Personality By Mr. C With slides stolen from Dr. Kelley Kline FSU-Panama City And www.appsychology.com Personality Questions (11 nc) What is personality? Who was Hippocrates? What is psychodynamic approach to personality? Freud’s 3 structures of personality? What are ego defense mechanisms? What is repression? Regression? What is displacement? Projection? What is reaction formation? Denial? What is sublimation? What is compensation? What are psychosexual stages of development? (3 cards) What is fixation? Note: Personality will need 21 note cards. You will want to color them the same color. Hippocrates Believed our personality is based on 4 “humours” or bodily fluids (blood, phlegm, cholera, black bile) What is the psychodynamic perspective of personality? Started by Sigmund Freud, this perspective believes we are dominated by repressed, unconscious sexual, biological drives. Other psychoanalysts include Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung I. Freud—1856-1939 An Austrian Neurologist who became fascinated with studying hysteria. Father of psychoanalysis. The Psychodynamic approach was the first theory on personality (early 1900s) We are driven by unconscious forces (sexual and aggressive forces). What is the iceberg analogy of consciousness? III. Levels of Consciousness: Iceberg theory 1. Conscious mind – like the top of the iceberg, only a small portion of our mind is accessible to us. 2. Preconscious mind – material that is unconscious, but can be easily brought into awareness. Moves back & forth easily between conscious & unconscious. 3. Unconscious mind – is completely outside of our awareness (could produce anxiety if made conscious). The iceberg is a good analogy because very little is visible on the surface but lots more is visible under water. IV. What are Freud’s parts of personality? 1. Id – “pleasure principle” unconscious impulses that want to be gratified, without regard to potential punishment. 2. Ego “reality principle” – moderates between the id and superego. 3. Superego – the “moral principle” of our personality which tells us right from wrong our conscience Which part of our personality is completely unconscious? A. Ego B. Id C. Superego D. yomamma What TV characters are driven by the ID? ID ID leads us to eating and drinking How about Superego? Superego How about ego, our voice of reason? Ego Id controlling Marge. The Ego moderates between the Id and the Superego. Personality Development Freud argued that personality developmentis result of conflicts we resolve in childhood. We learn to satisfy id impulses while handling societal pressures. In Sigmund Freud’s view, the role of the ego is to A. make the individual feel superior to others B. make the individual feel inferior to others C. mediate among the id, the superego, and reality D. serve the demands of the unconscious E. serve the demands of the superego In accord with psychoanalytic theory, one of the primary functions of the superego is to A.assure that desires are gratified at the appropriate time B.guide behavior prior to the development of the id and ego C.assure immediate gratification of any need or desire as it occurs D.balance and respond to the demands of the id and ego E.serve as the individual’s conscience What are ego Defense Mechanisms? How our personality (ego) deals with unpleasant emotions and thoughts. VI. Defense mechanisms 1. Repression: “motivated forgetting” the suppression of unpleasant thoughts. We push unpleasant thoughts into unconscious so that we can’t access them. E.g., a child who is molested, may suppress the traumatic event so that he/she has no memory for the event. 2. Rationalization – we justify something bad we’ve done You run over a person and tell yourself “I’m sure he would have died soon anyway.” You steal and say, “Well, I spend a lot of money at this store!” Everybody else is doing it! New Orleans looting after Katrina 3.Regression Dealing with problems by “regressing” or going backward in terms of maturity. Ex: Soldiers crying for “mommy” Ex: Fighting couples acting immature. 4. Displacement- you take out your anger & frustration on a person or object not the actual target of your anger in a negative way E.g., After being grilled by your boss, you go home & yell at your partner or the dog/cat. Peeing on the teacher’s car. 5. Projection – You attribute your negative characteristics to another person. When people project their own faults onto others, they generally do not deny that they themselves possess those faults. E.g., Your partner tells you how selfish you are, when they are in fact selfish. Why is this projection? 