EXPLANATIONS OF
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompr essor
are needed to see this picture.
WHY DO PEOPLE COMMIT CRIME?
* THEORIES of CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR *
• Nature or nurture?
• PLOMIN (2001) - ‘Behavioural genetic research provides the
strongest available evidence for the importance of
environmental factors’, and most behavioural disorders reveal a
genetic influence
• Crime = Seductive (KATZ, 1998)
• Crime = Addictive (HODGE et al, 1997)
• Crime can give a buzz, risk of danger, fun
PHYSIOLOGICAL THEORIES
•
•
•
Physical features, chromosomes, genetic transmission, neurological
features - result of internal/innate characteristics
LOMBROSO (1876) - Criminals more primitive than others, with
distinguishing features, e.g. jutting jaw, low brow, flattened nose.
SHELDON (1942) - Somatotypes
Ectomorph - thin, shy, sensitive
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Endomorph - large, round, cuddly
Mesomorph - Broad, athletic, CRIMINAL!!!
TWIN STUDIES - GENETIC THEORIES
•
•
•
•
•
Good method for exploring genetic components
Identical twins (MZ) share the same genes, non-identical twins (DZ)
share approx. 50% of genes
Similarities between twins can be distinguished as a result of genetic or
environmental influences
Studies carried out show MZ twins share more criminal tendencies than
DZ twins - Nature, genetic
EVALUATIVE ISSUE - Hard to find subjects willing to participate, and
as most twins share same environment, it is difficult to distinguish
differences.
ADOPTION STUDIES - GENETIC THEORIES
•
•
•
•
Alternative approach to twin studies to investigate genetic influence
Adopted children showing similar behaviour to biological parents rather
than adoptive parents suggests strong genetic link
MEDNICK et al (1987) - boys whose biological parent had a criminal
record were more likely to have been convicted than boys whose
adoptive parent had a criminal record.
BOHMAN (1995) found there was more chance of criminality when
there was a genetic risk factor together with an environmental factor…
Biological Parents
have criminal record
Biological Parents
have NO criminal
record
Adoptive Parents
have criminal record
Adoptive Parents have
NO criminal record
40%
12%
7%
3%
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES
•
•
Personality
EYSENCK & GUDJONSSON (1989) - Neuroticism & Extroversion
linked to anti-social behaviour
EXTROVERT
Most Likely
STABLE
NEUROTIC
Least Likely
INTROVERT
•
Later added Psychoticism, marked by cold and aggressive behaviour
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES
•
•
•
BOWLBY (1944) - Maternal deprivation can have an adverse affect on
the child - can lead to deviance and criminal behaviour
Based on FREUD - Dysfunctional families can cause damage to
superego and conscience - poorly developed superego = lack of control
over anti-social impulses and a lack of guilt - unacceptable behaviour
__________________
In contrast, KOLUCHOVA (1991) describes boys whose mother died
shortly after birth - they were fostered for a while then went back to
biological father, whose new wife kept them locked in a cage for 5
years - contrary to BOWLBY’s suggestion, the boys led a successful
life, with no erratic behaviour etc
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES
•
•
•
•
CRIME = A product of learning
SUTHERLAND (1939) - Individuals socialising with groups who
regularly offend learn and follow their criminal behaviour
BANDURA (1977) - Children learn from watching role models, e.g.
parents, siblings, TV stars. Reinforcers also play a part in learning.
DESENSITISATION = People are so used to seeing crime and violence
on TV/films, they see it as the norm
* INDIVIDUAL & CUTURAL DIFFERENCES IN
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR *
GENDER
•
•
•
Men found guilty of 80% of crime, women only 20%
Types of crime are different - 80% of women commit fraud or theft,
whilst men commit a much wider range of crimes
May be a bias in the reporting of crimes - men who have had women
catch them for fraud may be embarrassed to report this
AGE
•
HOLLIN (2001) - Delinquency increases from age 8 until 16/17, then
decreases in early 20s.
FARRINGTON (1953)
Parental influences/upbringing
•
•
•
Longitudinal study, 411 working-class boys, to see how lifestyle affected
likelihood of becoming a criminal.
20% had convictions by age 17, 33% had convictions by age 25
Offenders showed common characteristics Young mother
Erratic/harsh
parental discipline
Drink, smoke, gamble
•
Aggressive
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF ( Uncompressed) dec ompressor
are needed to see this picture.
More likely to have
criminal parents
Poor, large family
Having criminal parents increases likelihood of re-offending
CULTURE
•
•
•
•
•
In the UK and USA, more Afro-Caribbean and black African people are
in prison than other ethnic groups
REINER (1993) - Possible to say that black crime could be a result of
racism
RUSHTON (1990) - Blacks are more likely to be involved in crime due
to genetic inferiority
Ethnic groups may commit more crimes because they are at a social
disadvantage
Ethnic groups may be biased against when being convicted due to
INSTITUTIONAL RACISM
* SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF THE CRIMINAL *
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explains behaviour in terms of the social process that can affect the
likelihood of criminal activity
ZIMBARDO (1970) - Conditions such as anonymity or involvement
within a group can cause DEINDIVIDUATION
Deindividuated people feel that they don’t stand out, so may be
tempted to do things they would not usually do - crime.
-------------------------------------Young women(in groups of 4) gave electric shocks to 2 others - one
pleasant, one unpleasant, who could be seen through 1-way mirror
In some groups, women’s appearances were concealed and given
numbers instead of names - deindividuated
In the other groups, women were called by their names and made to
feel special - individuated
Deindividuated women gave twice as many shocks to both victims than
the individuated women
CONCLUSION - If people are made to feel anonymous, they have the
potential to do harm to others
Download

EXPLANATIONS OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR