Balance Between EQ and IQ: How teachers can help students achieve it Group Members: Nurul Farihan binti Arefin Intan Mariati binti Abdul Manaf Ayu Safarina binti Sukri Introduction Definition of IQ and EQ Comparisons between IQ and EQ Examples of IQ and EQ Key Point Benefits INTRODUCTION For decades that a lot of emphasis has been put on certain aspects of intelligence such as logical reasons, math skills, spatial skills, understanding analogies, verbal skills, etc. INTRODUCTION The knowledge that IQ is a genetic given that cannot be changed by life experience, and that our destiny in life is largely fixed by these attitudes. That argument ignores the more challenging question: What can we change that will help our children fare better in life ? What factors are at play when people of high IQ flounder and those of modest IQ do surprisingly well ? DEFINITIONS Definition of : a) EQ [Emotional Quotient] b) IQ [Intelligence Quotient] DEFINITIONS EQ - is a measure of your emotional intelligence, or your ability to use both your emotions and cognitive skills in your life. Emotional intelligence competencies include but are not limited to empathy, intuition, creativity, flexibility, resilience, coping, stress management, leadership, integrity, authenticity, intrapersonal skills and interpersonal skills. DEFINITIONS IQ - a number used to express the apparent relative intelligence of a person that is the ratio multiplied by 100 of the mental age as reported on a standardized test to the chronological age. IQ is the measure of cognitive abilities, such as the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new situations; the skilled use of reason; the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (as tests); mental acuteness; logic and analytical skills. COMPARISON BETWEEN IQ and EQ EQ EQ gets you through life. Appealing to reason and emotions to convince someone Using your emotions as well as your cognitive abilities to function more effectively IQ IQ gets you through school Trying to convince someone by facts alone Relying solely on your cognitive skills COMPARISONS BETWEEN IQ and EQ Intelligence is the capacity to learn, think, and understand and know. It is your mental ability. Most people think that your intelligence quotient is more important than your emotional quotient, but actually your emotional quotient gets you farther in your life than your intelligence quotient. Your emotional quotient affects how good you feel. Your emotional quotient is not fixed at birth. If you have a high emotional quotient, you are more likely to do well in life. If you feel very good, then you will very likely do better in things than others that have a low emotional quotient. If you have high emotional quotient, you will be a good lawyer. EXAMPLES Samuel had a high IQ. He could reason, was analytical and logical, and had a steel-trap focus on tasks. He learned new things quickly. However, he ignored how he was feeling and how others were feeling. If things didn't do the way he expected them to, he would lose his temper and lash out at others. He was unable to relate to people who weren't as smart as he was and lacked empathy. This limited his ability to be effective in team situations even though his IQ was very high. EXAMPLES Jose had a high EQ. He got along well with people, and managed his own emotions well. This made him highly effective in his work, even though there were others in the firm with higher IQs. Jose was able to consider the emotional component of interactions, using both his cognitive abilities and his understanding of emotions. He was able to influence and motivate people because he understood what mattered to them and was an excellent communicator. He was flexible and creative when faced with a challenge, and resilient in the face of temporary defeats. He was well-liked and well-respected. KEY POINT Your EQ has more to do with your success and happiness in life than your IQ and it can be learned. BENEFITS When you recognize the difference between EQ and IQ, you can work to develop your EQ. It can be learned but has often been neglected in our education both at home and at school. Emotional Quotient [EQ] Importance of Emotion Signs of High and Low EQ “Anyone can become angry –that is easy. But to be angry With the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, For the right purpose, and in the right way.” ARISTOTLE…The Nicomachean Ethics. Steve Hein wrote that EQ: Knowing how you and others feel and what to do about it. Knowing what feels good, what feels bad, and how to get from bad to good. The emotional awareness, sensitivity and management skills which help us maximize our long term happiness and survival. Importance of Emotions It is recognized that emotions have effect on human behaviors and lead to the success of lives in careers , relationships, happiness and others. Steve Hein (1999) clarified the importance of emotions as being importance to human beings as :- Importance of Emotions Survival Nature developed our emotions over millions of years of evolution. As a result, our emotions have the potential to serve us today as a delicate and sophisticated internal guidance system. Our emotions alert us when natural human needs is not being met. For example , when we feel lonely, our need for connection with other people is unmet. When we feel afraid, our need for safety is unmet. When we feel rejected, it is our need for acceptance which is unmet. Importance of Emotions Decision Making Our emotions are valuable source of information. Our emotions help us make decisions. Studies show that when a person’s emotional connections are severed in the brain, he cannot make even simple decisions. Why? Because he doesn’t know how he will feel about his choices. Importance of Emotions Boundary Setting When we feel uncomfortable with a person’s behavior, our emotions alert us. If we learn to trust our emotions and feel confident expressing ourselves we can let the person know we feel uncomfortable as soon as we are aware of our feeling. This will help us set our boundaries which are necessary to protect our physical and mental health. Importance of Emotions Communication Our emotions help us communicate with others. Our facial expressions, for example, can convey a wide range of emotions. If we look sad or hurt, we are signaling to others that we need their help. If