Work engagement
Prof. dr. Arnold Bakker
June 15, 2011
PART 1
Positive Context
Positive Organizational Behavior
The study and application of positively
oriented human resource strengths
and psychological capacities that can
be measured, developed, and
effectively managed for performance
improvement in today’s workplace
Luthans (2003)
Work Engagement
“A positive, affective-motivational state
of fulfillment that is characterized by
vigor, dedication, and absorption.”
Schaufeli & Bakker (2003, 2004, 2010)
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale
Schaufeli & Bakker (2003)
• Vigor
• At my work, I feel bursting with energy
• At my job, I feel strong and vigorous
• Dedication
• To me, my job is challenging
• I am enthusiastic about my job
• Absorption
• When I am working, I forget everything else around me
• I am completely immersed in my work
HIGH
ACTIVATION
Excited
Agitated
Enthusiastic
Hostile
Irritated
Unpleasant
high activation
Angry
Tense
Energised
Happy
ENGAGEMENT
Pleased
PLEASANT
UNPLEASANT
Dejected
Content
Lethargic
Fatigued
Unpleasant low
activation
Pleasant low
activation
Gloomy
Calm
Tranquil
Sad
Russell & Carroll (1999)
Relaxed
LOW
ACTIVATION
HIGH
ACTIVATION
Excited
Agitated
Enthusiastic
Hostile
Irritated
Energised
Unpleasant
high activation
Angry
Happy
ENGAGEMENT
Tense
Pleased
PLEASANT
UNPLEASANT
BURNOUT
Dejected
Lethargic
Fatigued
Unpleasant low
activation
Gloomy
Pleasant low
activation
Relaxed
Calm
Tranquil
Sad
Bakker & Oerlemans (2011)
Content
LOW
ACTIVATION
HIGH
ACTIVATION
Excited
Agitated
Enthusiastic
Hostile
Irritated
Energised
Unpleasant
high activation
Angry
WORKAHOLISM
Tense
Happy
ENGAGEMENT
Pleased
PLEASANT
UNPLEASANT
BURNOUT
Dejected
Lethargic
Fatigued
Unpleasant low
activation
SATISFACTION
Gloomy
Relaxed
Calm
Tranquil
Sad
Bakker & Oerlemans (2011)
Pleasant low
activation
Content
LOW
ACTIVATION
Engaged Employees
• Take personal initiative
• Generate their own positive feedback
• Are also engaged outside their work
• Are tired in a different way
• Also want to do other things than
working
Schaufeli et al. (2001)
PART 2
Predictors
Demand-Control model
Arnold Bakker
Effort-Reward Imbalance Model
Siegrist (1996)
Arnold Bakker
EXERCISE
What are your most important
Job Demands and Resources?
Write down 5 of each
Arnold Bakker
Many Demands and
Resources
Etc.
Etc.
Physical
Demands
Feedback
Mental
Demands
Emotional
Demands
Workload
Coaching
Social
Support
Autonomy
JD-R Model of Engagement
Bakker & Demerouti (2008)
Job
Demands
Job
Resources
Personal
Resources
+
+
Work
Engagement +
+
Performance
Technicians, N=163
18-month follow-up
Xanthopoulou et al. (2009 - JVB)
CAUSAL EFFECTS
Time 1
Time 2
Job
Resources
Job
Resources
.21
Personal
Resources
Personal
Resources
.33
.22
Work
Engagement
Work
Engagement
Technicians, N=163
18-month follow-up
Xanthopoulou et al. (2009 - JVB)
REVERSED CAUSAL EFFECTS
Time 1
Job
Resources
Time 2
.18
Job
Resources
.30
Personal
Resources
Work
Engagement
.22
Personal
Resources
Work
Engagement
Dutch Managers, N=201
.74
T1 Burnout
Δ Job
Demands
-.72
.23
-.27
-.58
Δ Job
Resources
T1
Engagement
T2 Burnout
.68
-.79
.45
T2
Engagement
Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict
burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 893-917.
Finnish Dentists, N=2555
Job
Demands
.23
.16
Burnout
Depressive
Symptoms
-.05
-
-
-
-.05
Job
Resources
.08
Work
Organizational
Engagement .23 Commitment
Hakanen, Schaufeli & Ahola (2008)
Belgian employees, N=745
Job
Demands
.62
-.15
Exhaustion
-.32
-.11
Need
Satisfaction
.86
Job
Resources
.31
.34
Vigor
Van den Broeck et al. (2008)
JOB DEMANDS
Interactions in JD-R model
HIGH
BURNOUT
WORK
ENGAGEMENT
LOW
APATHY
BOREDOM
LOW
HIGH
JOB RESOURCES
Resources work when needed
Finnish Dentists, N=1919
Work Engagement
6
5
4
Low Skill Variety
High Skill Variety
3
2
1
0
Low Qualitative
Workload
High Qualitative
Workload
Hakanen, J.J., Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2005). How dentists cope with their job demands and
stay engaged: The moderating role of job resources. European Journal of Oral Sciences
Resources work when needed
Finnish Teachers, N=805
Work Engagement
6
5
4
Low Appreciation
High Appreciation
3
2
1
0
Low Pupil
Misbehavior
High Pupil Misbehavior
Bakker, A.B., Hakanen, J.J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement,
particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99 , 274-284.
Resources work when needed
Dutch Employees, N=12,000
3,5
Task Enjoyment
3
2,5
2
Low Career Opp.
High Career Opp.
1,5
1
0,5
0
Low Workload
High Workload
Bakker, A., Van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the demand-control model:
Thriving on high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 3-16.