6. Reaction Formation – acting the opposite of how you feel. You do the opposite of how you feel to defend your own doubts. E.g., A person who doubts his faith may act like a religious zealot to defend his religion. Reaction Formation 7. What is Denial? Denial, not “The Nile!!!!” 2. Denial- refusing to believe something unpleasant has occurred. We refuse to accept horrible news, even with evidence to the contrary. E.g., you hear a friend has died & won’t believe it’s true. “I don’t have drinking problem” 8. Sublimation –Making something bad about yourself into something positive. Don’t mix up with displacement (kicking dog) E.g., Aggressive impulses are transformed into the urge to engage in competitive sports. Most desirable way of dealing with unacceptable id impulses. 9. What is compensation? We do something well to make up (compensate) for other deficits in our life. Ex: We become a cop to compensate for getting picked on as a child. According to Freud, which is the most important factor in personality? A.behavior B.unconscious impulses C.thoughts D.emotions E.genetics Hal is fearful of men who are friendly toward him, convinced that they are all homosexuals attempting to seduce him. Should it be the case that Hal is himself a latent homosexual fearful of admitting this even to himself, we might conclude that he is using the defense mechanisms of repression and A. reaction formation B. projection C. displacement D. regression E. denial When parents refuse to accept several psychologists’ diagnosis of a child’s mental illness, they are using which of the following defense mechanisms? A. Denial B. Displacement C. Projection D. Rationalization E. Regression A man who has numerous reasons to hate his mother instead lavishes her with unrealistic amounts of attention and love. He is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of A. regression B. identification C. reaction formation D. displacement E.projection Freud’s psychosexual stages Oral (0-1) (1 card) Anal (2-3) (1 card) Phallic (4-5) (1 card) Latency (6-12) (1 card) Genital (puberty and older) (1 card) Each stage has a pleasure center – center for libidnal energy Oral Stage Oral Stage The pleasure center is the mouth. Freud said the pleasure center moves around the body as we develop. Freud said if we are not gratified at this stage we will be fixated at this stage. Adults who are fixated at this stage like to do things with mouth for pleasure (smoking, eating, chew gum, bite nails, other things.) Anal Stage Anal stage Adults who were not gratified at this stage can be anally repulsive or anally retentive. Anal retentive are overly-neat and organized (Type A personality) Anal repulsive are overly messy and irresponsible. Phallic stage Genitals are the pleasure zone. Oedipal complex – boys have erotically tinged preference for their mother – compete with their father for mother’s attention Phallic stage cont. . . Not resolving the Oedipal conflict may result in boy not identifying with father, thus not develop a conscience. Electra complex (girls’ equivalent to Oedipus) Also. . . Girls have penis envy and blame and resent their mothers for their anatomical deficiency. The latency period “the cooties stage” begins sometime around the age of six and ends when puberty starts to begin. Freud believed that in this phase the Oedipus complex was dissolved and set free, resulting in a relatively conflict-free period of development. In this phase, the child begins to make connections to siblings, other children, and adults. This phase is typified by a solidifying of the habits that the child developed in the earlier stages. Latency – “cooties stage” - sexuality is hidden (latency = hidden) Children in same sex groups. Boys hang with father. Girls with mother. Genital stage (puberty ++) Libidinal energy is not focused on your own genitals (like in the phallic stage) but on other people’s genitals. Fixation in earlier stages will hinder this stage. According to Freud, what occurs during the phallic stage? A. the child struggles with independence and inferiority B. the child develops sexual feelings for the opposite sex parent while harboring jealousy towards the other parent C. the child develops sexual feelings for the opposite sex during preadolescence D.the child becomes fixated on issues of neatness and rebellion What is a result of being fixated at the oral stage? A.overeating B.stingy C.extreme neatness D.suppression E.excessive anger Carlos never cleans up after himself. He’s disorganized and impulsive. Freud would say that Carlos is fixated at the anal stage, which means: A. His parents did not toilet train him properly. B.His parents did not wean him properly C.He uses defense mechanisms to relieve anxiety. D.His progress toward self-actualization is blocked. End of part 1. Your test will cover