Artificial Emotion
Characters that display emotion are critical to a
rich and believable simulated environment.
Emotion is the essential ingredient that creates
the difference between
Robotic behavior
Lifelike engaging behavior
Traditionally, animators painstakingly created
these behaviors for pre-rendered animations
But, truly interactive characters must generate
their behavior autonomously through techniques
based upon artificial emotions
Must possess their own personalities and moods
Emotion AI Engine
Ian Wilson
www.artificial-emotion.com
Engine simulates personality, age, gender and the low
level emotional behavior that drives most of our actions.
From this simulation gestures and low level actions are
generated.
Behaviors can be mapped to application specific elements, i.e.
characters, robots, cell phone agents, etc
Behavior of real users can be simulated to predict
what type of action that user might take
preferences
how a unique individuals mood changes while using your
product
how to adjust that behavior to ideally reward each individual
Engine Features
» Simulates millions of unique personalitites
» Simulates ages from 5 to 105
» Simulates gender from very femenine to very masculine
» Simulates core brain systems responsible for emotion level processing
» Generates facial gestures using muscle simulation, MPEG4 FAPs and FACS
action units
» Generates eye saccade, eye movement speed/range/frequency control, blink
» Generates head position movement, pitch and yaw
» Generates upper body gestures (spine, shoulders, neck) with walk cycle due
to follow soon
» Generates low level actions such as movement speed / range / frequency,
search patterns, approach, avoid
» Input can be as simple as a single integer to drive the whole system
» Output is a continuous stream of integer values
» Output is not tied to a specific application for maximum flexibility
Facial Action Coding System
(FACS)
Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V., & Hager, J.C. (2002).
An anatomically oriented coding system, based on the definition of
"action units" (AUs) of a face that cause facial movements.
Each AU may correspond to several muscles that together generate
a certain facial action.
As some muscles give rise to more than one action unit,
correspondence between action units and muscle units is only
approximate.
46 AUs were considered responsible for expression control and 12
for gaze direction and orientation.
The FACS model has been used to synthesize images of facial
expressions; exploration of its use in analysis problems has been a
topic of continuous research.
MPEG-4
MPEG-4 is the latest compression standard
developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group
(MPEG) of the ISO, the same group that brought
us MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. MPEG-4 builds on the
proven success of three fields:
Digital Television
Interactive graphics applications (synthetic content);
Interactive multimedia (World Wide Web, distribution
of and access to content)
MPEG-4 Facial Animation and
Definition Paramters
Inspired by FACS
Facial Definition Parameter set (FDP) and
the Facial Animation Parameter set (FAP)
were designed to allow the definition of a
facial shape and texture, as well as the
animation of faces reproducing
expressions, emotions and speech
pronunciation.
Facial Animation Parameters
The FAPs are based on the study of minimal facial
actions and are closely related to muscle actions.
They represent a complete set of basic facial actions,
such as squeeze or raise eyebrows, open or close
eyelids, and therefore allow the representation of most
natural facial expressions.
All FAPs involving translational movement are expressed
in terms of the Facial Animation Parameter Units
(FAPU).
FAPUs aim at allowing interpretation of FAPs on any
facial model in a consistent way, producing reasonable
results in terms of expression and speech pronunciation.
Facial Animation Parameters
JOY a la FAP
open_jaw (F3), lower_t_midlip (F4), raise_b_midlip
(F5), stretch_l_cornerlip (F6),
stretch_r_cornerlip (F7), raise_l_cornerlip (F12),
raise_r_cornerlip (F13), close_t_l_eyelid (F19),
close_t_r_eyelid (F20) , close_b_l_eyelid (F21),
close_b_r_eyelid (F22), raise_l_m_eyebrow (F33),
raise_r_m_eyebrow (F34), lift_l_cheek (F41),
lift_r_cheek (F42), stretch_l_cornerlip_o (F53),
stretch_r_cornerlip_o (F54)
Facial Definition Parameters
FDPs on the other hand are used to
customise a given face model to a
particular face.
The FDP set contains a 3D mesh (with
texture coordinates if texture is used), 3D
feature points, and optionally texture and
other characteristics such as hair, glasses,
age, gender.
Facial Definition Parameters
FAP Engines
IBM Java Toolkit for MPEG-4
Facial Animation Engine (FAE) (University
of Genova, Digital and Signal Processing
Lab.)
