2011 Strategy Forum Evidence-Based Practices in Adult Learning Henry S. Merrill, Ed. D. CAEL Associate Consultant May 12, 2011 Teaching and learning are only moments in a greater process that is knowing.” Paulo Friere, 1994 Adult Learning Forum Context for adult learning in the 20th & 21st Centuries Evidence base for current/evolving adult learning theories Framework for Informal Learning Reflective practice How do you plan to weave this into your work? Transfer of learning Systems Framework Learning-Organization-Resources Person in Systems Context Many Identities in Multiple Systems International-Macro National State-Region Community Family Client/Lea rnerMicro Organizations & Work in Micro-to-Macro Levels National Regional-State Program-Agency Client Relationship/Course Gestalt Change Cycle Less is sometimes more 40% - 60% work load While there is often an assumption in education that the more one teaches, the more students learn, this is erroneous and has been disproved by empirical research* Optimum learning appears to be achieved when approximately 40% of the time available for learning is dedicated to teaching activities, and the remaining 60% is reserved for self-study. Beyond this level of teaching activity, learning actually begins to decrease, a finding that has significant implications for professional training programs which tend to emphasize extensive, formal instructional activity. * Van Der Drift & Vos, 1987; Gijselaers & Schmidt, 1995 Perspectives/Models/Philosop hies of AE? Liberal – Cultural transmission Behaviorist – Change behavior Cognitivist – Information processing, memory, insight, perception & meta-cognition Social Cognitivist – Interact/observe/constructivist Experiential/Constructivist Humanistic – Andragogy – Fulfill our potential Progressive/Radical – Change society Name that theorist game! Perspectives/Models/Philosop hies of AE? Holistic Cognition Somatic Learning Affective Learning Spiritual Learning Artistic Ways of Knowing Transpersonal Knowing Perspectives/Models/Philosop hies of AE? Experiential Learning Self-Directed Learning Andragogy Transformative Learning Indigenous Learning Emancipatory & Critical Perspectives Insights from the Neurosciences Perspectives/Models/Philosop hies of AE We are very good at theorizing and even producing some models But are these evidence-based? In what ways are they useful? In what ways are they not useful? Evidence-based Practice Definition: The integration of professional wisdom with the best available empirical evidence in making decisions about how to deliver instruction. Professional wisdom is defined as… the judgment that individuals acquire through experience consensus views including the effective identification and incorporation of local circumstances into instruction. G. Whitehurst, Director, U. S. Dept. of Education, Institute of Education Sciences Evidence-based Practice Distinction between… Evidence-based practice: It’s about what should drive practice—using empirical evidence and professional wisdom to make decisions. Scientifically based research: It’s about what type of research should generate the empirical evidence (research that, according to USDOE, meets particular criteria: experimental design, peer-refereed journal, sample size and selection, etc.). Andragogy – Assumptions about Adult Learners - 1 The need to know: Adults need to know why they need to learn something – relevance. The learners' self-concept: Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions and lives and capable of self-direction. Prefer being an active learner. The role of the learners' experiences: Adults have more experiences, so they are more heterogeneous in background and learning interests than children. This diversity provides more resources - but it also may provide more biases and preconceptions. Andragogy – Assumptions about Adult Learners - 2 Readiness to learn: Adults are ready to learn what they need to know to cope effectively with real life situations. Orientation to learning: Adults' orientation to learning tends to be problem-centered or task-centered therefore learning must be connected clearly to a reallife situation. Motivation: Adults are more responsive to internal motivation than external motivation. Learner-centeredness: Expected focus of learning now Six C’s of Motivation Learner-centeredness Choice Challenge Control Collaboration Constructing meaning Consequences – show & celebrate results http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Six_C%27s_of_motivation Culturally Responsive Teaching & Motivation Four basic conditions (attributes in the learning environment) that together support a person’s natural interest in learning: Establishing inclusion Developing a positive attitude Enhancing meaning Engendering competence Ginsberg & Woldkowski (2000) Culturally Responsive Teaching & Motivation Model by Wlodkowski & Ginsberg (2008) Evidence-based Practice What evidence-based practices do you use in your designing your professional development services? In developing your PD services? In delivering your PD services? In evaluating your PD services? Share practices with 3 or 4 people around you for 10 minutes & report back to whole group. End of Keynote presentation. Participatory Adult Learning Strategy (PALS) Research Based on meta-analysis of literature searched on these adult learning methods topics: Coaching: Method of transferring skills and expertise from more experienced and knowledgeable practitioners . . . to less experienced ones Guided design: Decision-making and problem solving process that includes procedures for using real-world problems for mastering content in the context of group learning Just-in-Time Training: Access information, advice, guidance, etc., to learner requests that are intended to improve learner performance Accelerated Learning: Methods for creating a relaxed emotional state, an orchestrated and multisensory learning experience, and active learner participation Let’s Be PALS: An Evidence-Based Approach to Professional Development by Carl J. Dunst, PhD; Carol M. Trivette, PhD Participatory Adult Learning Strategy (PALS) Framework PLANNING - Plan Introduce Illustrate APPLICATION - Do Practice Evaluate DEEP UNDERSTANDING - Check Reflection Mastery Participatory Adult Learning Strategy (PALS) - 2 PLANNING PHASE INTRODUCE Engage the learner in a preview of the material, knowledge, or practice that is the focus of the instruction or training. ILLUSTRATE Demonstrate or illustrate the use or applicability of the material, knowledge, or practice for the learner Participatory Adult Learning Strategy (PALS) - 3 APPLICATION PHASE PRACTICE Engage the learner in the use of the material, knowledge, or practice EVALUATE [ASSESS is my preference] Engage the learner in a process of evaluating [assessing] the consequence or outcome of the application of the material, knowledge, or practice Participatory Adult Learning Strategy (PALS) - 3 DEEP UNDERSTANDING REFLECTION Engage the learner in self-assessment of his or her acquisition of knowledge and skills as a basis for identifying “next steps” in the learning process MASTERY Engage the learner in a process of assessing his or her experience in the context of some conceptual or practical model or framework or some external set of standards or criteria Participatory Adult Learning Strategy (PALS) Evidence-based Coaching Five Key Characteristics Coaching is an adult learning strategy in which the coach promotes the learner’s ability to reflect on his or her actions as a means to determine the effectiveness of an action or practice and develop a plan for refinement and use of the action in immediate and future situations. Joint planning: Agreement by both the coach and learner on the actions to be taken by the coach and/or learner or the opportunities to practice between coaching visits. Observations: Examination of another person’s actions or practices to be used to develop new skills, strategies, or ideas. Evidence-based Definition of Coaching Practices: Rush & Shelden; CASEInPoint (2005) Evidence-based Coaching Five Key Characteristics Action: Spontaneous or planned events that occur within the context of a real-life situation that provide the learner with opportunities to practice, refine, or analyze new or existing skills. Reflection: Analysis of existing strategies to determine how the strategies are consistent with evidence-based practices and may need to be implemented without change or modified to obtain the intended outcome(s). Feedback: Information based on direct observations of the learner by the coach, actions reported by the learner, or information shared by the learner to expand the learner’s current level of understanding about a specific evidence-based practice. Person in Learning Situation – Multiple Possibilities - P. Jarvis Focus on your recent informal learning Think about a recent experience in an informal setting such as a workshop or other event in a community organization or cultural institution. How was the learning experience structured? Was there an individual in charge? Was this person called a leader or instructor or facilitator or coach? What are the differences in meaning of those terms? Or was this a group learning experience where there was only a nominal leader? Continuum of Learning INFORMAL FORMAL Building on Andragogy Valuable as 20th Century assumptions describing adult learning Critique: Assumptions of Andragogy viewed as formulaic – too rigid for a complex world. But – don’t these Assumptions seem to underlay the evidence-based PALS framework and evidence-based Coaching characteristics in 21st Century? Example of credibility as “professional wisdom”? Informal-to-Formal Learning Continuum Definitions Learning resulting from daily life activities related to work, family or leisure. It is not structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support) and typically does not lead to certification. Informal learning may be intentional but in most cases it is non-intentional (or “incidental”/random). Commission of the European Communities (2001: 32-33) Informal learning, a category which includes incidental learning, may occur in institutions, but is not typically classroom-based or highly structured, and control of learning rests primarily in the hands of the learner. […] Informal learning is usually intentional but not highly structured. Marsick and Watkins (2001:25) Informal-to-Formal Learning Continuum Is it necessary to have “non-formal learning” as an intermediate point? Following discussion identifies these categories to present informal learning characteristics: Organizational dimensions Design dimensions Implementation dimensions Organizational Dimensions for Planning Learning - 1 DIMENSION Location/Institutional Sponsor Type Organizational Control Structured Curriculum INFORMAL <- - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->FORMAL Design Dimensions for Planning Learning - 2 DIMENSION Outcomes Content/Domain - Cognitive - Affective - Skill/kinesthetic Strategies/Methods INFORMAL <- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -> FORMAL Types of Outcomes – Content/Domain Specific DIMENSION INFORMAL <- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -> FORMAL Content/Domain - Cognitive - Affective - Skill/kinesthetic Cognitive: Intended outcomes of knowledge acquisition, improvement of cognitive skills or strengthening of problem-finding and/or problem-solving capabilities. Affective: Intended outcomes of increased understanding or valuing of affective states, attitudes and interpersonal or cultural differences. Skill/Behavioral: Often used with other types of objectives when observable change is also part of a required outcome of learning. Bloom’s Taxonomy for Cognitive Learning Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding – Describe/Explain Knowledge - Remembering Developing Cognitive Outcomes (Objectives) Useful template for the two parts of a cognitive objective: State the general objective in broad terms to encompass a domain of learning (e.g. remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, create): State one or more samples of the specific types of performance that will indicate mastery of the objective. After this workshop, participants will understand the PALS evidence-based adult learning framework for designing relationship-based professional development. Developing Cognitive Outcomes (Objectives) Examples of verbs to create objectives: Remember – Recognize, Recall, Define, Identify, List Understand – Interpret, Classify, Compare, Explain, Summarize Apply – Implement, Execute, Solve, Use Analyze – Differentiate, Organize, Attribute Evaluate – Critique, Rank, Recommend, Check Create – Design, Produce, Synthesize, Plan, Generate Developing Affective Outcomes Useful template for the two parts of an affective objective: State the general objective in broad terms to encompass a domain of learning (e.g., remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, create): State one or more samples of the specific types of performance that will indicate mastery of the objective. After this workshop, participants will share reflections on their professional practice with other colleagues. Developing Affective Outcomes Verbs from the affective domain that describe observable action include: accepts, agrees, argues, attempts, avoids, challenges, cooperates, commends, defends, disagrees, disputes, engages in, helps, is attentive to, joins, offers, participates in, praises, resists, respond to, shares, supports, values, and volunteers. Developing Behavioral Objectives Behavioral objectives refer to descriptions of observable learner behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning. They are outcome oriented but typically focus on only behavior that can be seen or heard. This is an important difference between a behavioral learning objective and a learning outcome. A learning outcome may describe a change in learner behavior that is not specifically observable or able to be easily tested, such as problem-solving capabilities or attitudes or beliefs. Behavioral objectives are best suited to skills-based (kinesthetic or psychomotor) outcomes. Developing Behavioral SMART Objectives Specific – focus on observable behavior using verbs Measurable – can be observed, counted or tested Action Oriented – application of process without too much theory Reasonable – able to be accomplished with available resources Timely – the learning will be put into practice soon after the learning event An example of a learning objective of an observable, measurable behavior: After successful completion of the training and given proper tools and materials (Condition), employees will construct 4 widgets (Performance) per hour without flaws (Criteria). Implementation Dimensions for Planning Learning - 3 DIMENSION Facilitator/Teaching Perspective – Pratt & Collins Learner-to-Learner Interaction Time Limits Assessment Plan INFORMAL <- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->FORMAL Teaching Perspectives Inventory – Pratt & Collins Transmission: Effective teaching requires a substantial commitment to the content or subject matter. Apprenticeship: Effective teaching is a process of enculturating students into a set of social norms and ways of working. Developmental: Effective teaching must be planned and conducted “from the learner’s point of view”. Nurturing: Effective teaching assumes that long-term, hard, persistent effort to achieve comes from the heart, as well as the head. Social Reform: Effective teaching seeks to change society in substantive ways. From this point of view, the object of teaching is the collective rather than the individual. Teaching Perspectives & Learner Interaction Dimension DIMENSION Facilitator/Teaching Perspective – Pratt & Collins INFORMAL <- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->FORMAL Transmission --> <-- Apprenticeship-Experiential <-- Developmental --> <-- Nurturing --> <--Social Reform-Change http://teachingperspectives.com/ Learner-to-Learner Interaction Reflecting on evidence-based adult learning Reflecting on PALS, Coaching, Guided, Accelerated, and Just-in-Time Learning Where are these located on the Continuum of Informal to Formal Learning? NEXT: A framework to develop a Reflective Professional Practice Statement Intended to stimulate your thinking – not prescriptive! Reflective Professional Practice Statement -1 General Overview of You in your role/responsibilities _____________________ Why do you do this role/responsibilities? What do you find rewarding about it? What are the basic principles that underlie your role/responsibilities? What are your standards or criteria for effectiveness? Reflective Professional Practice Statement -2 Your Professional/Personal Style at Work What is unique about your work in this role/ responsibilities? How do you establish rapport with your clients and colleagues? What are your expectations for your clients’ or learners’ accomplishments? Reflective Professional Practice Statement - 3 Your Goals for X period What do you want clients to learn and accomplish? Do you want to work in current context – or change? What skills, attitudes and values do you deliberately attempt to share and model in your work and why? How do you assess whether you’ve accomplished your goals for clients and yourself? NB: This could be adapted to family, community engagement, teaching and other contexts as well. Adult Learning Myths Adult learning is inherently joyful Adults are innately self-directed learners Good educational practice always meets the needs articulated by learners themselves Older adult cannot learn due to changes in cognition and physiology There is a uniquely adult learning process as well as a uniquely adult form of practice Learning Styles Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model Concrete Experience Testing in new situations Observation & Reflection Forming abstract concepts Learning Styles VARK – A Guide to Learning Styles Verbal Aural Read/Write Kinsethetic Recognizes more complexity – describes a “Multimodal” learner category Not a strong research base for Learning Styles, but they do provide some help for adult learners to know themselves better. http://www.vark-learn.com/english/index.asp Wrapping up Transfer of learning assessment What are some measures we could use? How could evidence be obtained? How much time should elapse before this assessment is done? Reflective practice How do you plan to weave this into your work? Reflecting on recent self-directed learning experiences Write a list of self-directed learning projects you've completed (or started) recently. What was the question that got you started? How did you learn about the topics or issues? Were you successful in answering your question? Or is this more of personal intellectual inquiry that is a lifelong project?