Success on the AP Psychology Exam
 Knowledge
 Need to know the material of a typical Introduction
to Psychology course at the college level.
 Typical college course meets for 15 weeks, 3 times
a week for 45 class hours.
 Textbooks
 Weiten Text: 714 pages
 Gleitman Text: 720 pages
 Bernstein Text: 627 pages
 Myers Text: 794 pages
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
 Understanding of the AP Psychology Test
 Knowing the basic elements of the AP Psychology
test including:
 Number of questions in the total test
 Number of questions from each individual unit
 Types of questions possible
 How the questions are arraigned?
 How is the test scored?
 Penalty for guessing
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
 Motivation
 Drive to do well on the test
 Reasons for a 5
 Time/Work
 Willingness to put in the time and effort needed to succeed
 Confidence
 Feeling you are prepared and have the skills needed to pass
the test.
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Result
Confidence
Time/Effort
Motivation
Understanding
of the Test
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
X
X
X
X
Result
Understanding
of the Test
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Understanding
of the Test
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
X
Understanding
of the Test
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
X
Understanding
of the Test
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
X
Motivation
X
Understanding
of the Test
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
X
X
X
Understanding
of the Test
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
X
X
Half an
Attempt
X
X
X
Understanding
of the Test
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
X
X
Half an
Attempt
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Understanding
of the Test
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
X
X
Half an
Attempt
No Attempt
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Understanding
of the Test
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
X
X
Half an
Attempt
No Attempt
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Understanding
of the Test
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
X
X
Half an
Attempt
No Attempt
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Panic
Understanding
of the Test
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
X
X
Half an
Attempt
No Attempt
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Panic
X
Understanding
of the Test
Motivation
Time/Effort
Confidence
Result
Knowledge
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
X
X
X
X
Confusion
X
X
X
Inefficiency
X
X
Half an
Attempt
No Attempt
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Panic
X
Success
Test Taking Strategies
General Tips for Test Taking
Multiple Choice Section
Free Response
Questions
General Tips for Test Taking
 Know the structure of the test
 Multiple Choice Section - 100 questions
A-E
 Column format
 Questions taken
from every unit
on a percentage
basis

AP Psychology Exam Structure
History and Approaches
Research Methods
Biological Bases of Behavior
Sensation and Perception
States of Consciousness
Learning
Cognition
Motivation and Emotion
Developmental Psychology
Personality
Testing and Individual Differences
Abnormal Psychology
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Social Psychology
2-4%
8-10%
8-10%
6-8%
2-4%
7-9%
8-10%
6-8%
7-9%
5-7%
5-7%
7-9%
5-7%
8-10%
AP Psychology Exam Structure
Research Methods
Biological Bases of Behavior
Cognition
Social Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Learning
Motivation and Emotion
Sensation and Perception
Personality
Testing and Individual Differences
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
History and Approaches
States of Consciousness
8-10%
8-10%
8-10%
8-10%
7-9%
7-9%
7-9%
6-8%
6-8%
5-7%
5-7%
5-7%
2-4%
2-4%
AP Psychology Exam Structure
History, Approaches and Research Methods
Biological Bases of Behavior
Cognition
Social Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Learning
Motivation and Emotion
Sensation and Perception
Personality
Testing and Individual Differences
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
States of Consciousness
10-14%
8-10%
8-10%
8-10%
7-9%
7-9%
7-9%
6-8%
6-8%
5-7%
5-7%
5-7%
2-4%
General Tips for Test Taking
 Know the structure of the test
 Free Response Section - 2 questions
No choice
 Multiple parts

Free Response Question 2009 #1
1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new routine to
compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an
example of how each of the following could affect their
performance. Definitions without application do not
score.
• Extrinsic motivation
• Punishment
• Proactive interference
• Endorphins
• Vestibular system
• Divergent thinking
• Introversion
Free Response Question 2009 #2
2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving
test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to
prepare students for a written test and a road test.
(a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to
drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do not
score.
• Cognitive map
• Cerebellum
• Observational learning
• Human factors
(b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of the
written test. Definitions without application do not score.
• Reticular formation
• Predictive validity
• Semantic memory
General Tips for Test Taking
 Make good use of your time and be aware of
time restraints
 Multiple Choice - 70 minutes (100 questions)
 Free Response - 50 minutes (2 questions)
 Bring a watch to the test
 Directions on exam
(see next slide)
General Tips for Test Taking
 Make good use of your time and know your time
restraints
 “Use your time effectively, working as quickly as
you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend
too much time on any one question. Go on to
other questions and come back to the ones you
have not answered if you have time. It is not
expected that everyone will know the answers to
all of the multiple-choice questions.”
General Tips for Test Taking
 Read the directions carefully
 “Mark the one best answer”
 “Mark all correct answers”
 AP Psychology test says:
 “Each of the questions or
incomplete statements below is
followed by five suggested answers or
completions. Select the one that is best in each
case and then fill in the corresponding oval on
the answer sheet.”
General Tips for Test Taking
 Know how the test is graded
 Multiple Choice