Freud, level of consciousness, id, ego, superego, psychosexual stages, defense mechanisms, fixation Personality pt. 2 10 nc What methods psychoanalysts use? Pros of psychoanalytic theory? Cons of psychoanalytic theory? Who is Carl Jung? Who is Alfred Adler? What is Humanistic perspective on personality? Who is Abraham Maslow? Who is Carl Rogers? Projective versus self-report tests? Examples of personality tests? VII. Psychoanalysis (psychodynamic): Unconscious thoughts & emotions are brought into awareness to be dealt with. Psychological problems – the result of unconscious processes. Bringing unpleasant unconscious thoughts into to consciousness, produces catharsis. A. What are Psychoanalytic methods of therapy (4 of them): 1. Free Association – patient reports anything that comes to his/her mind. The psychoanalyst listens for links & themes that might tie the patient’s fragmentary thoughts or remarks together. B. Dream analysis: Dreams have two types of content: Manifest content- actual events in dream. Latent content – hidden message in dream. Freud thought that each dream represents a form of wish fulfillment. The wish may be disguised, but it is always there. C. Transference Feelings of love or other emotions (hatred) are expressed toward the therapist. These feelings are actually unconsciously felt toward others; the patient is projecting these feelings onto the therapist. This provides clues about the client’s feelings about these other people. Hypnosis Hypnosis is a psychoanalytic therapeutic technique. Supposedly reaches into the subconscious Criticisms of Freud’s theory: 1. Freud had no scientific data to support his theories. 2. Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed. 3. Theory explains behavior (post-hoc) after the fact. 4. Observations not representative of population (very sexist and not multicultural). Pros of Freud’s theory 1. Argued that childhood experiences are important in personality development. 2. Information outside of awareness does influence us. 3. Defense mechanisms—good descriptions of some of our behaviors. One criticism of Freud’s psychosexual theory of development is that it A.emphasizes developmental changes in the oral and anal stages B.views adult disorders as adjustments to the environment C.views fear of loss as a motivating drive D. is based on empirically unverifiable constructs E. is based on ethnographic studies Which is a criticism of Freud’s psychodynamic approach to personality? A. His sample of patients was small and unrepresentative of the general population. B. His theory reflects Western European and N. American cultural values C. The theory was not developed scientifically and thus is subject to bias. D. The theory was not comprehensive and has had little influence on psychology. More psychoanalysts Who was Carl Jung? He was a psychoanalyst who disagreed with Freud. There are 2 things you need to know about him. Carl Jung Less emphasis on social factors. Focused on the unconscious. We all have a collective unconscious: a shared/inherited well of memory traces from our species history. Carl Jung Archetypes – certain symbols/literary characters that we all recognize Ex: wise old man, witches, messiah Alfred Adler Childhood is important to personality. But focus should be on social factors- not sexual ones. Our behavior is driven by our efforts to conquer inferiority and feel superior. Inferiority Complex We strive to be superior Coined term compensation First to study birth order Humanistic Psychology In the 1960’s people became sick of Freud’s negativity and trait psychology’s objectivity. •Along came psychologists wanted to focus on “healthy” people and how to help them strive to “be all that they can be”. Freud studied the ill, Humanists studied the well. Abraham Maslow’s Self Actualizing Person Hierarchy of Needs •Ultimately seek selfactualization (the process of fulfilling our potential). •Maslow developed his ideas by studying what he termed “healthy people”. Who did Maslow study? Self-Actualized People They share certain characteristics: •They are self aware and self accepting •Open and spontaneous •Loving and caring •Not paralyzed by others’ opinions. •They are secure in who they are. Self-Actualized People Problem centered rather than self-centered. Focused their energies on a particular task. Few deep relationships, rather than many superficial ones. Self-Actualization These are the qualities that make up a mature adult. •These people have found their calling in life. Is this a goal worth striving for? Carl Rogers Congruency – our ideal self needs to match our actual self for us to be a fully functioning person. We have free will We need unconditional positive regard from our