“Measuring Emotion: Behavior, Feeling, and Physiology” By: Margaret M Bradley & Peter J. Lang Group 3-Youngjin Kang, Alyssa Nolde, Antoinette Sellers, Zhiheng Zhou Why do the authors focus on specific muscles? Why do they matter? • Responses of facial muscles help to characterize how emotions are expresses physiologically. • Studying specific muscles like the zygomatic muscle provides information to researchers about how physiological responses accompany perceptions of arousal and affect of stimuli Figure 11.6 • Patterns of physiological response • Shows that: – Facial corrugator EMG activity (top) left) and heart rate (top right) vary as function of picture valence • Ex. Strong contraction of the corrugator muscle when a picture is rated as unpleasant – Skin conductance activity (bottom left) and cortical evoked potentials (bottom right) vary with picture arousal • Ex. As arousal increased, skin conductance increased Figure 11.7 • Figure 11.7 shows the correlation between individula’s affective judgments of pleasure and arousal with with their physiological and behavioral response • Corrugator EMG, zygomatic, and heart rate vary with differences in rates pleasure – Ex. Zygomatic activity increases as the pleasantness of the stimuli increases • Skin conductance, cortical evoked potentials, and viewing time vary with arousal ratings – Cortical activity increases as arousal increases What does heart rate measure? • Triphasic pattern of heart rate response – Initial deceleration (unpleasant) – Followed acceleration (unpleasant) – Secondary deceleration Electrocardiogram Heart rate monitor What does skin conductance measure? • Skin conductance, also known as galvanic skin response (GSR), reflects activation of the autonomic nervous system by measuring the electrodermal activity • Indexation of arousal Event related potentials and slow wave activity? Brain Activities Processing Emotional Pictures Coronal Plane of Occipital Lobe • Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., Fitzsimmons, J. R., Cuthbert, B. N., Scott, J. D., Moulder, B., & Nangia, V. (1998). Emotional arousal and activation of the visual cortex: An fMRI analysis. Psychophysiology, 35(2), 199-210. • Overlapping areas General visual processing (Calcarine fissure + Brodmann ‘s area 18) (Lang, et al., 1998). • Emotional Stimuli 1. More overall activation with emotional pictures. 2. Right occipital gyrus activation with only emotional pictures (Lang, et al., 1998). Discuss how these measures can yield meaningful patterns and examples of analyses leading to them. Sex Differences of Brain activity with Emotional Pictures • Main Effect More right posterior activation with emotional pictures regardless of sex (Lang, et al., 1998). • Interaction Effect 1. More right posterior activation of unpleasant stimuli for female participant's. 2. More right posterior activation of pleasant stimuli for male participants (Lang., et al., 1998). Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., Fitzsimmons, J. R., Cuthbert, B. N., Scott, J. D., Moulder, B., & Nangia, V. (1998). Emotional arousal and activation of the visual cortex: An fMRI analysis. Psychophysiology, 35(2), 199-210.