2/3 of overall grade
100 Points
 Free Response


1/3 of overall grade
50 Points
 150 Total Points

General Tips for Test Taking
Section II: Free Response (Assumes one 8 point and
one 10 point question)
(3.1250 X _______) + (2.500 X ________ ) =
Question 1
(Out of 8)
Question 2
(Out of 10)
_____
Free Response
Score
Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many
points each question in a given year is worth.
General Tips for Test Taking
Section III: Composite Score
______________ + ___________ = _______________
Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score
Score
Score
Section IV: Final Score
General Tips for Test Taking
Section I: Multiple Choice
[
74
_____
Number Correct
- (1/4 X
5
20
_____
)] X 1.000 =
Number Wrong
69
__________
Multiple-Choice Score
(If less than zero, enter zero)
Notes: If any questions are thrown out the 1.0 will change to
reflect that change.
General Tips for Test Taking
Section III: Composite Score
69.00 + ___________ = _______________
______________
Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score
Score
Score
Section IV: Final Score
General Tips for Test Taking
Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and
8 point question)
18.75
6
(3.1250 X _______)
+
Question 1
(Out of 8)
15
6 )
(2.500 X ________
Question 2
(Out of 10)
=
33.75
_____
Free Response
Score
Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many
points each question in a given year is worth.
General Tips for Test Taking
Section III: Composite Score
69.00 + ___________
33.75 = _______________
102.75
______________
Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score
Score
Score
Section IV: Final Score
General Tips for Test Taking
 Don’t waste time with extremely difficult
questions
 Don't waste time pondering difficult-toanswer questions excessively. If you have no
idea at all, just guess (if there is no penalty
for doing so) and go on. If you need to
devote a good deal of time to the question,
skip it and mark it so you can return to it
later if time permits.
General Tips for Test Taking
 Are charts, graphs, drawings, etc.
on the test?
 Are there names on the test?
General Tips for Test Taking
 Keep to the level of the test
 Adopt the appropriate level of sophistication
for the test. Don't read things into
questions. Sometimes students make things
more complex that they were intended to be.
Often, simple-looking questions are just
what they appear to be.
 AP Psychology test appears to
go from easiest questions to
the hardest questions.
General Tips for Test Taking
 Ask questions if you can
 Unless it is explicitly forbidden, don't
hesitate to ask the examiner to clarify a
question when necessary. Many examiners
will graciously provide a great deal of useful
information.
 AP Psychology test:
You cannot ask any
questions.
General Tips for Test Taking
 If possible, review your answers
 If you complete all of the questions and still
have some time remaining, review the test.
Make sure that you have recorded your
answers correctly, especially when using a
scanner sheet. If you were unsure of some
answers, go back and reconsider them.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Multiple Choice Question Structure
Stem
1.Which of the following is responsible
for focusing the image on the retina?
Decoys/distracters
Correct Answer
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
cornea
optic nerve
rods
cones
lens
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Anticipate the answer
As you read the stem of each multiple choice
question, anticipate the answer if you can,
before looking at the options. If the answer you
anticipated is among the options, it is likely to be
the correct one.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Anticipate the answer
When Shelly first had cable television service installed,
Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable
company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now
has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and
not on channel 9. This memory problem represents
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Anticipate the answer
When Shelly first had cable television service installed,
Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable
company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now
has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and
not on channel 9. This memory problem represents
(A) memory decay
(B) retrograde amnesia
(C) reconstruction errors
(D) retroactive interference
(E) proactive interference
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Anticipate the answer
When Shelly first had cable television service installed,
Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable
company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now
has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and
not on channel 9. This memory problem represents
(A) memory decay
(B) retrograde amnesia
(C) reconstruction errors
(D) retroactive interference
(E) proactive interference
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Completely read each question and every answer
Always read each question completely. Continue
reading even if you find your anticipated answer
among the options. There may be a more
complete option farther down the list.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Completely read each question and every answer
Which of the following is evidence of the reliability of a
new intelligence test?
(A) A correlation of +0.90 exists between scores
on the new test and scores on the Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for Children.
(B) The test predicts students’ ability to succeed
in college.
(C) The correlation between scores for identical
twins taking the test is +0.90.
(D) Baseline data for test norming are obtained
from a diverse sample of several thousand
participants.
(E) The correlation between scores of
participants who take two forms of the test is
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #70)
+0.90.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Completely read each question and every answer
Which of the following is evidence of the reliability of a
new intelligence test?
(A) A correlation of +0.90 exists between scores
on the new test and scores on the Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for Children.
(B) The test predicts students’ ability to succeed
in college.
(C) The correlation between scores for identical
twins taking the test is +0.90.
(D) Baseline data for test norming are obtained
from a diverse sample of several thousand
participants.
(E) The correlation between scores of
participants who take two forms of the test is
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #70)
+0.90.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Re-phrase complicated questions
If the question is too complex try to re-phrase it
into a form you can understand.
“In their deliberations and discussions regarding
the process of developmental maturation, the
advocates of the importance of nurture in the
nature/nurture controversy emphasize which of
the following concepts?”
Which of the following do those who believe in
nurture believe?
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Stick to the subject matter
Watch for answers that have nothing to do with
the subject matter of the course or have nothing
to do with the subject matter of the particular
unit the question is testing.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Stick to the subject matter
Alfred Binet’s most important contribution to psychology
was in the area of
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
intelligence testing
visual perception
psychopathology
comparative psychology
classical conditioning
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #34)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Stick to the subject matter
Alfred Binet’s most important contribution to psychology
was in the area of
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
intelligence testing
visual perception
psychopathology
comparative psychology
classical conditioning
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #34)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Watch for help
Look for answers
or help within
other questions
of the test.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Watch for help
Which of the following theoretical frameworks would
argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose
what is good for his or her growth?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
Social learning theory
Psychoanalytic
Behavioral
Humanistic
Psychodynamic
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #05)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Watch for help
Which of the following theoretical frameworks would
argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose
what is good for his or her growth?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
Social learning theory