therapist. Rogers believes that all creatures strive to make the very best of their existence If they fail to do so, it is not for a lack of desire! Carl Rogers- humanist believed we have free will, we need unconditional positive regard, need congruence between our ideal and actual self. CARL ROGERS A. Actualizing tendency (humans tendency to fulfill his/her human potential) -Rogers believe we are innately positive -As we grow up, parents and authority figures place “conditions” on our worth e.g. Spanglish -We begin to operate under conditioned positive regard -By acting according to other people’s standards, we lose our sense of self B. Self concept (two parts) 1. Real self -The you that you are 2. Ideal self -The self we think we should be (unattainable) e.g. You are not a quality person if you don’t have a girlfriend…social situations will be threatening e.g. Successful people go to college…career options outside of this will be denied IV. Goal: Fully functioning Individual (congruency) Uniting your real and ideal self REAL IDEAL Incongruent self: neurosis REAL IDEAL Incongruent self: psychosis (shattered self) Fully-Functioning Individual Congruence! Open to experiences Freedom from society Creativity Person-Centered Therapy (Client-centered or Rogerian) Show the client unconditional positive regard: accepting and valuing self (and people) regardless of their behavior Allow the client to take responsibility for his life Mirror the clients emotions and thoughts so that he/she can decide their path in life Be congruent (honest, genuine, vulnerable) Show empathy How do we measure personality? (examples of personality tests?) Projective tests ask subject to interpret a picture. Used only by psychoanalysts; are subjective. Ex. TAT, Rorschach Ink blot test Self-report tests are questionnaires. Used by humanists and others. Used more commonly than projective. They rely on honesty. Ex: Five factor, MMPI, Myers-Briggs. TAT Thematic Apperception Test A projective test which people express their inner feelings through stories they make about ambiguous scenes Thematic Apperception Test TAT Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective test •A set of ten inkblots designed to identify people’s feelings when they are asked to interpret what they see in the inkblots. Rorschach Inkblot Test Rorschach Inkblot Test Rorschach Inkblot Test Rorschach Inkblot Test What is the trait approach to personality? A trait The typical way a person perceives, feels, believes or acts. Example: introverted, thinker, feeler, uptight The trait approach says a personality is the sum of all the traits. Problem: traits are situational, not permanent. What is Myers-Briggs personality type? There are 16 different personality types. Ex: INTP (Introverted, iNtuitive, Thinker, Perciever) ESFJ – Extroverted, Sensor, Feeler, Judger Virtually all trait models, and even ancient Greek philosophy, include extraversion vs. introversion as a central dimension of human personality. Another prominent trait that is found in nearly all models is Neuroticism, or emotional instability. Five Factor Model (modern) Tests our personality by measuring a person’s level of extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability-instability, and openness to experience. Similar to the Meyers-Briggs. Are 5 traits enough? The MMPI The most common test today is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. What is locus of control? Locus means “place” in Greek (loci is plural) refers to a person's belief about what causes the good or bad results in his life, either in general or in a specific area External locus of control? Having an external locus of control means the cause of everything comes from the outside. In a car accident, the car hit you or the roads were slippery. Acing a test – the teacher likes you. You are lucky. Internal locus of control Having an internal locus of control – you believe you are the cause and solution to problems. You deserve credit. Crash a car? “I wasn’t paying attention” Ace a test? I studied. I copied my notes onto note cards. Samantha has been acting out in school. She gets into fights and is failing many of her classes. Her parents are in the middle of a divorce and she is shuttling between their houses. What is each of these? How would each of the following apply to her behavior? a). id b.) locus of control c.) trait theory d.) displacement e.) humanistic theory Chapter 12 Quiz Personality 1. Adam loved his girlfriend who dumped him, but acts as if he’s glad to be rid of her. His behavior most clearly illustrates which of the following Freudian defense mechanisms? a. b. c. d. Repression Projection Reaction formation Sublimation 2. Which Freudian personality