Miraface: MPEG-4 FAP Player (MIRALab,
University of Geneva)
XFace (Cognitive and Communicative
Technologies, ITC-irst)
Visage Technologies
AE Approach
Emotions comprise three layers of behavior
Top level: momentary emotions
Behaviors that we display briefly in reaction to events
Next level: moods
Prolonged emotional states caused by the cumulative effect
of momentary emotions
Underlying level: personality
Behavior that we generally display when no momentary
emotion or mood overrides
Levels have an order of priority
Momentary emotions over mood
Mood over personality
Layer Prominence
Momentary emotions are brief reactions to events that
assume the highest priority when we select out behavior
Behaviors are short lived and decay quickly
Moods are produced by momentary emotions
Usually by the cumulative affects of a series of momentary
emotions
Can gradually increase in prominence
Even after the momentary emotions have subsided
Development depends on whether momentary emotions are
positive or negative
If a character were to receive a stream of negative momentary
emotions, then the mood would obviously be bad and would decay
slowly
Personality level is always present and has a consistent
level of prominence
Behavior Selection
The behavior that a character displays
depends upon each emotional layer’s
prominence
The more prominent the layer, the higher
the probability of that behavior being
selected
Uses of AE
Autonomous AE of any depth is rarely seen in
commercial interactive entertainment
Some exceptions are P.F. Magic’s Catz and Dogz series,
Fujitsu’s fin fin, and Cyberlife’s Creatures series
Uses of AE
IE is currently dominated by genres that require the user
to either conquer and/or kill everything in his or her path
Little emotion is required
Emotion primarily serves a social function in IE.
Emotional responses are used to make characters
believable and engaging
If we walk into a virtual bar and the characters had distinct
personalities, the scene would be an immersive and believable
simulation
If characters show no emotion
Our suspension of disbelief would be immediately broken
We would be immediately reminded that we were in a computer
generated simulation
Uses of AE
Using human characters necessarily implies that their
behavior is deep and complex
Unfortunately, we are most attuned to recognizing
human emotion
And therefore recognizing flawed human emotion.
Which could easily break the illusion of an otherwise well
constructed simulated environment
One way to attack this problem is to use nonhuman
characters
Cats, dogs, and Norns all show engaging levels of
interactive emotional behavior that maintains the illusion
of life
Without having or needing the complexity of human emotional
response.
AE Output
AE produces two fundamental components as
output
Actions
General category dependent on the context of the
situation in which the character exists
A simulation’s movement system uses AE to select
and/or modify an action
AE indicates what actions are appropriate to the
character’s personality and current mood
A timid character is unlikely to do anything aggressive
An outgoing, extroverted character might perform an action
enthusiastically
which would probably not be the case for an extreme introvert
AE Output
Gestures
Hand, body and facial
Way to communicate our emotions to the outside
world
AE-driven gestures are tied directly to our characters’
personalities and moods and follow definite patterns.
E.g., a sad looking fellow, shoulders hunched over, arms
hanging limply and walking slowly as he makes his way
through our environment
Might compel a player to ask “Why does he look so sad.
What is his story? Should I go and ask him?
The kinds of questions that occur to the viewer of a truly
interactive experience would be irrelevant without AE.
What is Personality?
The genetic and environmental differences in
the brain structures of individuals.
As a species, our brains are almost identical
This gives rise to our common sets of behaviors.
But, we are all genetically and environmentally
unique.
It is the differences that give us our unique
behavioral variations of common behavior
patterns
i.e., our personality
Personality Model
An area in a 3-D space.
The axes of the space are Extroversion, Fear
and Agression (EFA Space)
Personality traits are represented by points
within this space
Positioned according to the amount with which they
are correlated with the each axis.