Psychoanalytic
Behavioral
Humanistic
Psychodynamic
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #05)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Watch for help
The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
most behavior can be explained by operant
conditioning principles
all humans have peak experiences
all humans are by nature good
humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and
suffering
self-actualization can happen only through
therapy
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #49)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Watch for help
The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
most behavior can be explained by operant
conditioning principles
all humans have peak experiences
all humans are by nature good
humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and
suffering
self-actualization can happen only through
therapy
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #49)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Use “all of the above” to your advantage
On items that have "all of the above" as an
option, if you know that just two of the options
are correct, you should choose "all of the
above."
If you are confident that one of the options is
incorrect, you should eliminate this option and
"all of the above" and choose from the
remaining options.
AP Psychology exam has not had any “all of the
above” or “none of the above” questions
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Use qualifiers and 100% words
Qualifiers: often, sometimes, perhaps, may,
generally, some, seldom, usually, ordinarily, etc.
Options that use qualifiers tend to be correct.
100% words: never, none, no, every, always, all,
only, entirely, necessarily, completely, totally, etc.
Options that represent broad, sweeping
generalizations tend to be incorrect.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Use flaws within the test to your advantage
Many writers of test questions make mistakes that you
can use to help determine the correct answer.
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
 Flaw #1
 The incorrect options are highly implausible
The part of the brain responsible for higher order
thinking is the:
A. cerebrum
B. pupil
C. repression
D. pituitary gland
E. mania
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
 Flaw #1
 The incorrect options are highly implausible
The part of the brain responsible for higher order
thinking is the:
A. cerebrum
B. pupil
C. repression
D. pituitary gland
E. mania
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
 Flaw #2
 Equivalence and/or contradictions among options
allow one to eliminate the incorrect options.
Which of the following is a anxiety disorder?
A. manic depression
B. bipolar disorder
C. phobia
D. dissociative amnesia
E. psychogenic amnesia
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
 Flaw #2
 Equivalence and/or contradictions among options
allow one to eliminate the incorrect options.
Which of the following is a anxiety disorder?
A. manic depression
B. bipolar disorder
C. phobia
D. dissociative amnesia
E. psychogenic amnesia
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
 Flaw #3
 Content information in other items provides the
answer.
 Flaw #4
 The correct option is more detailed and/or more
specific than all the other options.
 Flaw #5
 The correct option is longer than all the other
options.
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
 Flaw #6
 There is grammatical inconsistency between the
stem and the incorrect options but not the correct
option.
 Flaw #7
 The incorrect options include certain key words that
tend to appear in false statements (i.e. always, must,
never, and so on).
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
 Flaw #8
 There is a resemblance between the stem and correct
option but not the incorrect options.
Skinner and the other behaviorists would promote
which of the following therapies?
A. psychoanalysis
B. humanistic therapy
C. behavioral therapy
D. Gestalt therapy
E. cognitive therapy
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
 Flaw #8
 There is a resemblance between the stem and correct
option but not the incorrect options.
Skinner and the other behaviorists would promote
which of the following therapies?
A. psychoanalysis
B. humanistic therapy
C. behavioral therapy
D. Gestalt therapy
E. cognitive therapy
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
Flaw #1 - The incorrect options are highly implausible
Flaw #2 - Equivalence and/or contradictions among options allow
one to eliminate the incorrect options.
Flaw #3 - Content information in other items provides the answer.
Flaw #4 - The correct option is more detailed and/or more specific
than all the other options.
Flaw #5 - The correct option is longer than all the other options.
Flaw #6 - There is grammatical inconsistency between the stem and
the incorrect options but not the correct option.
Flaw #7 - The incorrect options include certain key words that tend
to appear in false statements (i.e. always, must, never, and so on).
Flaw #8 - There is a resemblance between the stem and correct
option but not the incorrect options.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Eliminate implausible answers
Learn how to quickly eliminate
options that are high
implausible. Many questions
have only two plausible
options, accompanied by
"throwaway" options for
filler. You should work at
spotting these implausible
options so that you can quickly
discard them and narrow your
task.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Eliminate implausible answers
According to Benjamin Whorf’s linguistic relatively hypothesis,
which of the following is true?
(A)
Individuals have a natural predisposition to
walk in the first two years of life.
(B)
Individuals learn positive instances of
reinforcement faster than they learn negative
instances.
(C)
Children learn “object permanence” much
sooner than Piaget proposed in his cognitive
theory.
(D)
Different languages predispose those individuals
who speak them to think about the world in different
ways.
(E)
Children learn quantifying behaviors through their
interactions with adults before learning qualifying
behaviors.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Eliminate implausible answers
According to Benjamin Whorf’s linguistic relatively hypothesis,
which of the following is true?
(A)
Individuals have a natural predisposition to
walk in the first two years of life.
(B)
Individuals learn positive instances of
reinforcement faster than they learn negative
instances.
(C)
Children learn “object permanence” much
sooner than Piaget proposed in his cognitive
theory.
(D)
Different languages predispose those individuals
who speak them to think about the world in different
ways.
(E)
Children learn quantifying behaviors through their
interactions with adults before learning qualifying
behaviors.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Eliminate implausible answers
Which of the following is an example of a metacognition?
(A) Explaining the significance of the client’s
dreams to their disorder.
(B) Protecting the terminal buttons of the neuron
from destruction by enzymes in the spinal
cord.
(C) Viewing personality disorders as adjustments
to the environment.
(D) Understanding the role of various parts of
the brain in motor coordination.
(E) Knowing the effectiveness of different
strategies for learning statistical formulas.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Eliminate implausible answers
Which of the following is an example of a metacognition?
(A) Explaining the significance of the client’s
dreams to their disorder.
(B) Protecting the terminal buttons of the neuron
from destruction by enzymes in the spinal
cord.
(C) Viewing personality disorders as adjustments
to the environment.
(D) Understanding the role of various parts of
the brain in motor coordination.
(E) Knowing the effectiveness of different
strategies for learning statistical formulas.
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Eliminate implausible answers
A college student experiences a lost of sensation in her
right arm before exams. Doctors can find no
physiological basis for her condition. This student is
most likely experiencing which of the following kinds of
disorders?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
Somatoform
Dissociative
Anxiety
Mood
Personality
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #64)
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
Eliminate implausible answers
A college student experiences a lost of sensation in her
right arm before exams. Doctors can find no
physiological basis for her condition. This student is
most likely experiencing which of the following kinds of
disorders?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
Somatoform
Dissociative
Anxiety
Mood
Personality
(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #64)
Free Response Section
Test Structure

