Chapter 8
Assessment Intelligence
Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e
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What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is often conceptualized as a
general intellectual ability, but there is
little agreement on what specific skills or
abilities contribute to intelligence.
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Definitions of Intelligence
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General Intelligence Factor
Ability Traits
Multiple Intelligences
Information Processing Ability
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Common Factors of Intelligence
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Adaptation to the environment
Basic mental processes
Higher order thinking
Information processing
Awareness and control of cognitive processes
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Theories of Intelligence
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1904: Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory
1966: Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory
1970: Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
1970: Luria’s Model
1983: Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
1993: Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model of Human Abilities
2000: Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Hierarchical ThreeStratum Model
1994: Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive
(PASS) Theory of Cognitive Processing
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Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory
Intelligence is comprised of: 1) General Intelligence Factor
(g); 2) Specific Factors
Spearman’s theory was highly controversial, but found support
in the fact that all mental tests were positively correlated.
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Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory
 Crystallized
Cattell proposed two primary
Forms of intelligence:
• Crystallized
• Fluid
 word fluency
 general information
 vocabulary
 verbal comprehension
 Fluid
According to Cattell’s theory
both forms of intelligence increase
 Speed of information
processing
throughout childhood and adolescence.
However, fluid intelligence begins
 Ability to detect relationships
to decline in the 30’s and 40’s.
 Other abstract thinking
abilities
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Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Theory
A student of Cattell’s, John Horn, adding several
broad abilities beyond Cattell’s original theory.
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short-term acquisition and retrieval (Gsm)
visual intelligence (Gv)
auditory intelligence (Ga)
long-term storage and retrieval (Glr)
cognitive processing speed (Gs)
correct decision speed (CDS)
quantitative knowledge (Gq
reading and writing skills (Grw)
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Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model of
Human Abilities
Carroll used an empirical approach to determine
that there are three layers or strata of cognitive
ability.
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Stratum III: general ability, similar to g.
Stratum II: broad abilities, which include fluid intelligence,
crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning, broad
visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval
ability, broad cognitive speediness, and processing speed.
Stratum I: narrow abilities, which are specific factors grouped
under the Stratum II abilities.
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Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)
Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model
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The Hierarchical model is an integration of the
Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc and Carroll three-stratum
theory.
The CHC model has been described as a
hierarchical, multiple-stratum model with general
intelligence (g) at the apex (or stratum III), nine
broad cognitive abilities (G) (stratum II), and
at least 69 narrow cognitive abilities (stratum
I).
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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Development
Intelligence develops through the interaction
of biological maturation and experience and
progresses through four stages:
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational, and formal operational
periods
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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Development
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Assimilation is the process by which a child
relates new objects and ideas to familiar
objects and ideas.
Accommodation is the process by which a
child changes behavior and psychological
structures in response to environmental
events.
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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Development
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Luria’s Model
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Neuropsychological approach
Examined client’s with brain lesions to
determine functions of brain sections.
Integration of 3 “blocks” of the brain.
3 Blocks in brain’s functional system:
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Block 1: arousal, concentration, attention
Block 2: Using senses to integrate data
Block 3: Executive functions (planning,
responding, etc.)
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Gardner’s Theory of Multiple
Intelligences
Gardner proposed that there are eight types of
intelligence that work together to solve problems.
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Linguistic intelligence
Logical/mathematical intelligence
Spatial intelligence
Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence
Musical/rhythmic intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence
Naturalistic intelligence
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Intelligence Tests
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Designed to evaluate cognitive strengths and
weaknesses.
Excellent predictors of academic success.
Used for:
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screening for potential problems
identification of intellectual ability
placement of individuals
support in clinical evaluation
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Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive
(PASS) Theory of Cognitive Processing
Das and colleagues’ theory centers on the concept of information
processing. They suggested that four cognitive processes are the
basic building blocks of human intellectual functioning (extension
of Luria’s work):
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Planning is a mental activity that involves setting goals, problem-solving,
knowledge, intentionality, and self-regulation to achieve a desired goal.
Attention is the process involving focused cognitive activity (while ignoring
other distractions).
Simultaneous processing involves perceiving information as a whole (e.g.,
spatially).
Successive processing involves the ability to integrate information into a
sequential order.
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Intelligence, Achievement and
Aptitude Tests – Comparison
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Intelligence tests measure an individual’s
current intellectual ability level.
Achievement tests measure what an
individual knows or can do right now, in the
present.
Aptitude tests are future-oriented, predicting
what an individual is capable of doing with
further training and education.
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Issues in Intelligence Testing
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Is intelligence one general ability, or many
abilities?
Is intelligence hereditary or learned?
How can we overcome cultural bias in
intelligence tests?
Is intelligence stable over the lifespan?
How do we account for increasing IQ scores
over the last 100 years?
Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping
Professionals, 7e
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