In pursuit of culturally responsive
pathways
Whaia ki te ara tika
Sonja Macfarlane
Health Sciences Centre
University of Canterbury
Presentation to NZRTLB Association Conference 2011
Ara Tika – On Track
Awapuni Function Centre
Palmerston North
4 - 7 October 2011
Ko wai ahau?
Ko Aoraki te maunga
Ko Takitimu te waka
Ko Arahura te awa
Ko Arahura te marae
Ko Ngāi Tahu te iwi
Ko Ngāti Waewae te hapū
Ko Sonja Herahine Macfarlane toku ingoa
No Arahura ahau
Ōku whaea
Merehererika Pikaka
(Merika)
Herahine Meihana
Rosalyn Morehu Paaka
Merkia Bergman
Tōku Taua, me tōku Hākui
The aims of this presentation
» To consider the paradoxes that exist in the
relationship between policy and practice
» To explore the dimensions of culturally
responsive practice
» To reflect on perspectives about ‘evidence’
» To propose that there are five key influences of
cultural provision
» To introduce four examples of biculturally
responsive frameworks
Increasing professional learning and
capability…
“Reflection is pivotal to professional
development, where the re-thinking of
experience provides added personal meaning
and learning”
(Hoban, 2002)
….and reflecting on the following:
•“How do you know that what you do and how
you do it really works?”
AND
•“What, among the many things that could be
done for a child or young person, ought to be
done?”
•
(Holm, 2000)
Te Pūtake o Aoraki: Base-lining Potential
A kaupapa Māori reflective process
Hokingā Maumahara:
Drawing from the past … Enlightening the future
1. Look to and reach
into the past
3. Project towards
the future
Ki mua
The past
Ki muri
The future
2. Draw from the
4. Practice and
knowledge
reflect
Pathways to the future:
Ngā ara ki muri
Having a vision:
• What pathways do we want to forge?
• Why do we want to forge them?
• How will we forge them?
• What evidence will inform the way this is done?
• Who will validate this?
Having a vision:
The overarching strategic intent
(vision) of Ka Hikitia is:
 “Māori students enjoying
education success - as Māori”
Mason’s 3 goals
 To live as Māori
 To actively participate as citizens of the
world
 To enjoy good health and a high
standard of living
Focus Area 4: Ka Hikitia
Organisational Success
Organisational Success concentrates on
improving the Ministry of Education’s ability
to focus its work in policy and
implementation on what evidence tells us
will improve education outcomes for Māori.
» using and acting on evidence about what
works for and with Māori students
Policy, practice, and evidence
Consider the following:
» What informs policy? (Knowledge, worldview
perspectives, evidence....)
» What informs practice? (Knowledge,
worldview perspectives, evidence....)
» What constitutes evidence?
Policy, practice, and evidence
One pathway
Problem
is identified
to initiate
Research
Data collection
is reviewed
to develop
Policy
is implemented
to guide
Practice is reshaped to respond to the
problem
Practice
Policy, practice, and evidence
another pathway
Problem is addressed by implementing
tikanga (practice)
Practice
Tikanga
is implemented
to guide
Policy
Planning;
Kaupapa
is developed
to highlight
Research
Data collection
is reviewed to
identify
Problem
Pathways to understanding: pathways
to culturally responsive practice
“There are ethnically-linked ways of thinking,
feeling and acting, that are acquired through
socialisation”
(Phinney & Rotheram, 1987)
Culture is....
“Culture is a convenient way of describing the
ways members of a group understand each
other and communicate that understanding”
(Durie, July 2003; pg 2.)
Cultural competency is....
“Cultural competence is the acquisition of skills
so that we are better able to understand
members of other cultures in order to achieve
best outcomes….it is about being able to
understand the people who we are going to
deal with, as practitioners…”
(Durie, July 2003; pg 2.)
Cultural competency
Where do we locate ourselves?
and
How might we move along the continuum?
The Cultural Competency Continuum
1
Cultural
Destructiveness
2
Cultural
Incapacity
3
Cultural
Blindness
4
Cultural
Precompetence
5
Cultural
Competence
6
Cultural
Proficiency
The Cultural Competency Continuum
1
Cultural
Destructiveness
2
Cultural
Incapacity
3
Cultural
Blindness
4
Cultural
Precompetence
5
Cultural
Competence
6
Cultural
Proficiency
This challenge involves moving as far as possible, as quickly as possible, along the
following six-point continuum (Cross et al., 1989):
 Cultural destructiveness: those who believe or engage in behaviours that reinforce
the superiority of one race or culture over another, with the resultant oppression of
the group viewed as inferior;
 Cultural incapacity: those who have less actively destructive beliefs or behaviours,
but are paternalistic and lack the skills to be effective with individuals from diverse
groups;
 Cultural blindness: those who profess that culture, race and / or language make no
difference and explicitly or implicitly encourage assimilation;
 Cultural pre-competence: those who accept the need for culturally competent
policies and procedures, but do not proceed beyond tokenism or searching for ways
to respond;
 Cultural competence: those who accept and respect differences and implement
policies that support these beliefs and commitments;
 Cultural proficiency: those who seek to refine their approach by learning more
about diverse groups through research, dissemination and fully inclusive practices.