2 Free Response (Essay) Questions

Required to do both
Free Response Section
Time Structure

50 minutes to complete both essays

Can break up your time on the essays
any way you want

Watch your time. Don’t get caught
short on essay #2
Free Response Section
Scoring

Essays are 1/3 of the overall score

Each essay 1/6 of the overall score

Each essay will have a specific number
of points (6-12)

Points are then mathematically changed
to equal 25 for a perfect essay
General Tips for Test Taking
Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and
8 point question)
18.75
6
(3.1250 X _______)
+
Question 1
(Out of 8)
15
6 )
(2.500 X ________
Question 2
(Out of 10)
=
33.75
_____
Free Response
Score
Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many
points each question in a given year is worth.
General Tips for Test Taking
Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and
8 point question)
25
6
(4.1667 X _______)
Question 1
(Out of 6)
+
12.5
6 )
(2.083 X ________
Question 2
(Out of 12)
=
37.5
_____
Free Response
Score
Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many
points each question in a given year is worth.
Free Response Section
Style of the Questions

One essay tends to be unit based

One essay tends to go across units

Questions tend to be relatively specific

Application questions with listing of terms
Free Response Question 2009 #1
1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new routine to
compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an
example of how each of the following could affect their
performance. Definitions without application do not
score.
• Extrinsic motivation
• Punishment
• Proactive interference
• Endorphins
7
points
• Vestibular system
• Divergent thinking
• Introversion
Free Response Question 2009 #2
2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving
test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to
prepare students for a written test and a road test.
(a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to
drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do
not score.
• Cognitive map
• Cerebellum
7 points
• Observational learning
• Human factors
(b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of
the written test. Definitions without application do not score.
• Reticular formation
• Predictive validity
• Semantic memory
Free Response Question 2008 #1
1 The Smith-Garcias are planning for their first baby. Both
parents-to-be have had a psychology course and are looking
forward to applying the principles they learned from theories
and research that address child development.
A. Summarize one main idea or finding of each of the following
four researchers.
• Skinner’s operant conditioning
• Bandura’s social learning theory
• Ainsworth’s attachment research
• Baumrind’s research on parenting styles
B. Provide a specific example of actions the Smith-Garcias might
take to raise their child to produce positive outcomes using each
of the theories below to address the corresponding psychological
concept.
8 points
• Skinner’s operant conditioning: tantrum management
• Bandura’s social learning theory: sharing behavior
• Ainsworth’s attachment research: self-reliance
• Baumrind’s research on parenting styles: self-esteem
Free Response Question 2008 #2
Abstract
2. We conducted a variation of Ash’s (1951) conformity study in which
participants made judgements about the length of lines. We randomly
assigned participants to one of two conditions and told them that the study
involved perceptual abilities. In the first condition, participants estimated the
length of lines after hearing five people pretending to be participants
(confederates) give inaccurate estimates. In the second condition, participants
estimated the length of lines without hearing estimates of confederates. As we
expected, participants in the first condition were less accurate in their
estimates in line length, demonstrating the tendency to conform to majority
influence.
A. How would each element below be related to the specific content of the
experiment reported in the abstract?
• Control group
• Deception
• Operational definition of the dependent variable
• Hypothesis
• Debriefing
B. How might participants’ estimates on line length in the study be related to
the following?
• Cognitive dissonance
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
7 points
Free Response Question 2007 #1
1. Ellie, a new student at Skinner High School, is determined to
make friends. When she attends the first psychology club
meeting she finds herself in the room with twenty strangers who
seem to know each other well. She plans to attend a few more
meetings before deciding whether she will join.
A. Demonstrate how each of the following could HELP play
a role in Ellie’s quest for friendship. You may use a different
example for each concept. Definitions will not score.
• The mere-exposure effect
• Mnemonic device
• Schachter two-factor theory
• Locus of control
B. Demonstrate how each of the following could HINDER
Ellie’s quest for friendship. You may use a different example for
each concept. Definitions will not score.
8
points
• In-group bias
• Regression
• Operant conditioning
• Circadian rhythm.
Free Response Question 2007 #2
2. Often misunderstood, schizophrenia is a psychological
disorder affecting one percent of the population. In
addition, to treating the disorder, psychologists work to
identify its nature and origins.
•
Identify two characteristics symptoms used to diagnose
schizophrenia.
•
Discuss a research finding that supports a genetic basis
for schizophrenia.
•
What is the dopamine hypothesis regarding the origins
of schizophrenia?
•
Describe how medications used to treat schizophrenia
affect the actions of neurotransmitters at the synapses.
•
Identify a risk inherent in using medications in the
treatment of schizophrenia.
8 points
•
People sometimes confuse schizophrenia with
dissociative identify disorder (DID). Identify two key
characteristics that differentiate DID from
schizophrenia.
Free Response Section
Scoring

Points are given for correct responses

Points are not removed unless you
contradict yourself

Points for not removed for
Handwriting/Spelling/Grammar
