Serial Killers and Psychopaths David Lombard, Ph.D. Center for Applied Behavioral Studies www.DavidLombard.com Serial Killers? Psychopathy Charles Manson “From the worlds of darkness I did let loose devils and demons with the power of scorpions to torment." Pedro Alonzo Lopez: Monster of the Andes “The moment of death is enthralling and exciting. Only those who actually kill know what I mean…When I am released I will feel that moment again.” “I am the man of the century. No one will forget me.” Aileen Wuornos:Highway Killer ” I robbed them, and I killed them cold as ice, and I know I would kill another person because I’ve hated humans for a long time." John Gacy: Killer Clown “I should never have been convicted of anything more serious than running a cemetery without a license." Edmund Kemper: Co-Ed Killer “One side of me says ‘I’d like to talk to her, date her’. The other side of me says, ‘I wonder how her head would look on a stick’." Brief History of Psychopathy Term derived from the Greek psych (mind) and pathos (suffering), and was once used to denote any form of mental illness. In 1801, Phillipe Pinel, the founder of French Psychiatry, identified such individuals as behaving crazily without actually being crazy. In 1812, Benjamin Rush, the first American psychiatrist, described them as patients with “innate preternatural moral depravity. In 1886, philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche writes Beyond Good and Evil advocating the psychopathic personality as the individual’s legitimate right to becoming an “Ubermensch” or “Superman.” Brief History of Psychopathy In 1910, Freud proposes that the psychopathic personality emerges when the war between the Id’s instinctual drives resulting in an “instinct of destruction, of mastery, the will to power” and an “I see, I want, it’s mine” orientation to the world. In 1915, Emil Kraepelin used the term “psychopathic personality” to describe amoral vs. immoral criminal types. In 1941, H. Cleckley The Mask of Sanity, Psychopaths are human in every respect – but it is a lack of "soul quality" that makes them very efficient "machines." In 1980, psychologist Robert Hare creates the diagnostic tool called the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL). Relationship between Psychopathy & Antisocial PD ANTISOCIAL PD PSYCHOPATHY Psychopathy in Life Serial killers, repeat bank robbers, con artists, organized crime What about other similar characters? Robert Hare has proposed a more informative diagnostic category: Psychopathy Are Psychopaths just Anti-Social Major distinction appears to be in symptomatology “Lack of remorse,” a core symptom of psychopathy, is not required for diagnosis of APD. In one study, 75 to 80% of convicted felons met criteria for APD, but failed to meet criteria for psychopathy. Psychopathy FACTOR 2 FACTOR 1 Charming Manipulative Superficial Shallow Lack of remorse Inconsistent Failure to conform Impulsivity Aggression Deceitful/lying Disregard for others Irresponsibility Psychopathy encompasses both of these factors whereas Antisocial PD predominantly involves Factor 2 Factor 1 in everyday life Lawyers, politicians, businessman Aspects of psychopathy may be seen in many areas of life These two factors are reliable Across sites Across cultures Psychopaths identified by Hare Two clusters: 1. Emotional detachment cluster- a selfish remorseless individual with inflated self-esteem who exploits others. 2. Antisocial lifestyle cluster- marked by impulsivity & irresponsibility. The Path to the Psychopath 40-50% of CD becomes ASPD 2-16% 6-16% boys 2-9% girls 1% PDD 1-20% ADHD 1% FAS/F AE 4-6% Bipol ar 2-8% LD PDD ADHD FAS/FAE Bipolar LD etc… Inattention Poor social skills Learning deficits 3% males 1% females 1% Oppositional Defiant Disorder Hostile Defiant Negative Conduct Disorder Aggression Destruction Deceitfulness Rule violation Manipulation Antisocial Personality Disorder Criminal acts Impulsiveness Disregard safety Irresponsibility Lack remorse 80% of kids with ADHD as children carry it into adolescence, and 60% of those had developed ODD or