Chapter 6
LSD and Other
Hallucinogens
Definition of
Hallucinogen
Hallucinogens
distortions of perception
altered sense of reality, transported to new reality
also called psychedelics (“mind-expanding”) drugs
produce these effects at low or moderate doses
other drugs may produce hallucinations at high
doses
Classifying Hallucinogens
• Four basic groups by pharmacology
serotoninergic (5-HT systems)
noradrenergic (NE systems)
cholinergic (ACh systems)
miscellaneous
synthetic hallucinogens
e.g. phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine
little resemblance to any known neurotransmitter
Classifying Hallucinogens
Groups based on effects
psychedelics
dissociative anesthetics
deliriants
produce side effects that are very unpleasant
therefore generally not used recreationally
Figure 6.1
Claviceps
tulasne
(ergot)
Amanita
muscaria
(ibotenic
acid)
Atropa
belladonna
(atropine)
Datura
stramonium
(atropine,
scopolamine)
LSD
A. is one of the most toxic of abused drugs
B. was used by the CIA in experiments in the
1950s
C. users show little tolerance to the drug,
even if used over long periods
D. like cocaine and the opiates, is abused
because it is a potent activator of DA reward
systems
E. led to a surge in admissions to psychiatric
admissions during its height of popularity as
evidenced by DAWN statistics
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
(LSD)
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25)
serotonergic drug
synthetically derived from ergot
toxic rye fungus
responsible for thousands of deaths over the centuries.
LSD itself has an extremely large safety margin
unclear what the LD50 is
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
(LSD)
1938
LSD synthesized by Albert Hofmann
1947
Sandoz marketed LSD (Delysid)
for treating psychiatric disorders
1950s
CIA experiments for use in mind control
and chemical warfare
given to unsuspecting enlisted men
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
(LSD)
1960s
LSD popularized by Timothy Leary
1990s
resurgence in LSD abuse
began to reverse in 1997
Taken orally, experience lasts about 12 hours
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
(LSD)
LSD experience
unpredictable but certain features are
commonly observed:
colorful hallucinations
synesthesia in which sounds often appear as
visions
a distortion of perceptual reality
emotional swings
feeling of timelessness
illusory separation of mind from body
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
(LSD-25)
LSD
affects a subtype of serotonergic receptors 5-HT-2A
receptors
does not result in addiction or dependence
craving is absent
tolerance is extremely rapid; one dose
serves to prevent abuse
Facts and Fiction about LSD
LSD does not
produce psychological or physical dependence
induce a panic or psychotic state
(providing that there is a supportive setting for
taking of LSD; “set” is very important)*
elevate one’s level of creativity
damage chromosomes
promote violent behavior
LSD abuse MAY
cause birth defects if used during pregnancy
result in flashback experiences
hallucinogen-induced persisting perceptual disorder (HPPD)
* Panic attacks are much more likely if the individual has an existing psychiatric condition
than if not, or if the person is unsuspecting or is emotionally troubled at the time.
Prevalence of LSD Use
8th Grade
10th Grade
12th Grade
Lifetime***
1.9%
2.6%
4.0%
Past Year
1.3
1.8
2.7
Past Month
0.5
0.7
1.1
Source: 2008 Monitoring the Future Survey,
NIDA.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
(LSD)
LSD is classified as a Schedule I
drug.
LSD should be classified as a Schedule I
drug.
LSD closely resembles the molecular structure of
__________.
A. dopamine
B. serotonin
C. endorphins
D. acetylcholine
Other Hallucinogens
Related to Serotonin
Other serotonergic hallucinogens
psilocybin
mushrooms (0.5% psilocybin, trace psilocin)
oral delivery: tea or added to foods
20 min latency, 6 hr duration
lysergic acid amide (LAA)
dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
DMT the “businessman’s hallucinogen”
often used with harmine, a MAO inhibitor
ayahuaska
bufotenine
“bufo” is a genus of toad; toad-licking
indole
psilocybin
serotonin
harmine
LSD
bufotenine
Hallucinogens Related
to Norepinephrine
Mescaline
from crown of peyote cactus (button)
used in native American religious ceremonies
chemically related to norepinephrine
actions at 5-HT-2A receptors are responsible
hallucinogenic effects
Hallucinogens Related
to Norepinephrine
DOM and MDMA
synthetic variations of the amphetamine molecule
MDMA (Ecstasy)
popular club drug
neurotoxic to 5-HT neurons
DOM
2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylampetamine (DOM)
more euphoric, less hallucinogenic than LSD
may produce “amphetamine psychosis” with
prolonged use
Hallucinogens Related
to Norepinephrine
MDMA
synthetic, taken orally in tablet or capsule form
(3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
structurally similar to 5-HT
blocks 5-HT, NE reuptake
may also enter terminals via
5-HT transporter
Hallucinogens Related
to Norepinephrine
MDMA (Ecstacy, XTC, etc)
Sometimes used in combination with other drugs
e.g. LSD, psilocybin, marijuana, ketamine
Hallucinogens Related
to Norepinephrine
MDMA (Ecstacy, XTC, etc)
mental stimulation
emotional warmth
enhanced sensory perception
increased physical energy.