Free Response Section
 Helpful Hints – Before Writing
 Read both essays
 Think through your answer before you
start writing
 Try to determine the point values for the
question
 Write an outline/notes on the essay
question sheet
 If you are not sure take a logical guess.
Free Response Section
 Writing the Essays
 Format of the Answer
 Write your answers in essay form.
 DO NOT outline, write bullets, etc.
 Follow the format of the the question.
 Use paragraphs to separate the different
sections
 Underline key points and concepts
 Define and give examples
Free Response Section
 Writing the Essays
 Do not worry if you cannot answer all of
the question
 Try to avoid compound or complex
sentences. Style does not get you points
 Avoid circular definitions
 Be complete but to the point
 DO NOT restate the question.
Free Response Section
 Writing the Essays
 Introductions and conclusions are NOT
needed.
 DO NOT concept bomb the answer
 Answer the question Don’t try to be cute
 Define any concepts in the question
Free Response Question 1992 #1
1.Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are
different learning methods.
Their differences lie in
A. the extent to which reinforcement depends on the
behavior of the learner;
B. the type of behavior to which each method applies.
Their similarities are that they both produce the following
basic phenomena.
A. Acquisition
B. Extinction
C. Spontaneous recovery
D. Generalization
E. Discrimination
Describe these differences and similarities, giving examples
to illustrate your answer.
Free Response Question 1992 #2
2. Briefly discuss the cause(s) and treatment(s) of depression
from the perspective of each of the following psychological
approaches.
A. Psychodynamic/psychoanalytical
B. Biological/medical
C. Cognitive
Free Response Question 1993 #1
1. Design and describe an experiment to measure the
relationship between rehearsal/repetition of a list of words
and later recall of that same list of words. In your answer
you should formulate a hypothesis and include a description
of each of the following.
A. Population
B. Subject selection
C. Independent variable
D. Dependent variable
E. Experimental group
F. Control group
G. Potential confounding variables
H. A method of reducing experimenter bias
Free Response Question 1993 #2
2. Describe the therapeutic procedure called systematic
desensitization. Select a specific disorder for which this
therapy is effective and explain how the basic phenomena
listed below play a part in successful treatment.
A. Anxiety hierarchy
B. Relaxation
C. Generalization
D. Extinction
Free Response Question 1994 #1
1. Design an experiment to determine whether a new drug
that is supposed to reduce hyperactivity in children actually
does. Your essay should include an identification and
description of all of the components of your experimental
design, including sampling, independent and dependent
variable, controls, and the method that you would employ to
evaluate the outcome.
Free Response Question 1994 #2
2.One of the most useful generalizations in psychology is that
“behavior is adaptive.” Explain this generalization and then
identify each of the following and describe how each could
be adaptive.
A. Repression
B. Conformity
C. Imprinting
D. Displaced aggression
E. Lost of information from short-term memory
Free Response Question 1995 #1
1. Compare and contrast the experimental method and the
survey method in terms of their suitability for investigating
the hypothesis that frustration leads to aggressive behavior.
In comparing and contrasting the two methods, be sure to
identify and discuss each of the following.
A. Independent variable
B. Dependent variable
C. Control
D. Experimenter and response bias
E. Ethical issues
Free Response Question 1995 #2
2. Define each of the following concepts and explain how each
contributes to the phenomena of prejudice.
A. Stereotyping
B. Self-fulfilling prophecy
C. Fundamental attribution error
D. Projection
E. Schema
Free Response Question 1996 #1
1. Discuss how social and biological factors have an impact on
each of the following in the individual.
A. Body weight
B. Perception
C. Alcoholism
D. Extraversion
E. Schizophrenia
Free Response Question 1996 #2
2. Professor Jackson believes that frustration increases the need for
achievement. She decides to test her hypothesis with her introductory
psychology class of about 100 students. The first 50 students who
arrive for class one day are taken to a separate room and given a series
of easy puzzles to complete. Professor Jackson then asks each student
about his or her professional goals. She rates the statement of each on
a 7-point scale for strength of achievement motivation.
When they arrive, the remaining students are taken to another room
and given a series of difficult puzzles by Professor Jackson’s teaching
assistant, Jim. Jim also asks each student about his or her professional
goals and, like Professor Jackson, then rates the statement of each on a
7-point scale.
The group given the difficult puzzles has, on the average, higher
achievement motivation scores than the group given the easy puzzles.
Professor Jackson concludes that her hypothesis is supported.
Show how each of the following aspects of Professor Jackson’s
experimental design is flawed. Indicate how you would correct each
problem.
A. Sampling
B. Assignment of participants
C. Dependent variable
D. Control for experimenter bias
E. Control of confounding variables (You need cite only one.)
Free Response Question 1997 #1
1. Many people are concerned about the effects of the use of
physical punishment to modify the undesirable behavior of
children.
A. Basing your answer on psychological knowledge, apply
each of the following in an argument against the use of
physical punishment.
 Modeling
 Classical conditioning of fear
 Displacement
B. How would psychologists use the following processes to
modify children’s undesirable behavior?
 Positive reinforcement
 Extinction
Free Response Question 1997 #2
2. Although personality is generally consistent throughout the
life span, some people exhibit personality changes.
A. How do each of the following help to explain BOTH
continuity and change in personality?

