Serial Killers and Psychopaths
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David Lombard, Ph.D.
Center for Applied Behavioral Studies
www.DavidLombard.com
Serial Killers?
Psychopathy
Charles Manson
“From the worlds of darkness I did let loose devils and demons with the
power of scorpions to torment."
Pedro Alonzo Lopez:
Monster of the Andes
“The moment of death is enthralling and exciting. Only
those who actually kill know what I mean…When I am
released I will feel that moment again.”
“I am the man of the century. No one will forget me.”
Aileen Wuornos:Highway Killer
” I robbed them, and I killed them cold as
ice, and I know I would kill another person
because I’ve hated humans for a long time."
John Gacy: Killer Clown
“I should never have been convicted
of anything more serious than running
a cemetery without a license."
Edmund Kemper: Co-Ed Killer
“One side of me says ‘I’d like to talk to her,
date her’. The other side of me says, ‘I
wonder how her head would look on a stick’."
Brief History of Psychopathy

Term derived from the Greek psych (mind) and pathos
(suffering), and was once used to denote any form of
mental illness.
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In 1801, Phillipe Pinel, the founder of French Psychiatry,
identified such individuals as behaving crazily without
actually being crazy.
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In 1812, Benjamin Rush, the first American psychiatrist,
described them as patients with “innate preternatural
moral depravity.
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In 1886, philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche writes Beyond
Good and Evil advocating the psychopathic personality
as the individual’s legitimate right to becoming an
“Ubermensch” or “Superman.”
Brief History of Psychopathy

In 1910, Freud proposes that the psychopathic
personality emerges when the war between the Id’s
instinctual drives resulting in an “instinct of destruction,
of mastery, the will to power” and an “I see, I want, it’s
mine” orientation to the world.
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In 1915, Emil Kraepelin used the term “psychopathic
personality” to describe amoral vs. immoral criminal
types.
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In 1941, H. Cleckley The Mask of Sanity, Psychopaths
are human in every respect – but it is a lack of "soul
quality" that makes them very efficient "machines."
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In 1980, psychologist Robert Hare creates the diagnostic
tool called the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL).
Relationship between
Psychopathy & Antisocial PD
ANTISOCIAL
PD
PSYCHOPATHY
Psychopathy in Life
 Serial
killers, repeat bank robbers, con
artists, organized crime
 What about other similar characters?
 Robert Hare has proposed a more
informative diagnostic category:
 Psychopathy
Are Psychopaths just Anti-Social
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Major distinction appears to be in
symptomatology
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“Lack of remorse,” a core symptom of
psychopathy, is not required for diagnosis of
APD.
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In one study, 75 to 80% of convicted felons met
criteria for APD, but failed to meet criteria for
psychopathy.
Psychopathy
FACTOR 2
FACTOR 1
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Charming
Manipulative
Superficial
Shallow
Lack of remorse
Inconsistent
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Failure to conform
Impulsivity
Aggression
Deceitful/lying
Disregard for others
Irresponsibility
Psychopathy encompasses both of these factors whereas Antisocial
PD predominantly involves Factor 2
Factor 1 in everyday life
 Lawyers,
politicians, businessman
 Aspects of psychopathy may be seen in
many areas of life
 These two factors are reliable
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Across sites
Across cultures
Psychopaths identified by Hare
 Two
clusters:
 1.
Emotional detachment cluster- a
selfish remorseless individual with inflated
self-esteem who exploits others.
 2.
Antisocial lifestyle cluster- marked
by impulsivity & irresponsibility.
The Path to the Psychopath
40-50% of CD becomes ASPD
2-16%
6-16% boys
2-9% girls
1% PDD
1-20%
ADHD
1%
FAS/F
AE
4-6%
Bipol
ar
2-8% LD
PDD
ADHD
FAS/FAE
Bipolar
LD
etc…
Inattention
Poor social skills
Learning deficits

3% males
1% females
1%
Oppositional
Defiant
Disorder
Hostile
Defiant
Negative
Conduct
Disorder
Aggression
Destruction
Deceitfulness
Rule violation
Manipulation
Antisocial
Personality
Disorder
Criminal acts
Impulsiveness
Disregard safety
Irresponsibility
Lack remorse
80% of kids with ADHD as children carry it into adolescence, and 60%
of
those had developed ODD or CD.