Culturally competent practice
 about the relationship between the ‘helped’ and
the ‘helper’
 practitioner based
 about accepting and respecting differences
 about implementing policies and practices that
support these beliefs and practices
 about capacity and capability
 driven by the practitioner
Culturally safe practice
 about the relationship between the ‘helped’ and
the ‘helper’
 about experiences that emerge from
relationships
 client based
 client safety
 ‘do no harm’
 determined by the client
Culturally responsive practice √
Doing the right things – tika; Doing things right - pono
 Understanding the significance of cultural iconography
and practices
 Relating to people in ways that promote respect for
cultural diversity
 Doing the most appropriate thing by the other culture in
terms of our understandings and experiences of their
culture
 Determining what is appropriate for the context or
situation given the cultural backgrounds and perspectives
of those involved
 Providing opportunities for both parties to listen and learn
from each other without imposing one’s own cultural
views on to the other
 Having an awareness and acting appropriately
 Inviting and enabling others to bring their own cultural
understandings and experiences to the relationship and
interactions
Culturally Responsive practice....
Cultural safety:
tamaiti and
whānau
Cultural
competency:
practitioner
CULTURALLY
RESPONSIVE
provision
Research
Practitioner
skills &
knowledge
Whānau wisdom &
values
‘Back-to-the-future’ best evidence and practice
Traditional Māori
New
-Poi / mau taiaha
-Kapahaka
-Hand games, string games
-Brain gym
-Sensory-motor
-Kinaesthetic / tactile
-Whānau, hapū, iwi
-Marae
-Inclusion
-Ecological
-Karakia
-Pepeha / whakapapa
-Waiata
-Pūrākau
-Rote learning
-Whakawhanaungatanga – a fundamental
underpinning value
-The importance of relationships for effective
teaching
-Ako
-Tuakana / teina
-Cooperative learning
-Peer tutoring
-Hui whakatika
-Traditional Māori discipline (noa)
-Restorative justice
-Marae-based learning
-Modelling
He ritenga whaimōhio:
Culturally grounded and informed evidence based
practice
He ritenga whaimōhio:
Evidence based practice
TIKA
RESEARCH
Literature that is
culturally grounded, relevant,
authentic and realistic
AROHA
WHĀNAU
Interactions and consultations
with the whānau that are
interactive, respectful and
compassionate
PONO
PRACTITIONER KNOWLEDGE &
SKILL
Actions that have integrity,
are reasoned, just and fair
Five influences of cultural provision
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Content integration
Knowledge construction
Equity practices
Skilled providers
Empowering organisational culture
Empowering Organisational
culture
1. Content
Integration
2. Skilled Providers
Empowering Organisational
culture
Introducing four pathways to
bicultural practice
Pathway 1
1.Waharoa
Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Purpose / Whāinga:
Aims and Objectives
» Benefits must ensue for Māori who participate in this
programme
What is the purpose of this programme?
Why is it important that we deliver this programme to Māori?
How is it intended that this programme will benefit Māori?
Have senior Māori (pakeke, kaumātua) been involved / consulted
at the enhancement, planning, and preparation stage? How?
» Does the programme preparation, planning, and delivery have
endorsement from senior Māori to proceed?
»
»
»
»
2.
Kitea
Te Kanohi
Tekoteko
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Kānohi kitea:
The seen face
» This component will be demonstrated by ensuring that
culturally-competent and experienced Māori will be
facilitating / co-facilitating the delivery and
implementation of programmes to Māori, so that they are
able to respond to Māori cultural concerns and
considerations personally.
3. Karakia
Koruru
1. Whāinga
2. Kanohi Kitea
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Karakia:
Transition
» Space will be available for karakia / incantation / prayer to
be used where appropriate, in order to create a safe
environment within which to work.
3. Karakia
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
Amo
1. Whāinga
2. Kanohi Kitea
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa:
Maintaining protocols and traditions
» Space will be created for the inclusion of senior Māori
(pakeke, kaumātua) as guardians of cultural quality and
fidelity, and to uphold the mana of the programme and
participants.
