Multicultural Competence: Best Practices for Serving Students, Parents, and Teachers in the 21st Century Objectives: The LSSP should be able to: Describe disproportional ethnic representation in educational programing Describe how characteristics of schools, teachers, families, and students influence disproportional representation and school success Describe how improved multicultural sensitivity with schools and teachers can improve disproportional representation and school success List approaches to improving practices in consultation and assessment Why should we care? Diversity of US Ethical obligations Moral obligations Impact on practice What is Necessary to be Culturally Competent Understanding yourself Understanding others Understanding the interplay between the two Ethnic Representation in Educational Programing Academic Pre-referral Special Education Gifted and Talented Behavior Office referrals Disciplinary placement Dropout Quick Quiz! When compared with white students: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Which group is more likely to be identified as MR? Which group is more likely to be identified as ED? Which group is more likely to be identified as LD? Which group is more likely to participate in GT? Which group is less likely to participate in GT Which group is more likely to participate in free tutoring? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. African American African American Native American Asian Americans African American, Native American and Hispanic American AA and Hispanic Academic Representation Hispanic and AA > to receive info about free tutoring Hispanic and AA > to receive free tutoring Children of color > referral for special education assessment. Children of color > in particular settings and placements. Children of color < to participate in GT curriculum. Disciplinary Representation African American students > referrals, suspensions, expulsions Inequity in discipline for similar offenses African American and Hispanic students > referred and placed in DAEPs for discretionary versus mandatory reasons. Drop rates in order: Asians/Pacific Islanders ~ Whites < Blacks < Hispanics Culture-Related Issues Contributing to Disproportionality and School Failure Generally fall in two categories Teacher/System related sources Family and Community TEACHER/SYSTEM RELATED SOURCES OF CULTURAL CHALLENGES Teacher/System Related Sources Use of assessment tools that do not accurately measure ability and potential Inequity of resources and funds to properly address needs Minimization of family and community involvement Failure to track trends of disproportionality Teacher-Related Perceptions and Behavior Teachers rarely recognize or acknowledge culture as an issue in the classroom Research supports differential treatment of students based on Communication Expectations Discussion What are the behavioral and academic implications for these differences in communication and expectations? What can you do? During the pre-referral stage (proactive approaches) During the referral stage Paying attention to verbal and nonverbal communication styles Understand differences and sources of student participation, interest, and how to use these differences FAMILY/COMMUNITY-BASED SOURCES OF CULTURAL CHALLENGES Family/Community-Based Sources Low socio-economic status; residing in more urban areas; low parental involvement Lower level of parental educational attainment/less value placed on education Family’s marginalized school experiences Family’s lack of trust of educators and educational environments Discussion What are the behavioral and academic implications for children whose families/communities struggle with these sources of cultural challenges ? What can you do? During the pre-referral stage (proactive approaches) During the referral stage STUDENT-BASED SOURCE OF CULTURAL CHALLENGES Identity Development Identity development affects such constructs as motivation, competence, achievement Complex concept: includes such issues as gender and ethnicity Ethnic Identity Defined Includes two processes Integrating ones own beliefs Integrating the beliefs of the environment Acculturation in Immigrants Two Models: Unidimensional – adopt host-culture beliefs and values and disregard their own Bi-dimensional – acculturation occurs on two different continua: More Less • Host culture • Native culture Acculturation in Immigrants Needs of students from ethnic groups differ based on longevity in U.S. Inverse relationship between high school achievement and # of years family in US Willingness to seek psychological help found to be related to level of acculturation1 Why is Ethnic Identity is Important in the Context of School? Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it. George Santayana History Desegregation – awareness of ethnicity thought to be cause for lower self-esteem School strove to reduce or ignore differences among groups Research supported that acknowledging and honoring differences had positive effects Why is Ethnic Identity is Important in the Context of School? Theories and goals of education don't matter a whit if you don't consider your students to be human beings. Lou Ann Walker Significantly contributes to the understanding of risk and resilience. May impact: Health Psychological adjustment Achievement Behavior Interpersonal Interactions – peer and teacher African Americans Students & Ethnic Identity Psychological adjustment EI associated with self-esteem9 African Americans self-esteem than Hispanic, White, and Asian students13 EI development have been found to be and indicator of levels of depression and positive general emotional adjustment16 African Americans Students & Ethnic Identity Interpersonal relationships Multiculturalism as a coping mechanism Academic Achievement EI was found to be correlated with GPA African American students typically do not rate themselves low on intelligence, academic ability Some evidence suggests that African American children are less likely to link academic achievement to self-concept Behavior EI associated with both externalizing and internalizing problems (Unlike white students) Positive EI associated with more active coping, fewer beliefs supporting aggression, and fewer aggressive behaviors White Students and Ethnic Identity Psychological adjustment Positive adjustment (depression, emotional) is not as strongly linked to higher level of EI as in African Americans, but some relationship does exist Lower levels of identity do predict difficult adjustment Similar level of self-esteem with Hispanic students, higher than Asian students Hispanic Students and Ethnic Identity Psychological Adjustment Consistent self-esteem with that of White students Achievement Hispanic students rated