Psychopathic
Personality
Disorder
Stimulus seeking
Lack goals
Parasitic
Predatory
Violent
17
Are psychopaths born or made?
 Most
likely there are components of both
that account for the development of full
fledged psychopathy.
Causes of APD & Psychopathy?
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Family
 McCord & McCord concluded that lack of
affection & severe parental rejection may be
primary causes of psychopathic behavior.
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Other suspected family related factors are:
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Inconsistencies in discipline or no discipline at all
physical abuse
marital discord
substance use.
Heritable components
 Twin
Studies:
 1. Higher concordance rate for MZ twins
than for DZ twins in APD.
 Adoption
Studies:
 2. Higher rate of antisocial behavior in
adopted children of biological parents with
APD.
Father’s behavior
 Fathers
of psychopaths are likely to be
antisocial personalities themselves!!!!!!
Environmental Factors
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Environment seems to play an important role
in APD.
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It has been shown that environmental factors
such as marital problems and substance
abuse) are related to the development of
APD.
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Also high levels of conflict & negativity and
low levels of parental warmth predict APD.
What’s likely to be going on?
 Child
with propensity for antisocial
behavior may be difficult to deal with &
produce environmental changes that result
in harsh conditions (treatment) by family
members.
 This
may fuel development of full blown
antisocial behavior.
Are psychopaths less prone to
anxiety than normal people?
 Yes!!!
 Lykken
(1957) studied the ability of
psychopaths & controls to avoid shock.
 Psychopaths
were poorer than controls at
avoiding the shocks, suggesting they are
low in anxiety compared to controls.
Do psychopaths fear little?
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Psychopaths show a pattern of autonomic
activity that suggests they “tune out” aversive
stimuli.
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Their hearts beat faster than normals when
anticipating stress, but their skin conductance
levels are lower than controls in response to
aversive stimuli.
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This makes them appear under aroused when
they are not.
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Planning
Attention
Judgment
Reflection
Prioritizing
Self control
Strategizing
Sequencing
Anticipation
Organization
Impulse control
Second thought
Working memory
Modulating mood
Response flexibility
Goal-directed behavior
Foresee consequences
Environmental Trauma and the Brain
The Case of Phineas Gage
• Gage was a railroad construction
supervisor in 1848 when a tamping rod
was driven through his skull by an
explosion.
• The tamping rod severed the
connections in the frontal area.
• Prior to the accident he was a moral,
hardworking, sensitive, conscientious,
intelligent, and well liked.
• Following the accident, his personality
changed: lying and conning, violent,
alcoholic, and antisocial.
Psychopathy Vs Reactive Offender
PSYCHOPATH
Self-concept: Invulnerable
Superior
Pre-emptive
rights
Sees Others: Dupes/stupid
Inferior
Weak
Strategies: Manipulative
Violence
REACTIVE
Vulnerable
Fluctuates/unstable
Fragile rights
Hostile
Oppositional
The enemy
Inadequate problem solving
“Defensive” violence
high neuroticism
extravert
introvert
psychopaths
low neuroticism
Criminal Careers

Life course persistent antisocial (preadolescent
onset; chronic offending)
 High recidivism risk
 Burnout with age ? or change in display of
antisocial behaviour
 Big four risk predictors:
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4/8/2015
Antisocial beliefs;
Antisocial associates;
Antisocial history;
Antisocial personality (psychopathic).
Violence and Psychopathy
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Psychopathy a robust predictor of violent
recidivism
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Instrumental violence vs reactive
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VRAG, SORAG, HCR-20 use psychopathy to
predict risk
4/8/2015
Sexual offending and
Psychopathy
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Child sexual offending
 Importance of Factor One
Rape
PCL on own not enough
 Need sexual risk factors
Opportunistic sexual behavior
Treatment difficulties
 Seto and Barbaree’s (1999) study
4/8/2015
Psychopathy:
Case Studies
Ted
Bundy
Victim List
1)
Lonnie Trumbull, 23/6/66
3)
Susan Elaine Rancourt, 17/4/74
5)
Brenda Baker, 25/5/74
7)
Georgeann Hawkins, 11/ 6/74
9)
Denise Naslund, 14/7/74
11) Nancy Wilcox, 2/10/74
13) Laura Aimee, 31/10/74
15) Caryn Campbell, 1/12/75
17) Denise Oliverson, 4/6/75
19) Lynette Culver, 5/6/75
21) Shelley Robertson, 1/7/75
23) Debbie Smith, ?/2/76
25) Margaret Bowman, 15/1/78
2)
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24)
26)
Donna Manson, 12/3/74
Kathy Parks, 6/5/74
Brenda Ball, 1/6/74
Janice Ott, 14/7/74
Jane Doe, 2/9/74
Melissa Smith, 10/18/74
Debbie Kent, 8/11/74
Julie Cunningham, 15/3/75
Melanie Cooley, 15/4/75
Susan Curtis, 28/6/75
Nancy Baird, 4/ 7/75
Lisa Levy, 15/1/78
Kimberly Ann Leach, 9/2/78
Several other victims survived, the actual
number is unknown
Biography
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Born 1946 Seattle, executed 1989, aged 43
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Loving (church going) family
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Married (in jail)
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College graduate, law student, politically ambitious, rape
counselor.
