By: Omar, Robert, and Stephanie
Definition of Adolescence
• The development of children ages 12 through 18 years
old that is expected to include predictable physical and
mental milestones
Physical Development Girls
Children go through many changes as they move towards
becoming an adult
• Girls develop breasts fully between the ages 12 and 18
• Pubic hair
• Girls begin menstruation 2 years after breast and pubic hair
appear. Appears about as early as 10 and as late as 15
Physical Development Girls Part 2
• Girls grow rapidly between ages 9 and 14, at age 12 they have
reached their maximum height
Physical Development Boys
• Pubic hair begins at age 12 and reaches adult pattern at age
15 to 16
• Notice testicles and scrotum grow as early as age 9. Age 16
and 17 the genitals are usually at adult size and shape
• Unlike girls guys do not menstruate at the beginning of
puberty, instead they have “wet dreams” between the ages
13 and 17
Physical Development Part 2
• Boys voices change at the same time as the penis grows.
Nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) occur with the peak of the
height spurt
• Become very self-conscious, sensitive, and worry about body
• Girls worry about the beginning of their menstrual periods
and boys worry about not knowing what “wet dreams” are
• Separate from parents to find out who they are
• Find own peer group to test new ideas
Behavior Part 2
• In early stages kids start finding groups to hang out with
causing them to behave however the group is
• Age 14-16 the groups get interested romantically in each
• They become comfortable with their body and sexual feelings
through dating, experimenting, and romantic friendships
• As the kids grow they will start trying to do more stuff to fit in
a group
• Kids learn new things as they are in the mid stages. Stuff such
as taking rules seriously and wearing appropriate equipment
if doing something dangerous
• Adolescents have a high risk of depression and might attempt
suicide because of all the pressure they get
Tips parents use
• Let child be alone
• Do not tease child, it may lead to self-consciousness and
• To remember that the child is changing and being interested
in more things is normal and doesn’t just mean sexual activity
Independence and power struggles
• Parents should be able to be there for their children to listen
to ideas and be there for them when they fail or succeed
• Give limits on things and set rules because kids challenge
• Kids get more aggressive and they try to live life struggling to
get through day by day.
Theories Jean Piaget
• Jean Piaget talks about how it begins at age 11 and when
adolescents enter this stage, they start to think a different way, the
ability to combine and classify items in a more clear way, and better
• “The formal operational stage (Piaget, 1927) begins at about age
11. As adolescents enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in
an abstract manner, the ability to combine and classify items in a
more sophisticated way, and the capacity for higher-order
• “At about age 11+ years, the child begins to manipulate ideas in its
head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation; it has
entered the formal operational stage. It can do mathematical
calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine
the outcome of particular actions.”
Theories Erik Erikson
• “He emphasized the role of culture and society and the
conflicts that can take place within the ego itself,
whereas Freud emphasized the conflict between the id
and the superego.”
• “According to Erikson, the ego develops as it
successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social in
nature. These involve establishing a sense of trust in
others, developing a sense of identity in society, and
helping the next generation prepare for the future.”
Theories Sigmund Freud
• Sigmund Freud explains how teens start getting interested sexually or
emotionally in one another and to make sure your child is balanced out
• “Freud (1905) proposed that psychological development in childhood
takes place in a series of fixed stages. “
• “These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the
fixation of libido (roughly translated as sexual drives or instincts) on a
different area of the body. As a person grows physically certain areas of
their body becomes important as sources of potential frustration
(erogenous zones), pleasure or both.”
• “Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Freud also
believed that all tension was due to the build up of libido (sexual energy)
and that all pleasure came from its discharge.”
Theories Lawrence Kohlberg page 1
Lawrence talks about reasoning and punishment and he told a story about a man
who stole a drug from a store for his dying wife and Kohlberg did not care.
“Kohlberg was not interested so much in the answer to the question of whether
Heinz was wrong or right, but in the reasoning for each participant's decision. The
responses were then classified into various stages of reasoning in his theory of
moral development.”
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment
“The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children,
but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage,
children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it
is a means to avoid punishment.”
Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange
“At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view
and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. In the Heinz
dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was the choice that bestserved Heinz’s needs. Reciprocity is possible at this point in moral development,
but only if it serves one's own interests.”
Theories Lawrence Kohlberg page 2
Stage 3:Interpersonal Relationships
• “Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this
stage of moral development is focused on living up to social
expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being
"nice” and consideration of how choices influence relationships.”
Stage 4:Maintaining Social Order
• “At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider
society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on
maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty
and respecting authority.”
Stage 5: Social Contract and Individual Rights
• “At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values,
opinions and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for
maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree
upon these standards.”
Theories Lawrence Kohlberg page 3
Stage 6: Universal Principles
• Kohlberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical
principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these
internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.
• “Lawrence Kohlberg (1958) agreed with Piaget's (1932) theory of moral
development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further. “
• “He used Piaget’s story-telling technique to tell people stories involving
moral dilemmas. In each case he presented a choice to be considered for
example between the rights of some authority and the needs of some
deserving individual who is being unfairly treated”.
• “One of the best known of Kohlberg’s (1958) stories concerns a man called
Heinz who lived somewhere in Europe.”
• Adolescent development. Medlineplus, 2014. March 20, 2014.
• Cognitive Development. University of Rochester Medical Center, 2014.
March 14, 2014.
• Adolescent Development. University of Maryland Medical Center, 2014.
March 20, 2014.
• Physical Development. Boundless, ND. March 13, 2014.
• Some analytical considerations. The Research Cooperative, 2010, March
25, 2014
Bibliography 2
• Formal Operational Stage. SimplyPsychology, 2010. March 25, 2014.
• psychosocial stages. SimplyPsychology, 2013, March 25, 2014.
• Psychosexual Stages. SimplyPsychology, 2008. March 25, 2014.
• Kohlberg. SimplyPsychology, 2013. March 25, 2014.