Biological factors

Learning factors

Situational factors

Cognitive factors
B. How would any TWO of the above interact to produce
changed in the trait of shyness?
Free Response Question 1998 #1
1. Read the following abstract of a student research project on bystander
intervention and then answer the questions that follow.
The ten participants in the study were unaware of its purpose. The first
five who signed up to be tested were assigned to the Alone condition and
the next five were assigned to the With Others condition. The Alone
condition was run in the morning and the With Others condition in the
afternoon.
In the Alone condition, each of the five participants was asked to wait
alone in a room. While the participant waited, a female voice in the next
room screamed out, asking for help. In the With Others condition, each
one of the five participants was asked to wait in a room with several
confederates of the researcher. During this waiting period, a male voice
in the next room screamed out, asking for help.
In each condition, the percentage of participants who responded to the cry
for help was recorded.
A. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this study.
B. Identify four flaws in the design of this study and the
recommendations you would make to correct these flaws.
C. Discuss the ethical issue raised by the design of this study.
D. Use you knowledge of research in social psychology to describe the
likely results of this study if correct methodology had been used.
Free Response Question 1998 #2
2. A. Describe fully the distinctive emphasis of the cognitive
approach to human behavior and mental processes. In your
essay, by sure to specify how the cognitive approach differs
from the following psychological approaches.
 Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic
 Behavioral
 Biological
B. Give an example of the contribution of cognitive theory to
the understanding of each of the following.
 Memory
 Depression
Free Response Question 1999 #1
1. A. Describe the role of each of the following mechanisms in
determining an individual’s eating habits and body weight.
 Biological Mechanisms
Learning Mechanisms
 Body or brain chemistry
Reinforcement
 Brain structure
Modeling
 Genetics
Cultural factors
B. Select one biological and one learning mechanism and
discuss the implications of each for weight management.
Free Response Question 1999 #2
2. In a study, researchers use a photograph taken in a public park to
examine how people perceive, learn, and remember information. In
the photograph, a woman is standing near a man who is seated on a
park bench. The woman appears to be shouting at the man.
Participants in the study are exposed to the photograph for ten
seconds and then are shown, each for ten second, several other
photographs of people interacting. When all the photographs have
been shown, the participants are asked about what they saw in the
“public park” photograph. A significant number of participants
describe the man as being the aggressor in an apparent
disagreement with the woman.
Describe how each of the following concepts helps explain the
perception of these participants. Be sure to begin by defining each
concept in psychological terms.
 schema
 retroactive interference
 representativeness heuristic
 confirmation bias
 framing
Free Response Question 2000 #1
1. Your high school is proposing moving to a system in
which grades are not longer given or used to evaluate
student progress.
Define each of the following concepts and state how
each might either positively or negatively change
student behavior under such a system.
a. Extrinsic motivation
b. Arousal theory (Yerkes-Dodson Law)
c. Learned Helplessness
d. Self-fulfilling prophecy
Free Response Question 2000 #2
2. The police chief of New City states publicly that she
sees a direct relationship between teenage arrests in
New City for violent crimes and the popularity among
New City teens of especially violent television shows.
A. Design a correlational study to research this claimed
relationship, being sure to address how each of the
following design elements would apply to your study.
- operational definition of variables
- selection of participants
- generalizability
- two ethical considerations
B. The police chief concludes that watching violent
television shows leads to teens’ committing violent
crimes in New City. Do you support her conclusion?
Explain your response.
Free Response Question 2001 #1
1. Discuss the cause of anxiety from each of the following
perspectives.
• Behavioral
• Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
• Biological
• Cognitive
b. Discuss a specific treatment technique for reducing
anxiety used by professionals representing each of the four
perspectives.
Free Response Question 2001 #2
2. Describe the psychological concept of expectancy or set.
Discuss a specific example of how expectancy or set affects
each of the following.