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Respected and admired by (most) who met him.
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Popular with women, generally considered to be a nice
guy.
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Served on crime prevention committees
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Performed community service regularly
Anti-social activity
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Serial killer in early eighties
Raped and murdered 12 women from Washington to
Florida
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Chose victims who looked like his ex girlfriend.
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Crimes spanned four states
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Escaped from jail to resume his killing spree
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Protested his innocence until he was sentenced to
death, when he showed remorse.
Jeffery
Dahmer
Victim List
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Steven Hicks June, 1978
Steven Tuomi Sept, 1987
James Doxtator January, 1988
Richard Guerrero March, 1988
Anthony Sears March, 1989
Edward Smith June, 1990
Raymond Smith July, 1990
Ricky Lee Beeks July, 1990
Ernest Miller Sept., 1990
David Thomas Sept., 1990
Curtis Straughter Feb., 1991
Errol Lindsey April, 1991
Anthony Hughes May 24, 1991
Konerak Sinthasomphone May 27, 1991
Matt Turner June 30, 1991
Jeremiah Weinberger July 5, 1991
Oliver Lacey July 12, 1991
Joseph Bradehoft July 19, 1991
The Early Years
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Dissected dead animals at a young age
Teenage years: alcoholic
Molested by a neighbor
Parents divorced - left with only his father
Had dreams of killing and mutilating men
College: dropped out and joined the army
1982: Moved in with his grandmother (22 years old)
• Arrested for exposing himself at a state fair
1986: Arrested for exposure of himself to two young males
1988: Grandmother kicked him out
• Stayed up all night
• Odors from the basement
1988: Arrested for sexually fondling a 13 year old boy
Convinced judge he needed a therapist
Anti-social activity
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Victims all male
Age / race not consistent
Murdered in killers home
All were homosexual
Victims all raped
Victims were lured to his home for intimate
contact
Once there victims were drugged and tortured
Bodies were dismembered
Some body parts were eaten by the killer
The Police Found
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Multiple photographs of murdered victims
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Human remains: heads and genitals
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Corpse were stored in acid filled vats
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Was attempting to create zombies
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Practiced necrophilia, cannibalism, and possibly
a form of trepanation
Trepanation
The End of Dahmer
One of his victims escaped and a neighbor called the
police, who believed Dahmers’ story of the boy
being his lover and released the boy to Dahmers’
custody and his death. A final victim was lucky
enough to escape and this time the police took
notice. He admitted to the murders and detailed
his brutality. He plead guilty and insane but the
jury found him guilty and sane, while he was in
prison one inmate tried to slash Dahmers’ throat
unsuccessfully, the next attack (with an iron bar)
was successful in smashing Dahmers’ scull and
killing him.
