: Grand Apartheid
and HIV
The Torture and Murder of
Steve Biko
South Africa and HIV :
5.5 Million Infected
South Africa
• 36 South African Universities, as a significant
force, could not/did not respond in terms of
the Ethics of Care
So, Again, Why Should
Universities Internationalise?
Answer From One South
African University
• :“the process of integrating international and
intercultural dimensions into the teaching,
research and service functions of an institution
of higher learning” (Jane Knight 1994).
• Equipping students and staff to cope with a
rapidly changing world. Empowerment.
UBC and the Ethics of Care
A Powerful Statement
University of British Columbia goes further
“In a world where countries are increasingly interdependent,
we share a common responsibility:
to protect and conserve natural resources, promote global
health and well-being, and foster international cooperation……..we must strengthen established links and
develop new ones through enhanced student mobility and
study abroad programs, faculty and staff exchange
opportunities, and educational consortia. We shall encourage
research projects that link UBC faculty and students with their
peers around the world, including projects that address global
problems in health, safety, economic opportunity, human
rights, and environmental integrity.”
Dalin’s Argument
• Humankind would be so tested by this
combination of incredible changes on so many
levels that no nations would endure on its
own. He added that all human cultures would
have to undergo the kind of dramatic
paradigm shifts last experienced in the 16th
and 17th centuries when science began its
direct challenge to all existing forms of
knowledge. Failure to do so would lead to
collapse, he warned.
The World We Know is Changing
The knowledge and information revolution
The population explosion
The economic revolution (More access
demanded with less State financial support)
5. The technological revolution (Disruptive
6. The ecological revolution
7. The social/cultural revolution
8. The aesthetic revolution
9. The political revolution
10. The values revolution.
Per Dalin
Looking Ahead
Dennis Meadows
Are We Humans
Equipped To Make Such Dramatic
Shifts? And What Is The
Responsibility of Universities?
Our +-180 000 Year
Existence Suggests That
We Can
Jerome Bruner
• We are Cultural Creatures who are capable of
change and we can contest with our instincts.
We are driven by:5 Humanising factors:
• Long childhood, Capacity to create a
multiplicity of organisations, Language,
Inquisitiveness and innovation
• Add to this our moral predisposition
• Add to this our majestic quest to relate to one
another through the lens of humanity
Share All Ways of Knowing And
Create New Ways of Knowing
• Science (experimental approach to the physical universe)
• Philosophy (the abstract mind)
• Rational/Scepticism (not accepting realities that are not
immediately evident)
• Religion (faith in divine revelation and social tradition)
• Mysticism (experiences based on spiritual techniques)
• Esotericism (intuitive speculation on cosmological worldviews)
• Occultism (using psycho-physical techniques to access
hidden realities)
• Gnosis (innate wisdom and understanding)
Humankind’s Majestic Quest
Explore a Vision Like
1. Living in harmony with nature
2. A just and fair democracy
3. From dominance to partnership in social relations
4. From a war to a peace economy
5. A decent living for all
6. Celebrate democracy
7. Work for all - newly defined
8. Use of technology for human growth
9. From standardisation to creativity
The Challenge of Change
• “But what remains to be said about the quantity and
source of blood which thus passes is of so novel and
unheard of character, that I fear not only injury to
myself from the envy of a few, but I tremble lest I
have all mankind at large for my enemies so much
doth want and custom that become as another
nature, and doctrine once sown, and that has struck
deep root, and respect for antiquity, influence all
William Harvey 1628
Relationships and Knowledge:
Sense-Making: Universities as the
Citadel of Learning Institutions
We must develop a new conception of the role of
the university given the dramatic changes in our
environment. We must forge a new global sense
of academic partnerships based on the realisation
that the “CITADEL of learning institutions”
(universities) is at the heart of any prospect of
human survival
• Bastion, Acropolis, Kremlin ,Stronghold, Fastness
Seven Strategic Partnerships with
Our Species
There are at least seven human developmental challenges
that universities must champion. Governments can’t or
won’t. They are:
1. To move humans in developed countries to understand
that they have lived beyond their means and they must
prepare themselves for a more humble future.
2. To move humans in developing countries to understand
that they cannot use the developed nations as points of
reference for their material expectations
3. To move all humans to understand that we must develop
a wise relationship with our natural environment
Seven Strategic Partnerships with
Our Species
4. To move all humans to think of ourselves as earthlings
who must work together to secure our future. This
implies an internationalist perspective.
5. To move all humans to understand that there is a
direct relationship between population growth and
the availability of resources
6. To move all humans to understand that there is a
direct relationship between ownership, competence
and hard work on the one hand and development on
the other
7. To move all humans to understand that safety lies in
knowledge and partnerships
Africa, Europe and The World
Major Human Intellectual
and technological leaps
Classical antiquity
Scientific revolution
Industrial revolution
Digital revolution
Analytic revolution
Not evenly distributed across continents and nations.
(Example: Africa)
Amartya Sen
He believes that what is needed to improve
an unhappy situation that concerns the notion
of justice is an agreement, based on public
reasoning on rankings of alternatives that Can
Be Realised.
Amartya Sen
In his reflections on the Idea of Justice Sen
focuses on two approaches:
"transcendental institutionalism (TI) " on the
one hand and "realization-focused
comparison" , on the other
He argues that in TI the inquiry is aimed at
identifying the nature of 'the just', rather than
finding some criteria for an alternative, which
makes things less unjust’.