•
•
•
•
•
Human perception
The effects of a psychoactive drug on a human
A student’s performance in the classroom
Human problem solving
Memory
Free Response Question 2002 #1
1. The human organism displays various reactions that are
characterized by opposing tendencies. Use a specific
physiological or psychological mechanism to explain how
both aspects of opposing processes apply to EACH of the
follow.
• Appetite
• Autonomic nervous system
• Color vision
• Drug use
• Nerve firing
Free Response Question 2002 #2
2. Five-year-old Jessie went to a fire station with her
kindergarten class. When she got home, Jessie, who is in the
preoperational stage of cognitive development, eagerly told
the story of her adventure to her older brother. Describe
how the following factors might have influenced the story
she told. Be sure to define an appropriate example of
EACH factor.
• Egocentrism
• Observational learning
• Overregularization or overgeneralization of language
• Reconstructive memory
• Schema
Free Response Question 2003 #1
1. A. Statistics are often used to describe and interpret the results of
intelligence testing.
• Describe three measures of central tendency (mean, median, and
mode).
• Describe a skewed distribution
• Relate the three measures of central tendency to a normal
distribution.
• Relate the three measures of central tendency to a positively skewed
distribution.
• An intelligence test for which the scores are normally distributed has
a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Use this
information to describe how the scores are distributed.
• In two normal distributions, the means are 100 for group I and 115
for group II. Can an individual in group I have a higher score
than the mean score for group II? Explain.
B. Apply knowledge of psychological research in answering the
following questions about intelligence scores.
• Explain why norms for standardized intelligence tests are
periodically updated.
• Describe how to determine whether an intelligence test is biased.
Free Response Question 2003 #2
2. A. Define the following psychological concepts.
• Cognitive dissonance
• Conformity
• Incentive motivation
• Negative reinforcement
• Physiological addiction
B. Use one specific example for each of the concepts in part
A to explain how the concept might relate to either the
development of or the continuation of a smoking habit. It is
not necessary to use the same example for each concept.
Free Response Question 2004 #1
1. Dr. Franklin investigated the relationship between stress and physical illness.
She persuaded a high school principal to require all female athletes in the
school to participate in her study. She explained the purpose of her research to
the athletes and asked them to use a standard form to rate the severity of their
stress over the last six months. More than 250 athletes completed the form.
Then Dr. Franklin analyzed the forms returned by the first 100 athletes. She
requested the attendance records from the nurse’s office for each of those
athletes to verify the number of days absent due to illness during the same sixmonth period. In the debriefing summary that Dr. Franklin sent to the 100
athletes after she completed the study, she stated that athletes who reported
more stress also experienced more frequent illness. Dr. Franklin concluded
that stress causes physical illness.
•
Identify the research method used by Dr. Franklin.
•
Describe the operational definitions of the TWO key variables that Dr.
Franklin used in the study.
•
Based on the information provided, describe ONE appropriate and ONE
inappropriate ethical feature of the study.
•
Identify ONE statistical technique that Dr. Franklin could use to
represent the relationship between the variables in the study
•
Describe TWO aspects of research design that weakened the validity of
Dr. Franklin’s conclusion that stress causes physical illness.
Free Response Question 2004 #2
2.Time is an important variable in many psychological
concepts. Describe a specific example that clearly
demonstrates an understanding of each of the following
concepts and how it relates to or is affected by time. Use a
different example for each concept.
•
Critical period
•
Fluid intelligence
•
Group polarization
•
James-Lange theory of emotion
•
Presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and
unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in classical conditioning
•
Refractory period in neural firing
•
Sound localization
•
Spontaneous recovery
Free Response Question 2005 #1
1.Describe a specific example that clearly demonstrates an
understanding of how each of the following concepts can
lead to an inaccurate perception, cognition, or conclusion.
Each example must include an explanation of the
relationship between the concept and the inaccuracy.
• Afterimage effect
• Availability heuristic
• Ethnocentrism
• Groupthink
• Lack of object permanence
• Nonrandom assignment of research participants
• Optimistic explanatory style
• Proactive interference
Free Response Question 2005 #2
2.Psychologists conduct research to investigate controversial
issues. Consider the following:
• The value of diagnostic labeling
• Children’s acquisition of language
• Explanations of hypnosis
A. Describe the opposing points of view on each side of the
psychological issues listed above. Your description must
provide one argument on each side of the controversy.
B. For each issue, choose one point of view to support Using
evidence from psychological research, justify why you think
this point of view is correct.
Free Response Question 2006 #1
1. Psychologists use a variety of research methods to study
behavior. Three of the main research methods used are:
• Case study
• Correlational study, and
• Experiment.
A. Discuss one advantage of each research method listed
above.