CD. Psychopathic Personality Disorder Stimulus seeking Lack goals Parasitic Predatory Violent 17 Are psychopaths born or made? Most likely there are components of both that account for the development of full fledged psychopathy. Causes of APD & Psychopathy? Family McCord & McCord concluded that lack of affection & severe parental rejection may be primary causes of psychopathic behavior. Other suspected family related factors are: Inconsistencies in discipline or no discipline at all physical abuse marital discord substance use. Heritable components Twin Studies: 1. Higher concordance rate for MZ twins than for DZ twins in APD. Adoption Studies: 2. Higher rate of antisocial behavior in adopted children of biological parents with APD. Father’s behavior Fathers of psychopaths are likely to be antisocial personalities themselves!!!!!! Environmental Factors Environment seems to play an important role in APD. It has been shown that environmental factors such as marital problems and substance abuse) are related to the development of APD. Also high levels of conflict & negativity and low levels of parental warmth predict APD. What’s likely to be going on? Child with propensity for antisocial behavior may be difficult to deal with & produce environmental changes that result in harsh conditions (treatment) by family members. This may fuel development of full blown antisocial behavior. Are psychopaths less prone to anxiety than normal people? Yes!!! Lykken (1957) studied the ability of psychopaths & controls to avoid shock. Psychopaths were poorer than controls at avoiding the shocks, suggesting they are low in anxiety compared to controls. Do psychopaths fear little? Psychopaths show a pattern of autonomic activity that suggests they “tune out” aversive stimuli. Their hearts beat faster than normals when anticipating stress, but their skin conductance levels are lower than controls in response to aversive stimuli. This makes them appear under aroused when they are not. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Planning Attention Judgment Reflection Prioritizing Self control Strategizing Sequencing Anticipation Organization Impulse control Second thought Working memory Modulating mood Response flexibility Goal-directed behavior Foresee consequences Environmental Trauma and the Brain The Case of Phineas Gage • Gage was a railroad construction supervisor in 1848 when a tamping rod was driven through his skull by an explosion. • The tamping rod severed the connections in the frontal area. • Prior to the accident he was a moral, hardworking, sensitive, conscientious, intelligent, and well liked. • Following the accident, his personality changed: lying and conning, violent, alcoholic, and antisocial. Psychopathy Vs Reactive Offender PSYCHOPATH Self-concept: Invulnerable Superior Pre-emptive rights Sees Others: Dupes/stupid Inferior Weak Strategies: Manipulative Violence REACTIVE Vulnerable Fluctuates/unstable Fragile rights Hostile Oppositional The enemy Inadequate problem solving “Defensive” violence high neuroticism extravert introvert psychopaths low neuroticism Criminal Careers Life course persistent antisocial (preadolescent onset; chronic offending) High recidivism risk Burnout with age ? or change in display of antisocial behaviour Big four risk predictors: 4/8/2015 Antisocial beliefs; Antisocial associates; Antisocial history; Antisocial personality (psychopathic). Violence and Psychopathy Psychopathy a robust predictor of violent recidivism Instrumental violence vs reactive VRAG, SORAG, HCR-20 use psychopathy to predict risk 4/8/2015 Sexual offending and Psychopathy Child sexual offending Importance of Factor One Rape PCL on own not enough Need sexual risk factors Opportunistic sexual behavior Treatment difficulties Seto and Barbaree’s (1999) study 4/8/2015 Psychopathy: Case Studies Ted Bundy Victim List 1) Lonnie Trumbull, 23/6/66 3) Susan Elaine Rancourt, 17/4/74 5) Brenda Baker, 25/5/74 7) Georgeann Hawkins, 11/ 6/74 9) Denise Naslund, 14/7/74 11) Nancy Wilcox, 2/10/74 13) Laura Aimee, 31/10/74 15) Caryn Campbell, 1/12/75 17) Denise Oliverson, 4/6/75 19) Lynette Culver, 5/6/75 21) Shelley Robertson, 1/7/75 23) Debbie Smith, ?/2/76 25) Margaret Bowman, 15/1/78 2) 4) 6) 8) 10) 12) 14) 16) 18) 20) 22) 24) 26) Donna Manson, 12/3/74 Kathy Parks, 6/5/74 Brenda Ball, 1/6/74 Janice Ott, 14/7/74 Jane Doe, 2/9/74 Melissa Smith, 10/18/74 Debbie Kent, 8/11/74 Julie Cunningham, 15/3/75 Melanie Cooley, 15/4/75 Susan Curtis, 28/6/75 Nancy Baird, 4/ 7/75 Lisa Levy, 15/1/78 Kimberly Ann Leach, 9/2/78 Several other victims survived, the actual number is unknown Biography Born 1946 Seattle, executed 1989, aged 43 Loving (church going) family Married (in jail) College graduate, law student, politically ambitious, rape counselor. Respected and admired by (most) who met him. Popular with women, generally considered to be a nice guy. Served on crime prevention committees Performed community service regularly Anti-social activity Serial killer in early eighties Raped and murdered 12 women from Washington to Florida Chose victims who looked like his ex girlfriend. Crimes spanned four states Escaped from jail to resume his killing spree Protested his innocence until he was sentenced to death, when he showed remorse. Jeffery Dahmer Victim List 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Steven Hicks June, 1978 Steven Tuomi Sept, 1987 James Doxtator January, 1988 Richard Guerrero March, 1988 Anthony Sears March, 1989 Edward Smith June, 1990 Raymond Smith July, 1990 Ricky Lee Beeks July, 1990 Ernest Miller Sept., 1990 David Thomas Sept., 1990 Curtis Straughter Feb., 1991 Errol Lindsey April, 1991 Anthony Hughes May 24, 1991 Konerak Sinthasomphone May 27, 1991 Matt Turner June 30, 1991 Jeremiah Weinberger July 5, 1991 Oliver Lacey July 12, 1991 Joseph Bradehoft July 19, 1991 The Early Years • • • • • • • • • • • Dissected dead animals at a young age Teenage years: alcoholic Molested by a neighbor Parents divorced - left with only his father Had dreams of killing and mutilating men College: dropped out and joined the army 1982: Moved in with his grandmother (22 years old) • Arrested for exposing himself at a state fair 1986: Arrested for exposure of himself to two young males 1988: Grandmother kicked him out • Stayed up all night • Odors from the basement 1988: Arrested for sexually fondling a 13 year old boy Convinced judge he needed a therapist Anti-social activity Victims all male Age / race not consistent Murdered in killers home All were homosexual Victims all raped Victims were lured to his home for intimate contact Once there victims were drugged and tortured Bodies were dismembered Some body parts were eaten by the killer The Police Found • Multiple photographs of murdered victims • Human remains: heads and genitals • Corpse were stored in acid filled vats • Was attempting to create zombies • Practiced necrophilia, cannibalism, and possibly a form of trepanation Trepanation The End of Dahmer One of his victims escaped and a neighbor called the police, who believed Dahmers’ story of the boy being his lover and released the boy to Dahmers’ custody and his death. A final victim was lucky enough to escape and this time the police took notice. He admitted to the murders and detailed his brutality. He plead guilty and insane but the jury found him guilty and sane, while he was in prison one inmate tried to slash Dahmers’ throat unsuccessfully, the next attack (with an iron bar) was successful in smashing Dahmers’ scull and killing him. Paul and Karla Paul Bernardo Hamilton, Ontario University graduate Successful accountant Karla Homolka Hamilton, Ontario University graduate Veterinary assistant Antisocial activities Paul had many prior girlfriends but treated them sadistic fashion He and Karla had a sado-masochistic sex life Together, they drugged, raped and murdered three women Including Karla’s sister They filmed the activities to watch later Karla wins Karla turns in Paul to police Gets special deal – 12 years in prison gets life in prison – no chance of parole Paul Christopher Rocancourt Christopher Rocancourt Mug shot Biography Raised in France Violent history in Europe Adored in Los