we are verbally skilled, we will be able to express more of our emotional needs and thereby have a better chance of filling them. If we are effective at listening to the emotional troubles of others, we are better able to help them feel understood, important and cared about. Importance of Emotions Unity Our emotions are perhaps the greatest potential source of uniting all members of the human species. Clearly, our various religious, cultural and political beliefs have not united us. Far too often, in fact, they have tragically and even fatally divided us. Emotions , on the other hand, are universal. Charles Darwin wrote about this years ago in one of his lesser-known book called "The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animal". The emotions of empathy, compassion, cooperation, and forgiveness, for instance, all have the potential to unite us as a species. Signs of High and Low EQ Signs of High EQ A person with high EQ: Expresses his feelings clearly and directly with three word sentences 'beginning with "I feel..." Does not disguise thoughts as feeling by the use of "I feel like...... and "I feel that...... sentences., Is not afraid to express her feelings. Is not dominated by negative emotions such as: Fear, Worry, Guilt, Shame, Embarrassment, Obligation, Disappointment, Hopelessness, Powerlessness, Dependency, Victimization, Discouragement Signs of High EQ Is able to read non-verbal communication. Lets his feelings guide him through life. Balances feelings with reason, logic, and reality. Acts out of desire, not because of duty, guilt, force or obligation. Is independent, self-reliant and morally autonomous. Is intrinsically motivated. Signs of High EQ Is not motivated by power, wealth, status, fame, or approval. Is emotionally resilient. Is optimistic; Does not internalize failure. Is interested in other people's feelings. Is comfortable talking about feelings. Is not immobilized by fear or worry. Is able to identify. multiple concurrent feelings. Signs of Low EQ Doesn't take responsibilities for his feelings; but blames you or others for them. Can't put together three word sentences starting with "I feel..." Can't tell you why she feels the way she does, or can't do it without blaming someone else. Attacks, blames, commands, criticized, interrupts, invalidates, lectures, advises and judges you and others. Tries to analyze you, for example when You express your feelings. Often begins sentences with "I think you..." Signs of Low EQ Lays guilt trips on you. Withholds information about or lies about his feelings. (Emotional dishonesty) Exaggerates or minimizes her feelings. Lets things build up, then they blow up, or react strongly to something relatively minor. Lacks integrity and a sense of conscience. Doesn’t tell you where you really stand with her. Intelligent Quotient [IQ] An intelligence quotient or IQ is a score derived from a set of standardized tests of intelligence. Intelligence tests come in many forms, and some tests use a single type of item or question. Most tests yield both an overall score and individual subtests scores. Regardless of design, all IQ tests are intended to measure the same general intelligence. Component tests are generally designed and chosen because they are thought to be predictable of later intellectual development, such as educational achievement. History Intelligence testing began in earnest in France, when in 1904 psychologist Alfred Binet was commissioned by the French government to find a method to differentiate between children who were intellectually normal and those who were inferior. The purpose was to put the latter into special schools where they would receive more individual attention. In this way the disruption they caused in the education of intellectually normal children could be avoided. Proponents of such tests also believe IQ correlates with job performance, socioeconomic advancement, and "social pathologies". Recent work has demonstrated links between IQ and health, longevity, and functional literacy. However, IQ tests do not measure all meanings of "intelligence", such as creativity. IQ scores are relative (like placement in a race), not absolute (like the measurement of a ruler) It has yet to be established whether IQ, if it does exist as an objective measure, is heritable (i.e., can be attributed to genetic variation) or the result of environmental factors. In the United States, marked variation in IQ occurs within families, with siblings differing on average by 12 points. The average IQ scores for many populations were rising during the 20th century: a phenomenon called the Flynn effect. It is not known whether these changes in scores reflect real changes in intellectual abilities. On average, IQ scores are stable over a person's lifetime, but some individuals undergo large changes. For example, scores can be affected by the presence of learning disabilities. IQ and general intelligence factor Modern IQ tests produce scores for different areas (e.g., language fluency, three-dimensional thinking, etc.), with the summary score calculated from subtest scores. Individual subtest scores tend to correlate with one another, even when seemingly disparate in content. Analyses of individuals' scores on the subtests of a single IQ test or the scores from a variety of different IQ tests (e.g., Stanford-Binet, WISC-R, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Cattell Culture Fair III, Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test, and others) reveal that they all measure a single common factor and various factors that are specific to each test. This kind of factor analysis has led to the theory that underlying these disparate cognitive tasks is a single factor, termed the general intelligence factor (or g), that corresponds with the common-sense concept of intelligence. In the normal population, g and IQ are roughly 90% correlated and are often used interchangeably. Where an individual has scores that do not correlate with each other, there is a good reason to look for a learning disability or other cause for the lack of correlation. Tests have been chosen for inclusion because they display the ability to use this method to predict later difficulties in learning. Inheritance of Intelligent The role of genes and environment (nature vs. nurture) in determining IQ is reviewed in Plomin et al. (2001, 