system is guided by the reality principle? a. b. c. d. Id Ego Unconscious Superego 3. In contrast to the blank slate (tabula rasa) view of human nature held by the behaviorists, humanists believe humans are born a. Evil and instinctively selfish b. Good and with an inner drive to reach our full potential c. Neutral and that personality is based on our perceptions of reality d. Weak and need others to find a meaning and purpose 4. One personality trait that is thought to be highly heritable is: a) generosity b) sense of humor c) inhibition d) diligence 5. Bertha is tall, thin, and frail. She enjoys studying and reading science fiction novels. She prefers to be alone rather than in a large group. According to Sheldon’s somatotype theory of personality, she is a. b. c. d. e. An endomorph An ectomorph A mesomorph An extrovert An introvert 6. The most commonly used personality assessments are a. b. c. d. Projective tests Naturalistic observations Structured interviews Self-report inventories 7. Adler would not have agreed with the importance of which of the following ideas? a. b. c. d. Birth order Styles of life Striving for superiority Womb envy 8. Roberto believes that he is the master of his ship and in charge of his destiny. According to Rotter’s theory of personality, Roberto has a. An external orientation to the world about him b. An internal locus of control c. An extraverted personality d. A low sense of self-efficacy 9. Mother Theresa’s altruism showed in everything she did. According to Allport’s trait theory, Mother Theresa’s altruism was a. A common trait she shared with most other religious people b. A cardinal trait c. One of several central traits that characterized her exceptional life d. Basically inherited from her father 10. Which is NOT one of the big five personality traits? a) honesty b) extraversion c) openness d) agreeableness 11. The order of stages in psychosexual development is a. b. c. d. Anal, oral, phallic, genital, latency Oral, anal, latency, phallic, genital Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital Anal, oral, genital, latency, phallic 12. What need was Abraham Maslow expressing when he said that “what a man can be, he must be?” a. b. c. d. The need for superiority The need for unconditional love The need to self-actualize The need to achieve 13. According to Rogers, troublesome anxiety is caused by a. b. c. d. Unresolved sexual conflicts Unconditional love Threats to our self-concept The use of defense mechanisms 14. American parents are LEAST likely to teach their children to a. b. c. d. Be self-reliant Feel good about themselves View themselves as special individuals Be modest about their personal accomplishments 15. Dr. Li asks her clients to interpret ambiguous pictures of people in various settings. The method she is using is called the a) Rorschach test b) MMPI c) WISC d) TAT Chapter 12 Answer Key 1. C 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. B 6. D 7. D 8. B 9. B 10. A 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. C C C D D Essay Question Possibilities!! One of the following essay questions will appear on your test, be familiar with all of them!! Essay Question # 1 Psychodynamic theories have been criticized for their lack of empirical evidence and poor testability. Are there some of Freud’s, Jung’s, and Adler’s ideas that would be easier to test than others? How might you go about designing research studies to test some of these ideas? Essay Question # 2 How do you think an operant theorist like Skinner would explain defense mechanisms? Give several examples. Essay Question # 3 On first learning about the different theoretical perspectives on personality, many people like the views of the humanistic theorists best. Why do you think this is? Are these reasons sound, scientific criteria for evaluation a theoretical perspective on personality? Essay Question # 4 Modern personality research tends to focus on specific traits. Psychologists have moved away from attempting to develop “grand theories” of personality such as those of the psychodynamic and humanistic theorists. Why do you think this has occurred? Do you think the trend toward “mini-theories” that focus on specific personality traits is the best way to advance our understanding Essay Question # 5 Discuss ways in which each of the major perspectives on personality has influence some aspect of everyday life in modern society. Good Luck! Make sure to double check all of your answers and study them for the upcoming exam. Remember, AT LEAST FIVE of the questions from this quiz will make some sort of appearance on the chapter test along with one of the essay questions. Take advantage of this study guide and good luck on your test!