Theory of Reasoned Action
Theory of Reasoned Action
(TORA) and Theory of(TORA) and Theory of
Planned Behaviour
Planned Behaviour (TpB)
Feedback from NOSOVE course
25-27 November 2009
Uppsala, Sweden
Journal Club of Life Sciences
February 2010
Presented by Brian Lassen
Estonian University of Life Sciences
Climate Change and
the
Potential
Range
History
Expansion of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes
First introduction:
scapularis in Canada
Fishbein (1967): Readings in Attitude Theory and
Measurement
Formalised:
Fishbein and Aijzen (1975): Belief, Attitude, Intention
and Behaviour: An introduction to Theory and
Research
Definitive book:
Aijzen and Fishbein (1980): Understanding Attitudes
and Predicting Social Behaviour
From presentation by Chris Garfoth
Climate What
Change
and
the
Potential
Range
is TORA and TpB?
Expansion of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes
Statistical model thatscapularis
use quenstionnaires
to find correlation between
in Canada
explained intents and beliefs and actual behavior.
Who use TORA and TpB?
• Economists (agricultural economics, marketing)
• Sociology (rual sociology)
• Antropology
• Psycology
• Social Psycology
• Medicine
• Veterinary Sciences
From presentation by Chris Garfoth
What can TORA and TpB be used for?
Adressing questions:
- About welfare
• Standard of living
• Poverty (how to measure it, what
causes it, comparing between
people)
• What effect does different policies
have on welfare?
Adressing behaviour
• Why do people behave the way
they do?
• How do other people influence
the way we behave?
• What type of farmers are likely to
adopt new technology/advice
From presentation by Chris Garfoth
Key assumptions in TORA
„Human behavior is rational“
„Human behaviours have a common structure and can therefore be predicted“
„Explaining any human behaviour requires examining determinant of intentions:
attitudes and beliefs.“
From presentation by Chris Garfoth
Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA)
Behavioural
Beliefs
bs
Normative
Beliefs
nb
Attitude
Towards
Subjective
the
Norm
Behaviour
mc
oe
B = γ1Σbsioei + γ2Σnbjmej
Behaviour (B) = Behaviour intent
bs = belief strength (behaviour → outcome?)
oe = outcome evaluation (good/bad)
nb = normative beliefs (should/should not)
mc = motivation to comply (willingness)
Intention
Behaviour
Copyright © Icek Azin 2002
Theory of Planned Behaviour (TpB)
Behavioural
Beliefs
bs
Normative
Beliefs
nb
Control
Beliefs
cb
Attitude
Perceived
Towards
Subjective
Behavioral
the
Norm
Control
Behaviour
mc
oe
pb
B = γ1Σbsioei + γ2Σnbjmej + γ3Σcbkpbk
Behaviour (B) = Behaviour intent
bs = belief strength (behaviour → outcome?)
oe = outcome evaluation (good/bad)
nb = normative beliefs (should/should not)
mc = motivation to comply (willingness)
cb =control belief (belief → change behaviour)
pb = power of control belief (subjective
evaluation of cause → effect)
Intention
Behaviour
Copyright © Icek Azin 2002
Theory of Planned Behaviour (TpB)
Behavioural
Beliefs
bs
Normative
Beliefs
nb
Control
Beliefs
cb
Attitude
Perceived
Towards
Subjective
Behavioral
the
Norm
Control
Behaviour
mc
oe
pb
Intention
Behaviour
Actual
Behaviour
Control
B = γ1Aact + γ2SN + γ3PBC
Behaviour (B) = Behaviour intent
Aact = Attitude – postitive/negative evaluation
of performing behaviour
SN = Subjective Norm – persons perception
of the social pressures on him/her to/not to
perform behaviour
PBC = Percieved behavioural control –
pervieved ease/difficulty of performing a
behavour
Follow up control after initial questionnaire:
Actual Behaviour Control – correlation
between stated intent and actual intent.