3. Karakia
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
2. Kanohi Kitea
Amo
5. Te Reo
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Te reo:
Appropriate use of language and effective
communication
» Effective communication will be demonstrated by
ensuring that materials, methods and modes are
culturally congruent; appropriate and responsive to
Māori. Space will be allowed for te reo Māori and non te
reo Māori speakers to express themselves in their
language of preference outside of the formal and ritual
contexts.
3. Karakia
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
2. Kanohi Kitea
5. Te Reo
6.
Raparapa
Powhiri
6. Poroporokai
Raparapa
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Pōwhiri and poroporoaki:
Transactional engagement: the initiation of
engagement
» Space will be created for tikanga Māori to be embedded
and demonstrated in the programme where pōwhiri
(welcome) and poroporoaki (farewell) processes are an
integral part of the interaction / relationship.
3. Karakia
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
2. Kanohi Kitea
5. Te Reo
6. Powhiri
6. Poroporokai
7. Mihimihi
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Mihimihi:
Establishing connectedness; establishing
relationships
» Space / time will be available for each person present to
identify where they are from (their whakapapa
connections), as well as establish ones identity (personally
and ethnically) so that connections can be made and
relationships established.
3. Karakia
2. Kanohi Kitea
8. Aroha
Whare
me te
Kai
manaaki
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
5. Te Reo
6. Powhiri
6. Poroporokai
7. Mihimihi
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Aroha and manaaki:
Nurturing others; providing strength and
encouragement
» Nurturing others, and providing strength and
encouragement will be demonstrated through actions
that are unconditional, practical, generous and
unobtrusive - and will indicate consideration, care and
respect for individuals and the group, within a warm and
supportive environment despite possible areas of tension.
This will include respecting the values and beliefs of
others in the same way one would want their own
respected.
3. Karakia
2. Kanohi Kitea
8. Aroha me te manaaki
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
5. Te Reo
6. Powhiri
7. Mihimihi
6. Poroporokai
9. Marae Atea
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Marae Atea:
A safe space to air views and perspectives
» Space will be available where people can come and share
their opinions and perspectives - including their nawe
(objections), and wero (challenges) - in the knowledge
that these can be safely aired, heard and considered.
3. Karakia
2. Kanohi Kitea
8. Aroha me te manaaki
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
5. Te Reo
6. Powhiri
6. Poroporokai
10. Whakawhanaungatanga
Roro
7. Mihimihi
9. Marae Atea
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Whakawhanaunga:
The on-going maintenance of connectedness and
relationships. (The whole is greater than the sum of
it’s parts)
» Each individual will be valued and supported, so that they
are at ease to express their thoughts and feelings so that
group cohesion and collective strength is achieved. The
prime concern will be the well-being of the group as a
whole with opportunities to develop trust, respect,
reciprocity and group cohesion.
3. Karakia
2. Kanohi Kitea
8. Aroha me te manaaki
11. Whānau
Maihi
whānui
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
5. Te Reo
6. Powhiri
6. Poroporokai
10. Whakawhanaungatanga
7. Mihimihi
9. Marae Atea
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Whānau whānui:
Involvement of wider whānau
» Space will be created for whānau whānui to be present, to
participate and to contribute, so that whānau members’
strengths, skills, knowledge and leadership will be heard,
valued and accessed.
3. Karakia
2. Kanohi Kitea
8. Aroha me te manaaki
11. Whānau whānui
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
12.
Maihi
Ohaoha
5. Te Reo
6. Powhiri
6. Poroporokai
10. Whakawhanaungatanga
7. Mihimihi
9. Marae Atea
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Ohaoha:
Partnership and power-sharing
» Partnership and power-sharing will be demonstrated by
ensuring that decision-making is shared and collaborative,
whānau leadership is recognised and acknowledged, and
people’s mana remains in tact in all interactions. It will be
demonstrated when conflicting views (ie: ones that differ
between professionals and whānau) are able to be
articulated without fear.
3. Karakia
2. Kanohi Kitea
8. Aroha me te manaaki
11. Whānau whānui
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
5. Te Reo
6. Powhiri
6. Poroporokai
10. Whakawhanaungatanga
13. Ahu Whenua
Tatau
7. Mihimihi
12. Ohaoha
9. Marae Atea
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Ahu whenua:
Use of environment
» The setting / venue (ie: the place where the encounter
will occur) will be whānau-friendly and welcoming,
conducive as a learning environment, and will enable
Māori processes to be conducted.