Has been used in psychotherapy for its
empathy-enhancing effects
PTSD, other anxiety disorder
Popular club drug
Hallucinogens Related
to Norepinephrine
MDMA (Ecstacy, XTC, etc)
nausea
chills
sweating
teeth clenching
muscle cramping
blurred vision
hyperthermia
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hallucinogens Related
to Norepinephrine
DOM
2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylampetamine (DOM)
more euphoric, less hallucinogenic than LSD
slower onset than LSD, effects last 7-24 hours
like LSD, DOM is a 5-HT-2A partial agonist
may produce “amphetamine psychosis” with
prolonged use
Hallucinogens Related
to Norepinephrine
Your text includes DOM and MDMA as hallucinogens
often classified as stimulants
potent effects on NE and DA reuptake, much like
“classical” stimulants
arousal effects are much greater than those of
psychedelics.
Hallucinogenic effects
much milder than those of true psychedelics
dopamine
mescaline
MDMA
norepinephrine
amphetamine
DOM
Mescaline is derived from __________.
A. psilocybin mushrooms
B. the bark of a South American tree
C. substances created in a laboratory
D. the peyote cactus
Toxicity of MDMA (Ecstasy) involves __________.
A. hyperthermia
B. dehydration
C. agitation and confusion
D. all of the above
Hallucinogens Related
to Acetylcholine
Anticholinergic (ACh antagonist) hallucinogens
block muscarinic ACh receptors
cause extreme confusion, temporary psychosis
“deliriants”
amnesia
autonomic effects include
blurred vision
extreme dilation of pupils
rapid heart rate
all of which are unpleasant to the user
preclude becoming drugs of abuse
Hallucinogens Related
to Acetylcholine
Sources include
deadly nightshade (belladonna)
mandrake roots
henbane seeds
datura family (jimsonweed)
involved in sorcery and
witchcraft since the Middle
Ages (“hexing drugs”)
combination of atropine,
scopolamine, and/or hyoscyamine
Miscellaneous Hallucinogens:
Phencyclidine (PCP), Ketamine,
and Salvia divinorum
Phencyclidine and Ketamine
dissociative anesthetics
NMDA (glutamate) receptor antagonists
hallucinogenic properties make them unsuitable
for use in humans
ketamine is a standard component of a commonly
used veterinary anesthetic
Salvinorin A (Salvia divinorum)
analgesic as well as hallucinogenic properties
selective κ-opioid receptor agonist
Miscellaneous Hallucinogens:
Phencyclidine (PCP), Ketamine,
and Salvia divinorum
PCP (angel dust)
1950s
developed as an anesthetic
1960s
appeared as a psychedelic street drug
developed a reputation for adverse reactions
aggression, acute schizophrenia-like behaviors
lost favor
1970s
reappeared smokable forms
alone or in combination with marijuana
Miscellaneous Hallucinogens:
Phencyclidine (PCP), Ketamine,
and Salvia divinorum
PCP (angel dust)
snorted, smoked
duration of effect, 4-6 hrs
Chronic Effects
memory loss
difficulties with speech and thinking
depression
weight loss
Addictive—users engage in drug-seeking
Symptoms may persist up to one year after
stopping PCP abuse.
The principal reason anticholinergic drugs have little
or no street appeal is that they produce __________.
A. nausea and headaches
B. powerful hallucinations
C. a feeling of flying out of control
D. amnesia
Table 6.2
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education,
Inc. All rights reserved.
Miscellaneous Hallucinogens:
Phencyclidine (PCP), Ketamine,
and Salvia divinorum
Ketamine
popular club drug
produces a dream-like intoxication
inability to move or feel pain
amnesia
potentially hazardous depression in breathing
Miscellaneous Hallucinogens:
Phencyclidine (PCP), Ketamine,
and Salvia divinorum
Salvia divinorum
Mexican leafy herb
smoked
chewed
brewed as a tea
Hallucinogenic effects
short-lived (1 min onset, 30 sec duration)
altered visual perception, perception of reality
mood and body sensations
emotional swings
feelings of detachment
individual experimentation, not a club drug
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LSD and other hallucinogens