2003). The degree to which genetic variation contributes to observed variation in a trait is measured by a statistic called heritability Heritability scores range from 0 to 1, and can be interpreted as the percentage of variation (e.g. in IQ) that is due to variation in genes. Twins studies and adoption studies are commonly used to determine the heritability of a trait. These studies find the heritability of IQ is approximately 0.5; that is, half of the variation in IQ among the children studied was due to variation in their genes. The remaining half was thus due to environmental variation and measurement error. Environment Environmental factors play a major role in determining IQ in extreme situations. Proper childhood nutrition appears critical for cognitive development; malnutrition can lower IQ. Other research indicates environmental factors such as prenatal exposure to toxins, duration of breastfeeding, and micronutrient deficiency can affect IQ. In the developed world, there are some family effects on the IQ of children, accounting for up to a quarter of the variance. However, by adulthood, this correlation disappears, so that the IQ of adults living in the prevailing conditions of the developed world may be more heritable. Nearly all personality traits show that, contrary to expectations, environmental effects actually cause adoptive siblings raised in the same family to be as different as children raised in different families (Harris, 1998; Plomin & Daniels, 1987). Active genotype-environment correlation, also called the "nature of nurture", is observed for IQ. This phenomenon is measured similarly to heritability; but instead of measuring variation in IQ due to genes, variation in environment due to genes is determined. One study found that 40% of variation in measures of home environment are accounted for by genetic variation. This suggests that the way human beings craft their environment is due in part to genetic influences. A study of French children adopted between the ages of 4 and 6 shows the continuing interplay of nature and nurture. The children came from poor backgrounds with I.Q.’s that initially averaged 77, putting them near retardation. Nine years later after adoption, they retook the I.Q. tests, and all of them did better. The amount they improved was directly related to the adopting family’s status. Result Children adopted by farmers and laborers had average I.Q. scores of 85.5. those placed with middle-class families had average scores of 92. The average I.Q. scores of youngsters placed in well-to-do homes climbed more than 20 points, to 98." This study suggests that IQ is not stable over the course of ones lifetime and that, even in later childhood, a change in environment can have a significant effect on IQ. Mental retardation About 75–80 percent of mental retardation is familial (runs in families), and 20–25 percent is due to organic problems, such as chromosomal abnormalities or brain damage. Mild to severe mental retardation is a symptom of several hundred single-gene disorders and many chromosomal abnormalities, including small deletions Based on twin studies, moderate to severe mental retardation does not appear to be familial, but mild mental retardation does. That is, the relatives of the moderate to severely mentally retarded have normal ranges of IQs, whereas the families of the mildly mentally retarded have IQs skewing lower. IQ score ranges: mild mental retardation: IQ 50–55 to 70; children require mild support; formally called "Educable Mentally Retarded". moderate retardation: IQ 35–40 to 50–55; children require moderate supervision and assistance; formally called "Trainable Mentally Retarded". severe mental retardation: IQ 20–25 to 35–40; can be taught basic life skills and simple tasks with supervision. profound mental retardation: IQ below 20–25; usually caused by a neurological condition; require constant care. Facts… The rate of mental retardation is higher among males than females, and higher among blacks than whites, according to a 1991 U.S. - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study. By race, the overall rate was 16.6 per 1000 for blacks and 6.8 per 1000 for whites. Rates of mental retardation for black males, the group with the highest rates, were 1.7 times higher than black females, 2.4 times higher than white males, and 3.1 times higher than white females. Individuals with IQs below 70 have been essentially exempted from the death penalty in the U.S. since 2002. Mankind is slowly discovering that all of us have inside of us the germ of at least one great new idea that will improve the world. This is the ancient dream of Moses and of John Calvin and all the saints and heroes of history." -- William Maxwell, Professor of Human Development, the University of Advancing Technology, Tempe, Arizona How teacher can influence the EQ and IQ of the students? Constantly showered their students with encouragement. While educating the students, teachers have to constantly upgrade themselves and continue to reflect and learn. By creating a conducive environment in the classroom. How teachers can help to achieve the balance between EQ & IQ? How teachers can help?? By educating himself or herself about IQ and EQ. Teachers have to know the importance of balance between EQ and IQ. Teachers have to help educate the parents about the importance of balancing EQ and IQ. How teachers can help the students to achieve the balance between EQ and IQ? How teachers can help? By coaching and mentoring the students. By giving the students challenging assignments. By encouraging team building in classroom. Teacher should give positive feedbacks or response to the students. Teacher should educate the students about the important of EQ and IQ and the balance between EQ and IQ. Teachers have to be able to strike a balance between challenging a student, exposing him or her to new ideas and activities and try to have a meaningful and light hearted conversations with the students. By helping the students to understand their own emotions By helping the students to motivate themselves. By helping the students to recognize emotions in others. By helping the students to manage emotions. By helping the students to handle relationships better. Discussion How many of you all think IQ is better than EQ? Which one is more prominent in the society?