Angeles Character Master manipulator Assumed many different identities: Millionaire, Movie producer, race-car driver, Member of Rothschild family Member of Rockefeller family Arrested for Bilking Many victims of money: esp. women counts of extortion, fraud, weapons in NY, LA, and Vancouver Clifford Olson Vancouver, BC Antisocial activities Arrests for include theft, assault, escape (7 times), rape, dangerous driving At least 11 murders including many children Victims sexually assaulted and mutilated Character Early delinquency Social Story charm teller Manipulation Avoids arrest for 11 murders Mocks police until arrest Manipulates federal government Special privileges in prison “Vacations” to Vancouver Albert De Salvo Born in 1931, Died at 42 in 1973 Ave height and weight Married with 2 children Various employment: Army, rubber factory, shipyard, construction Described as: loving husband, devoted father, mild mannered, decent, neat and well liked by most The Boston Strangler The Measurer, The Green Man Various minor crimes Abusive father 13 victims as the Boston strangler Rumored 300+ victims as The Measurer and The Green Man Paranoid schizophrenic Cold blooded killer, remorseless Victim List 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Anna Slesers (55) Died 14th June 1962 Mary Mullen (85) Died 28th June 1962 Nina Nichols (68) Died 30th June 1962 Helen Blake (65) Died 30th June 1962 Ida Irga (75) Died 19th August 1962 Jane Sullivan (67) Died 20th August 1962 Sophie Clark (20) Died 5th December 1962 Patricia Bissette (23) Died 31st December 1962 Mary Brown (69) Died 9th March 1963 Beverley Samans (23) Died 6th May 1963 Evelyn Corbin (58) Died 8th September 1963 Joann Graff (23) Died 23rd November 1963 Mary Sullivan (19) Died 4th January 1964 Modus Operandi Victims all female Age / race not consistent Murdered in their own apartments No forced entry Victims all raped Bodies left in obscene positions Strangled, usually with their own silk stockings Tied stockings in a bow under their chin He terrorized Boston for 18 months The End of the Strangler While in custody for rape and breaking and entering, he confessed to also being the Boston strangler, and murdering 13 women. His wife took his two children to her homeland of Germany at the urging of his lawyer. He was never tried as the Boston strangler, but was given sentences for his rape and burglary charges that would ensure he spent the rest of his life in custody. Six years into those sentences he was stabbed while in the infirmary and found dead the Aileen Carol Wuornos Dad - Dale Pittman was a psychopathic child molester who hanged himself in prison in 1969 Victim List 1. 2. 3. 4. Richard Mallory, May 1, 1990 David Spears, June 1, 1990 Charles Carskaddon, June 6, 1990 Peter Siems, July 4, 1990 (body was never found) 5. Troy Burress, August 4, 1990 6. Dick Humphreys, September 12, 1990 7. Walter Jeno (Gino) Antonio, November 19, 1990 Antisocial activities Prostitute Murdered 7 men she claimed tried to rape her while she prostituting Admitted to murders for her ex-lover Women Serial Killers Female serial killers have long killing sprees, lasting up to 8 years (males' sprees last about 4 years and usually end after several months). Female serial killers kill more quietly and less "violently", with poison or other less undetectable methods, like suffocation. Males tend to batter, strangle, stab, and shoot. Women Serial Killers Female serial killers kill for profit most of the time, while male serial killers kill for sexual reasons about half the time. Female serial killers generally kill people close to them, such as husbands, family members, or people dependent on them. Males kill strangers more often. All Serial Killers look, act, and sound normal – which makes people trust them They They are psychopaths, but they're not insane Neither male nor female serial killers have a conscience Psychopathy Key Aspects: Criminality vs. mental illness Absence of conscience “Emotional poverty” Sex differences Genetics Physiological dysfunction Family & social context Learning deficits Questions?