E.g., the trait of anxiety is positioned at
(E -30, F +70, A -10)
Associated -30% with Extroversion, 70% with Fear,
and -10% with Aggression
EFA Space
EFA Space
The position of the center of the
personality area (P) represents by how
much each of those axes (central traits)
define the overall personality
P is the center of a sphere
Contains the set of personality traits that
make up the aggregate personality
The set of traits available to the character
Three Dimensions of Personality
Based on the idea that the brain might
have 3 central systems that mediate
behavior
Approach System
Associated with Extroversion
Behavioral Inhibition System
Associated with Fear
Flight/Fight System
Associated with Aggression
Three Dimensions of Personality
The behavior that we display at any time is
controlled by these 3 systems
And the genetic prominence of each system
E.g., for an anxious personality
Behavioral Inhibition System is very
prominent
Personality would have a very high Fear
component
Person generally fearful and cautious
Mood
Determined by perceived signal of punishments
and rewards
Inputs for most elements of the system
Modulated by the character’s personality
The position of the personality in EFA space
affects the
Range of positive moods
Maximum level of positive moods increases with E
Range of negative moods
Maximum level of negative moods increases with F
Rate of change of moods
Speed at which moods build up and decay increases with A
Mood Example
Personality with high E, high F and high A
Moods would have large negative and
large positive values
Moods would build up and decay rapidly
Character would be very moody with large
mood swings
Engine Architecture
Nine modules
Six of these represent conceptual neural systems
Emotional reactions
Personality
Punishment and reward
Mood
Memory
Motivations
Two of these are the engine interfaces (API)
Input
Output
The Self State module is the central data repository for
the engine
Represents the characters general emotional state at any time
Engine Architecture
Punishment and Reward
Basic types of input
Takes incoming signals of raw, sensed
punishment and reward (p/r) and
translates into perceived signals of p/r
Perceived p/r depends on
Characters previous history of received p/r
Personality
Punishment and Reward
Use of habituation
The more the character receives, in
succession, a signal of one type
The lower effect the signal has
Use of novelty
The longer the character goes without
receiving one type of signal
The greater the effect of that signal when it is
received
Punishment and Reward
Character’s personality determines how
susceptible it is to punishment or reward
E.g., a psychopath is
Highly susceptible to reward
Highly unsusceptible to punishment
Makes them go after thrills without regard for
the consequences
Motiviations
Arranged into a 4-layer hierarchy of needs
Physiological layer is always bottom
Relative positions of the remaining 3 layers in
the hierarchy are determined by personality
Safety
Affiliation
Esteem
E.g., for the psychopath, Esteem is prioritized
higher than Affiliation (friendship and kinship)
Memory
Used to facilitate non-cognitive social
processing
Used in conjunction with the affiliation and
esteem needs to provide enhanced social
behavior
Keeps track of how much a particular
character is liked based on several factors
Including social preferences of our family and
friends
Used by the reactive emotion module
Reactive Emotions
Innate emotional reactions that have not involved any deep cognitive
processing
Represent stimulus response reactions of the kind hard wired into
our neural circuits
Joy
Sadness
Fear
Anger
Surprise
Disgust
Reactions are modulated by personality
Our psychopath would show very little fear in his reactions
But may show a great deal of anger
Triggered by p/r signals when they exceed thresholds derived from
levels of motivational needs
API Input
All input is in the form of integer streams
p/r signals for each of the physiological and safety needs
(8 in total)
Input representing signals received by the five senses for
emotional reactions
Some needs remain constant if not changed
Assume we are sheltered unless we are informed otherwise
Some needs change unless information is received to
the contrary
Hunger will increase unless we receive a reward signal for the
hunger need
The engine is updated with input at each developerdetermined time step
3 API Output Formats
Positional information required to produce
emotional body and facial gestures
For a character whose body joints are being driven by
an inverse kenmatics system
Output is the joint deviations from a plain ”vanilla” movement
to make the movement emotional
For a timid character, the spine might be curved backwards,
the shoulders hunched forwards, and the head down
Determines characters movement speed, style, and
smoothness
A neurotic character would move quickly in short bursts and
in a very ”staccato”, jerky fashion
3 API Output Formats
Semantic action plan
Determined by the characters motivational needs
Determines both what to do and how to do it
How is taken from current mood and selected personality trait
Character has been out in the cold rain a while
Warmth need receiving a constant stream of punishment
Results in making the mood level highly negative and the warmth
need a high priority
For a character with a timid personality the resulting semantic
output would be
Increase warmth very anxiously
”increase warmth” comes from motivational need for warmth
”very” comes from importance of need and mood level
”anxiously” is a trait that this particular character possesses and is
appropriate to a negative mood
3 API Output Formats
Raw emotional state
Gives the developer the flexibility to use the
emotional state in ways not handled by the
first two modes
Example Scenario
Jane is a 38-year old mother of two playing an
office simulation
She is the boss and she has to manage the well
being of her office co-workers
In this game, the tasks that the team has to
perform are secondary to their interactions.
Different team members respond differently to
the same situation
She has to make them all work well together and
keep them happy (goal of the game)
Example Scenario
Jane begins by taking a personality test and
passes the result to the Engine
Engine displays behaviors similar to hers
She then decides the personalities of her 5
coworkers
Extrovert
Introvert
Neurotic
Psychopath
A character with a personality similar to hers
Example Scenario
Day One: Jane’s alter ego arrives at work
Her character is greeted warmly by the extrovert
The introvert sits at his desk, continues typing hardly acknowledging
her presence
The neurotic looks mildly panicked, she does not like change, her
shoulders slump forward, she curls up looking submissive
The psychopath sticks out his chest, shoulders back and fixes
Jane’s character with a steely gaze as he marches, quickly and
firmly, over to her to make his presence known
The character similar to Janes’s looks unsure. He is unable to
decide if the new boss is good or bad for him. Jane, knowing his
personality, can empathize with him so she makes the first move to
smile and greet him.