Copyright © Icek Azin 2002
Example of phrasing a question for TORA
Behaviour being examined:
Using disinfectant to prevent disease in pigs when cleaning
Action in question:
Disinfecting
Target of question:
Disinfectant
Context in which to view question:
Cleaning living areas for pigs
Important to avoid changes in behaviour over time
Time:
Within monthly hygiene practices
Examples of TORA questions
Behavioural Beliefs and Attitude towards Behaviour
Intention of behaviour (bs):
„How strong is your intention to strictly follow the Ministry of
Agricultures recommended guidelines regarding disinfection of
pigs pens during the next year?“
Very strongly (+2), Strongly (+1), Undecided (0), Not so strong (-1), No intention (-2)
Behavioural
Beliefs
bs
Attitude
Towards
the
Behaviour
oe
Emotive measure (oe):
„In your opinion how good or bad would it be to strictly follow the Ministry of
Agricultures recommended guidelines regarding disinfection of pigs pens during
the next year?“
Very good (+2), good (+1), Don't know (0), bad (-1), very bad (-2)
Calculated attitude = intention of behaviour (bs) x emotive measure (oe)
Value: 4 to -4
Examples of TORA questions
Subjective Norm
The stated subjective norm:
„Would people who you respect in the farming industry be supportive or
opposed if you adopted the Ministry of Agricultures recommended
guidelines regarding disinfection of pigs pens during the next year?“
Normative
Beliefs
nb
Subjective
Norm
Very supportive (+2), supportive (+1), Don't know (0), opposed (-1), very opposed (-2)
The calculated subjective norm (nb):
mc
„How strongly do you feel the would agree with your veterinarian in adopted the Ministry of
Agricultures recommended guidelines regarding disinfection of pigs pens during the next year?“
Strongly agree (+2), agree (+1), Don't know (0), diagree (-1), strongly disagree (-2)
Motivation to comply (mc):
„How strongly motivated would you be to comply with your veterinarian if he/she ask you to
strictly follow the Ministry of Agricultures recommended guidelines regarding disinfection of pigs
pens during the next year?“
Very motivated (+2), motivated (+1), Don't know (0), not very motivated (-1), not at all motivated (-2)
Motivation to comply = normative belief (nb) x motivation to comply (mc)
Value: 4 to -4
Behavioural
Beliefs
Attitude
Towards
the
Behaviour
bs
Statistical application (TORA)
nb
Spearman coefficient correlations (r)
mc
oe
In example
Subjective norm is more
important than the
attitude
Attitude
sb x oe
Mean: 3.78
Range (+36 to -36)
r=0.261
(*)
Ranked influenceal „drivers“
• Cost effective (range +4 to -4) (***)
• Improve mortality rates (range +4 to -4) (***)
• Improve health (range +4 to -4) (***)
• Effective for all ages (range +4 to -4) (**)
Intention
Normative
Beliefs
Subjective
Norm
Subjective Norm
nb x mc
Mean: 0.36
Range (+2 to -2)
r=0.343
(***)
Mean: -0.66
Range (+2 to -2)
One significant subjective norm
r=0.387
(***)
Behaviour
Mean: 0.36
Range (0 to 1)
From presentation by Chris Garfoth
Application of questions
Survey questionnaires
1. Answerable in 15 minutes
2. Behaviours addressed kept to a minimum of 3
3. Keep the number of referents and outcome beliefs to a
manageable number
4. Stated subject norm should only be applied to specific
behaviours
5. Pay particular attention to the layout of the questionnaire.
Running veterinary research with TORA
DAHREVA
A study aiming to improve the health recording systems.
Assessment of the validity of the dairy health recording systems in the
Nordic countries (funding: NKJ – 127), *
PhD students
Cecilia Wolff – Sweden
Mari Espetvedt – Norway
Simo Rintakoski – Finland
Ann-Kristina Lind - Denmark
Thank you
Next Journal Club...
18 March, 13:00
Toiv Haljasorg:
Mass spectrometry
and applications in
science