themselves lowest on intelligence Asian Students and Ethnic Identity Psychological adjustment Asian Students found to have the lowest level of Self-esteem Achievement Self-concept connected to academic achievement Native Americans Students & Ethnic Identity Achievement Persistence greater for students who’s EI was more well developed 11 Psychological Adjustment No conclusive relationship found between EI and psychological adjustment Higher level of EI and Ego development helps competence, but intensifies emotional experiences Native Americans Students & Ethnic Identity Behavior Impulsive Native American adolescents found to have least developed EI and highest level of interpersonal vulnerability Higher levels of EI associated with lower aggression, social problem behavior Interpersonal relationships Higher levels of EI associated with less peer conflict APPROACHES TO IMPROVING PRACTICES IN CONSULTATION AND ASSESSMENT Approaches System-wide: Identify school factors contributing to difficulties Enlist diverse multidisciplinary planning teams Provide high quality pre-referral services Learn culturally appropriate behavior management strategies Alternative assessment methods Diversify curriculum Provide “Bridge” programs Approaches Continued... Teacher Provide culturally appropriate and diverse behavior management strategies Provide alternative explanations for teacher observations Encourage cultural self-awareness Encourage higher expectations Provide concrete information Approaches Continued... The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. Alvin Toffler Family and Child Set higher standards and provide realistic honest feedback Emphasis the pragmatic and relevant function of education in the lives of specific groups Institute practices that embed achievement as part of students ethnic identity Approaches Continued... Do not focus on programs that raise self-esteem1 as the main outcome Encourage the exploration of ethnic identity Focus should include both in-group and the greater society Identify the problem you are attempting to intervene on, and correctly link intervention Culturally Sensitive vs. Culturally Based Programs Culturally based: Programs or interventions that combine culture, history, and core values as agents to encourage behavior change Culturally Sensitive : In addition to cultural base, relative historical, environmental, and social forces are incorporated into the design, implementation, and evaluation of materials and programs12 OVERVIEW OF PROGRAMS THAT USE CULTURE TO IMPROVING BEHAVIOR AND ACHIEVEMENT Culturally Sensitive vs. Culturally Based Programs Surface Includes external characteristics of culture Serves identification purposes Improves acceptance of message Deep Includes more embedded characteristics Involves how group members perceive issue Implications for the salience of the program for groups Culturally Sensitive vs. Culturally Based Programs Culturally Sensitive, Deep Structure programs: Incorporate core beliefs and values of a group Incorporate culture in both how they are developed and in the content of the program Focus on the needs and strengths of the population they serve Programs Resolving Conflict Creatively Program K-12 program in social and emotional learning Involves multiple support areas Results demonstrate significant social and academic improvement Programs Project Aim Focus on reducing risk behaviors by increasing interest in development as an adult Fosters interest in a positive future self by including and discussing cultural models Results indicated reduction in at-risk sexual behavior Programs School-to-Jobs Program Focus is on self-concept, school bonding, performance Research indicates significant improvements in all areas for program participants References Identity References 1. Chung, R. H. G., Bryan, S. K, & Abreu, J. M. (2004). Asian American multidimensional acculturation scale: Development, factor analysis, reliability, and validity. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10, 66-80. 2. Demmert, W. G. (2005). The influences of culture on learning and assessment among Native American students. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 20, 16-23. 3. French, S. E., Kim, T. E., & Pillado, O (2006). Ethnic identity, social group membership, and youth violence. In N. Guerra, & E.P. Smith (Eds.) Preventing youth violence in a multicultural society. (pp. 47-73) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 4. Fusick, L. B., & Wendy C. (2004). Counseling at-risk Afro-American youth: An examination of contemporary issues and effective school-based strategies. Professional School Counseling, 8, 109-115. 5. Guerra N., & Smith, E.P. (Eds.) Preventing youth violence in a multicultural society. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 6. Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2005). Ethnic identity development in early adolescence: Implications and recommendations for middle school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 9 7. Peterson, R. L., & Ishii-Jordan, S. (1994). Multicultural issues in the education of students with behavioral disorders. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Brookline Books. 8. Pizarro, M., (2005). Chicanas and Chicanos in school: racial profiling, identity battles, and empowerment / Marcos Pizarro. Austin : University of Texas Press. 9. Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156-176. References 10. Nelson, C. M., Leone, P. E., & Rutherford, R. B. (2004). Youth delinquency: Prevention and intervention. In Rutherford, R. B., Quinn, M. M., Mathur, S. R. Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders. Pp. 282-301. New York: Guilford Press. 11. Newman, D. (2005). Ego development and ethnic identity formation in rural American Indian adolescents. Child Development, 76, 734-746. 12. Resnicow, K., Soler, R., & Braithwaite, R. L. (2000). Cultural sensitivity in substance use prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 271-290. 13. Roth, B. M. (2005). Self-Esteem, ethnicity, and academic performance among American children. In C.L. Frisby, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of multicultural school psychology (pp.557-610). 14. Umaata-Taylor., A. J. (2005). The Ethnic Identity Scale. In, What do children need to flourish: Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development. Series Title: The Search Institute series on developmentally attentive community and society. (pp75-91). 15. Wigfield, A., & Wagner, A. L. (2005). Competence, motivation, and identity development during adolescence. Handbook of competence and motivation. Pp. 222-239 16. Yasui, M., Dorham, C. L., & Dishion, T. J. (2004). 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