Emotions—Why Emotions Were Ignored
in OB
 Emotions are critical factor in employee behavior.
 The “myth of rationality”
 Emotions of any kind are disruptive to
– Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong
negative emotions that interfered with individual and
organizational efficiency.
What Are Emotions?
A broad range of emotions that people experience
Intense feelings that are
directed at someone or
Feelings that tend to
be less intense than
emotions and that lack
a contextual stimulus
Aspects of Emotions
 Biology of Emotions
– Originate in brain’s limbic system
 Intensity of Emotions
– Personality
– Job requirements
 Frequency and Duration of Emotions
– How often emotions are exhibited
– How long emotions are displayed
 Functions of Emotions
– Critical for rational thinking
– Motivate people
Mood as Positive and Negative Affect
Sources of Emotions and Moods
Day and Time of the Week
NOT Weather
Social Activities
Positive Moods are
• At the End of the
• In the Middle
Part of the Day
Negative Moods are
• At the Beginning
of the Week
And show little
variation throughout
the day
Gender and Emotions
 Women
Can show greater emotional expression
Experience emotions more intensely
Display emotions more frequently
Are more comfortable in expressing emotions
Are better at reading others’ emotions
 Men
– Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with
the male image
– Are innately less able to read and to identify with
others’ emotions
– Have less need to seek social approval by showing
positive emotions
External Constraints on Emotions
Emotional Labor
A situation in which an employee expresses
organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal
Emotional dissonance—Inconsistencies between the
emotions we feel and the emotions we project.
Felt vs. Displayed Emotions
Felt Emotions
An individual’s actual emotions
Displayed Emotions
Emotions that are organizationally
required and considered appropriate in
a given job
Note: Higher
emotional labor
equals more
highly paid jobs
(with high
•Internals (Internal locus of control)
Individuals who believe that they
control what happens to them.
Affective Events Theory (AET)
 Work events trigger positive and negative emotional
– Personality and mood determine the intensity of the
emotional response.
– Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance
and job satisfaction variables.
 Implications of the theory ACT
– Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles.
– Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction.
– Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction
and performance.
– Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers
and reduce job performance.
Affective Events Theory (AET)
Source: Based on N.M. Ashkanasy and C.S. Daus, “Emotion in the Workplace: The New
Challenge for Managers,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, p. 77.
E X H I B I T 8–6
Emotional Intelligence
 Self-awareness = Know how you feel
 Self-management = Manage your emotions and
 Self-motivation = Can motivate yourself and persist
 Empathy = Sense and understand what others feel
 Social Skills = Can handle the emotions of others
Research Findings: Characterize high
performers, high EI scores, not high IQ
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods
 Emotions and Selection
– Emotions affect employee effectiveness.
 Decision Making
– Emotions are an important part of the decision-making
process in organizations.
 Creativity
– Positive mood increases creativity.
 Motivation
– Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are
strongly linked.
 Leadership
– Emotions are important to acceptance of messages
from organizational leaders.
OB Applications . . . (cont’d)
 Interpersonal Conflict
– Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are
strongly intertwined.
 Negotiation
– Emotions can impair negotiations.
 Customer Services
– Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers
which, in turn, affects customer relationships.
 Job Attitudes
– Can carry over to home
 Deviant Workplace Behaviors
– Negative emotions lead to employee deviance
(actions that violate norms and threaten the
Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods
Lucy has a high need for achievement and likes
to come to work and focus on her job only. If
you were Lucy’s manager, how could you get
her to feel more emotion at work? Would you
want her to? Why or why not? Discuss with a
Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods
Discuss with your neighbor how low positive
affect is the same or different as high
negative affect.
Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods
Roberto comes to class and sits quietly
looking content and relaxed. The teacher is
guessing that Roberto is:
Low on negative affect
High on positive affect
High on negative affect
Low on positive affect
Discuss with a neighbor why Roberto, who is
seemingly happy but calm, isn’t just low on
positive affect.
Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods
Do you think there could be emotional and mood
implications for telecommuting? If yes, how so?
Discuss with a classmate.
Hint: Consider
this woman!
Why might she
NOT always feel
this way?

Organizational Behavior 11e