B. Discuss one disadvantage of each research method
listed above.
Pretend you are a psychologist who will use each of the three
research methods - case study, correlational study, and
experiment - to determine the effect of taking vitamin J and
improving memory.
C. For each method listed above, explain a key
characteristic of the basic approach you could use to
reach a scientific conclusion about the relationship
between taking vitamin J and improving memory. You
need not design a complete study.
Free Response Question 2006 #2
2. Zoey wants to buy a new car but is having difficulty
deciding what kind of car to buy. She is feeling anxious and
wants to make a decision soon. Zoey visits several local car
dealers and asks for the advice of some of her friends.
Explain how each of the following could influence her
decision. Be sure to discuss each concept in the context of
Zoey’s decision.
• Approach-avoidance conflict
• Central route to persuasion
• Heuristics
• Individualism
• Rationalization
• Self-efficacy
• The autonomic nervous system
• The foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Free Response Question 2007 #1
1. Ellie, a new student at Skinner High School, is determined to
make friends. When she attends the first psychology club
meeting she finds herself in the room with twenty strangers who
seem to know each other well. She plans to attend a few more
meetings before deciding whether she will join.
A. Demonstrate how each of the following could HELP play
a role in Ellie’s quest for friendship. You may use a different
example for each concept. Definitions will not score.
• The mere-exposure effect
• Mnemonic device
• Schachter two-factor theory
• Locus of control
B. Demonstrate how each of the following could HINDER
Ellie’s quest for friendship. You may use a different example for
each concept. Definitions will not score.
• In-group bias
• Regression
• Operant conditioning
• Circadian rhythm.
Free Response Question 2007 #2
2. Often misunderstood, schizophrenia is a psychological
disorder affecting one percent of the population. In
addition, to treating the disorder, psychologists work to
identify its nature and origins.
•
Identify two characteristics symptoms used to diagnose
schizophrenia.
•
Discuss a research finding that supports a genetic basis
for schizophrenia.
•
What is the dopamine hypothesis regarding the origins
of schizophrenia?
•
Describe how medications used to treat schizophrenia
affect the actions of neurotransmitters at the synapses.
•
Identify a risk inherent in using medications in the
treatment of schizophrenia.
•
People sometimes confuse schizophrenia with
dissociative identify disorder (DID). Identify two key
characteristics that differentiate DID from
schizophrenia.
Free Response Question 2008 #1
1 The Smith-Garcias are planning for their first baby. Both
parents-to-be have had a psychology course and are looking
forward to applying the principles they learned from theories
and research that address child development.
A. Summarize one main idea or finding of each of the following
four researchers.
• Skinner’s operant conditioning
• Bandura’s social learning theory
• Ainsworth’s attachment research
• Baumrind’s research on parenting styles
B. Provide a specific example of actions the Smith-Garcias might
take to raise their child to produce positive outcomes using each
of the theories below to address the corresponding psychological
concept.
• Skinner’s operant conditioning: tantrum management
• Bandura’s social learning theory: sharing behavior
• Ainsworth’s attachment research: self-reliance
• Baumrind’s research on parenting styles: self-esteem
Free Response Question 2008 #2
Abstract
2. We conducted a variation of Ash’s (1951) conformity study in which
participants made judgements about the length of lines. We randomly
assigned participants to one of two conditions and told them that the study
involved perceptual abilities. In the first condition, participants estimated the
length of lines after hearing five people pretending to be participants
(confederates) give inaccurate estimates. In the second condition, participants
estimated the length of lines without hearing estimates of confederates. As we
expected, participants in the first condition were less accurate in their
estimates in line length, demonstrating the tendency to conform to majority
influence.
A. How would each element below be related to the specific content of the
experiment reported in the abstract?
• Control group
• Deception
• Operational definition of the dependent variable
• Hypothesis
• Debriefing
B. How might participants’ estimates on line length in the study be related to
the following?
• Cognitive dissonance
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Free Response Question 2009 #1
1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new routine to
compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an
example of how each of the following could affect their
performance. Definitions without application do not
score.
• Extrinsic motivation
• Punishment
• Proactive interference
• Endorphins
• Vestibular system
• Divergent thinking
• Introversion
Free Response Question 2009 #2
2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving
test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to
prepare students for a written test and a road test.
(a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to
drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do not
score.
• Cognitive map
• Cerebellum
• Observational learning
• Human factors
(b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of the
written test. Definitions without application do not score.
• Reticular formation
• Predictive validity
• Semantic memory
Free Response Question 200x #X
Free Response Question 200x #X
Download

AP Psychology Review