Personal Resources
“aspects of the self that refer to
individuals’ sense of their ability to
control and impact upon their
environment successfully”
(Hobfoll et al., 2003)
Self-efficacy
Resilience
Optimism
Self-esteem
Personal Resources
Personal resources are important
because they protect against negative
stress, may promote health, and can be
used to cope with stressful situations
Stress resilience as motivator
Financial Firm, N=388
Work Engagement
8
7
6
Low Emotional Demands
Low Resilience
High Emotional Demands
High Resilience
PART 3
Outcomes
EXERCISE
What are the consequences of
engagement?
Discuss with your neighbour
Outcomes of Engagement
• Better performance
• Reduced Absence
• Reduced Personnel Turnover
• Higher productivity
• Client satisfaction
• Engaged Colleagues
Demerouti & Cropanzano (2010)
Daily Engagement
Daily engagement flight attendants
• Trait Support
• Trait Self-efficacy
• Trait Work Engagement
SelfEfficacy
Social
Support
Performance
Work
Engagement
Xanthopoulou et al. (2008, JOHP)
Greek fast-food restaurants
• Branch
• Trait Personal Resources
• Trait Work Engagement
Personal
Resources
Job
Resources
Financial
Turnover
Work
Engagement
Xanthopoulou et al. (2009, JOOP)
Greek fast-food restaurants
• Branch
• Trait Personal Resources
• Trait Work Engagement
Self-efficacy
Optimism
Self-esteem
Autonomy
Coaching
Team Climate
Financial
Turnover
Work
Engagement
Xanthopoulou et al. (2009, JOOP)
Is engagement
contagious?
Engagement is contagious
6
Engagement Men
5
4
Low Empathy
High Empathy
3
2
1
0
Low Engagement
Women
High Engagement
Results
Trait
Extraversion
A
Trait
Extraversion
B
+
+
Frequency
Daily
Communic
Daily
Engagement
A
Bakker & Xanthopoulou (2009)
+
Daily
Engagement
B
+
Daily
Performance
B
Work Engagement B
Interaction
Communication + 1 SD
0.12
0.05
-0.02
Communication – 1 SD
-0.09
-0.16
-0.23
-1.000
0.000
Work Engagement Person A
Bakker & Xanthopoulou (2009)
1.000
PART 5
Interventions
Job Crafting
• Employees may actively change the
design of their jobs by choosing tasks,
negotiating different job content, and
assigning meaning to their tasks or jobs
Parker & Ohly (2008)
Job Crafting
Job crafting is defined as the
physical and cognitive changes
individuals make in their task or
relational boundaries
Wrzesniewski & Dutton (2001)
Job Crafting
Job crafting is defined as the
changes individuals make in their
job demands and job resources
Tims & Bakker (in press, South African
Journal of Industrial Psychology
Job Crafting
Increasing
Structural
JRs
Increasing
Social JRs
Decreasing
JDs
Increasing
JDs
Job Crafting Scale
• Increase Job Resources
• I ask my supervisor to coach me
• I ask others for feedback on my job performance
• Increase Job Demands
• When an interesting project comes along, I offer
myself proactively as project co-worker
Job Crafting
• Decrease Job Demands
• I organise my work in such a way to make
sure that I do not have to concentrate for too
long a period at once
Job Crafting Scale - Reliabilities
Increasing
Structural Job
Resources
Increasing
Social Job
Resources
Increasing
Job Demands
Decreasing
Job Demands
375
.82
.77
.75
.79
294
.80
.78
.70
.71
196
.82
.82
.76
.72
N
Tims, M., Bakker, A.B. & Derks, D. (2010). Measuring Job Crafting Behavior of Employees:
The Development and Validity of the Job Crafting Scale .
Job Crafting Scale – Validity
Other
Ratings
Increasing
Structural
JRs
Increasing
Social JRs
Increasing
Job
Demands
Decreasing
Job Demands
Job Crafting
++
+
++
+
Employability
++
++
++
Leaders and Followers, N=95
Bakker, Tims & Derks (2010)
Increasing JR
Proactive
Personality
.47
Increasing JR
Increasing JD
.68
Job crafting
Work
engagement
.37
.37
χ2 (31) = 36,39, TLI = .99, RMSEA = .04
In-role
Performance
Daily variance in crafting
• Increase Job Resources
Between: 57%
Within: 43%
• Increase Job Demands
Between: 59%
Within: 41%
• Decrease Job Demands
Between: 53%
Within: 47%
Demerouti (2010)
Antecedents
Job Crafting
Outcomes
Increase
Resources
+
Active Jobs
JD x C
+
Increase
Demands
Reduce
Demands
Demerouti (2010)
+
Work
Engagement
Increase Resources
Interaction (1)
Demerouti (2010)
Decrease Demands
Interaction (2)
Demerouti (2010)
More on Interventions
Arnold Bakker
Interventions
Level
Primary
Secondary
Person in
Optimize individual JDs, JRs,
Organisation and PRs
Organisation Optimize JDs and JRs at
department or team level
Organizational strategies
• Work environment
• Increase job resources
• Leadership
• Optimize social climate (crossover)
• Stimulate transformational leadership
• Training
• Increase personal resources
• Career development
• Challenging work
Schaufeli & Salanova (2007)
Individual strategies
• Generate positive feedback
• positive upward spiral
• Goal setting
• Use of implementation intentions
• Job Crafting
• Change job demands and resources
• Use strengths in a new way
• Engagement App
JD-R Monitor
Participants:
• Go to secured website
• Fill in a personal code
• Read Introduction
• Fill in Questionnaire
• Receive individual feedback
• May print personalized report
4/8/2015
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Work Engagement Model
Bakker & Demerouti (2008)
Job
Demands
Job
Resources
Personal
Resources
+
+
Work
Performance
Engagement +
Job crafting
+
More info:
www.arnoldbakker.com