3. Karakia
2. Kanohi Kitea
8. Aroha me te manaaki
11. Whānau whānui
12. Ohaoha
4. Ngā tikanga me ngā kawa
5. Te Reo
14. Matapihi
Aromatawai
6. Powhiri
6. Poroporokai
10. Whakawhanaungatanga
13. Ahu Whenua
7. Mihimihi
9. Marae Atea
1. Whāinga
Cultural Enhancement Framework
» Aromatawai:
Assessment
» The assessment process will be meaningful and holistic.
The approach will be able to demonstrate the integration
of cultural, clinical, educational and social dimensions,
and will ensure that the principles of the original
programme are not compromised (and therefore deemed
worthless) but are indeed enhanced and therefore
achieved.
Using the three treaty principles as
foundational constructs to guide practice
1.
2.
3.
PARTNERSHIP:
PROTECTION:
PARTICIPATION:
Te Tiriti o Waitangi….
…. Is reflected in The New Zealand Curriculum
(Ministry of Education, 2007, p. 3):
….underpins and informs the The Ministry of
Education’s (2008, p. 9) Ka Hikitia: Managing for
Success: Māori Education Strategy 2008 – 2012:
.... is honoured in Te Marautanga o Aotearoa (Ministry of
Education, 2008, p. 6):
... Is acknowledged in the RTLB Policy & Toolkit, 2007
Making links to Te Tiriti o Waitangi
Article Principle
Article Summary
Article
1
Partnership
Guarantees a say in decision making:
 whānau are a involved in all decisions; they are consulted; they are
partners
 there is a balance of power: power is shared
 we use appropriate ways of engaging and communicating
Article
2
Protection
Retain the right to self-determination: Protection of everything held
dear
the mana of the tangata and the whānau remains in tact
the well-being and welfare of the whānau is paramount
whānau preferences and practices are respected / valued
Te reo Māori is valued, respected and incporporated appropriately
Article
3
Participation
Guarantees equity of rights, opportunities and outcomes
Freedom
whānau have access to appropriate services and support
participation is actively encouraged to enhance outcomes
Cultural advice is accessed to enhance practice and facilitate
outcomes
1. PARTNERSHIP:
Effective engagement with Māori
It is contingent on the appropriate use of:
Time
Space
Boundaries
It also needs to be:
Ecological
Inclusive
Collaborative
It needs to acknowledge, respond to and respect:
Pace
Place
People
2. PROTECTION:
The holistic well-being of the tamaiti
Considering and responding to…….
» Relational aspects
» Psychological aspects
» Physical aspects
» Autonomy
» Resilience
» Identity
3. PARTICIPATION:
Enhancing the ecology of the setting
to support inclusion
Key Competencies
He Tikanga Whakaaro
Making meaning
(communication, literacies)
Tātaritanga
Thinking
Participating and contributing
Whaiwāhitanga
Relating to others
Manaakitanga
Managing self
Rangatiratanga
(planning, organising oneself)
(NZC, 2007)
Whanaungatanga
(Macfarlane et al., 2008)
Te huia:
The 12 dimensions………Protection
Domains
Hononga
(Relational)
Hinengaro
(Psychological)
Tinana
(Physical)
Mauri
(Unique essence)
Whānau
Interdependence
and connectedness
Motivation:
Inspiration and
drive
Demeanour:
Appearance and
body language
Cultural identity:
Pride and
security
Whenua:
Kinship and
belonging
Emotions:
Thoughts and
feelings
Energy levels:
Alertness and
zeal
Attitude and spirit:
Manner and
disposition
Friendships:
Cooperation and
empathy
Cognition:
Learning and
understanding
Physical safety:
Respect for self
and others
Potential:
Courage and
confidence
An evidence-based framework
(A braided rivers approach: The convergence of clinical and cultural streams)
Evidence-based
practice
Socio-cultural
expertise
Tamaiti
socialisation
Best available
research evidence
Whānau, hapū
and iwi values
Scientifically
based influences
Clinical
expertise
Empirically
based influences
Culturally reasoned epistemology as a foundation for better outcomes
Macfarlane, A., Blampied, N., & Macfarlane, S. (2011). Blending the clinical and the cultural:
A framework for conducting formal psychological assessment in bicultural settings.
New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 40(2), 5-15.
He waiata
Te taonga o taku ngākau
Ko taku mokopuna e
He mokopuna korikori
Hei aha, hei aha rā
The most precious thing
Is my mokopuna
A mischievous mokopuna
But nevermind, whatever
Ko te mea nui,
Ko te aroha
Kaua e patu taku mokopuna
Me awhi awhi mai
Taku mokopuna korikori e
The most important thing
Is love and compassion
Don’t harm them
Care for, and protect them
Our adventurous mokopuna
Waipuna
Hohepa
Mateio
He whakatauki
Mā te mohio, ka marama
Through knowledge, there is understanding
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Cultural Enhancement Framework