 Paul
and Karla
Paul Bernardo
 Hamilton,
Ontario
 University
graduate
 Successful
accountant
Karla Homolka

Hamilton, Ontario
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University graduate
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Veterinary assistant
Antisocial activities
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Paul had many prior girlfriends but treated
them sadistic fashion
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He and Karla had a sado-masochistic sex life
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Together, they drugged, raped and murdered
three women
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Including Karla’s sister
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They filmed the activities to watch later
Karla wins
 Karla
turns in Paul to police
 Gets
special deal – 12 years in prison
gets life in prison – no chance of
parole
 Paul
Christopher
Rocancourt
Christopher Rocancourt

Mug shot
Biography
 Raised
in France
 Violent
history in Europe
 Adored
in Los Angeles
Character
 Master
manipulator
 Assumed
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many different identities:
Millionaire, Movie producer, race-car
driver,
Member of Rothschild family
Member of Rockefeller family
Arrested for
 Bilking
 Many
victims of money: esp. women
counts of extortion, fraud, weapons
in NY, LA, and Vancouver
Clifford Olson
Vancouver, BC
Antisocial activities
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Arrests for include theft, assault,
escape (7 times), rape, dangerous driving
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At least 11 murders including many children
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Victims sexually assaulted and mutilated
Character
 Early
delinquency
 Social
 Story
charm
teller
Manipulation
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Avoids arrest for 11 murders
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Mocks police until arrest
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Manipulates federal government
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Special privileges in prison
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“Vacations” to Vancouver
Albert De Salvo
Born in 1931, Died at 42 in 1973
Ave height and weight
Married with 2 children
Various employment:
Army, rubber factory, shipyard,
construction
Described as:
loving husband, devoted father,
mild mannered, decent, neat and
well liked by most
The Boston Strangler
The Measurer, The Green Man
Various minor crimes
Abusive father
13 victims as the Boston strangler
Rumored 300+ victims as The
Measurer and The Green Man
Paranoid schizophrenic
Cold blooded killer, remorseless
Victim List
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Anna Slesers (55) Died 14th June 1962
Mary Mullen (85) Died 28th June 1962
Nina Nichols (68) Died 30th June 1962
Helen Blake (65) Died 30th June 1962
Ida Irga (75) Died 19th August 1962
Jane Sullivan (67) Died 20th August 1962
Sophie Clark (20) Died 5th December 1962
Patricia Bissette (23) Died 31st December 1962
Mary Brown (69) Died 9th March 1963
Beverley Samans (23) Died 6th May 1963
Evelyn Corbin (58) Died 8th September 1963
Joann Graff (23) Died 23rd November 1963
Mary Sullivan (19) Died 4th January 1964
Modus Operandi
 Victims
all female
 Age / race not consistent
 Murdered in their own apartments
 No forced entry
 Victims all raped
 Bodies left in obscene positions
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Strangled, usually with their own silk stockings
 Tied
stockings in a bow under their chin
 He terrorized Boston for 18 months
The End of the Strangler
While in custody for rape and breaking and
entering, he confessed to also being the
Boston strangler, and murdering 13 women.
His wife took his two children to her
homeland of Germany at the urging of his
lawyer. He was never tried as the Boston
strangler, but was given sentences for his
rape and burglary charges that would ensure
he spent the rest of his life in custody. Six
years into those sentences he was stabbed
while in the infirmary and found dead the
Aileen Carol Wuornos
 Dad
- Dale
Pittman was a
psychopathic
child molester
who hanged
himself in prison
in 1969
Victim List
1.
2.
3.
4.
Richard Mallory, May 1, 1990
David Spears, June 1, 1990
Charles Carskaddon, June 6, 1990
Peter Siems, July 4, 1990 (body was never
found)
5. Troy Burress, August 4, 1990
6. Dick Humphreys, September 12, 1990
7. Walter Jeno (Gino) Antonio, November 19, 1990
Antisocial activities
 Prostitute
 Murdered
7 men she claimed tried to rape
her while she prostituting
 Admitted
to murders for her ex-lover
Women Serial Killers
 Female
serial killers have long killing
sprees, lasting up to 8 years (males'
sprees last about 4 years and usually end
after several months).
 Female
serial killers kill more quietly and
less "violently", with poison or other less
undetectable methods, like suffocation.
Males tend to batter, strangle, stab, and
shoot.
Women Serial Killers
 Female
serial killers kill for profit most of
the time, while male serial killers kill for
sexual reasons about half the time.
 Female
serial killers generally kill people
close to them, such as husbands, family
members, or people dependent on them.
Males kill strangers more often.
All Serial Killers
look, act, and sound normal – which
makes people trust them
 They
 They
are psychopaths, but they're not
insane
 Neither
male nor female serial killers have
a conscience
Psychopathy
 Key
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Aspects:
Criminality vs. mental illness
Absence of conscience
“Emotional poverty”
Sex differences
Genetics
Physiological dysfunction
Family & social context
Learning deficits
Questions?
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Antisocial PD & Borderline PD