Chapter Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
1. Explain the nature of the individual–organization relationship.
2. Define personality and describe personality attributes that affect
behavior in organizations.
3. Discuss individual attitudes in organizations and how they affect
behavior.
4. Describe basic perceptual processes and the role of attributions
in organizations.
5. Discuss the causes and consequences of stress and describe
how it can be managed.
6. Describe creativity and its role in organizations.
7. Explain how workplace behaviors can directly or indirectly
influence organizational effectiveness.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–2
Understanding Individuals
in Organizations
• The Psychological Contract
–The overall set of expectations held by an individual
with respect to what he or she will contribute to the
organization and what the organization will provide
in return.
Individual
Contributions
The Psychological
Contract
Organizational
Inducements
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9–3
FIGURE 9.1
The Psychological Contract
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–4
Understanding Individuals
in Organizations
• The Person-Job Fit
–The extent to which the contributions made by the
individual match the inducement offered by the
organization.
• Each employee has a specific set of needs to be fulfilled and
a set of job-related behaviors to contribute.
• The degree to which the organization can take advantage of
those behaviors and, in turn, fulfill an employee’s needs will
determine the level of person-job fit.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–5
Personality and Individual Behavior
• Personality
–The relatively stable set of psychological and
behavioral attributes that distinguish one person
from another.
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
The “Big Five”
Personality Traits
Negative Emotionality
Extroversion
Openness
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9–6
FIGURE 9.2
The “Big Five” Model of Personality
Agreeableness
High agreeableness
Low agreeableness
Conscientiousness
High conscientiousness
Low conscientiousness
Negative Emotionality
Less negative emotionality
More negative emotionality
Extraversion
More extraversion
More introversion
Openness
More openness
Less openness
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–7
The “Big Five” Personality Traits
• Agreeableness
– A person’s ability to get along with others.
• Conscientiousness
– The number of goals on which a person focuses.
• Negative emotionality
– The extent to which a person is poised, calm, resilient, and
secure.
• Extraversion
– A person’s comfort level with relationships.
• Openness
– A person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–8
The Myers-Briggs Framework
• Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
– A questionnaire used to differentiate personalities on
the dimensions of the MB framework
– Useful to determine communication styles and
interaction preferences; has questionable reliability
and validity.
• Personality Types
–
–
–
–
Extraversion (E) versus Introversion (I)
Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N)
Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F)
Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)
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9–9
Personality Traits
Locus of control
Self-efficacy
Machiavellianism
Personality
Traits at Work
Authoritarianism
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Self-Esteem
Risk propensity
9–10
Personality Traits at Work
• Locus of Control
–The extent to which people believe that their behavior
has a real effect on what happens to them.
–Internal locus of control—individuals who believe
they are in control of their lives.
–External locus of control—individuals believe that
external forces dictate what happens to them.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–11
Personality Traits at Work (cont’d)
• Self-Efficacy
–A person’s belief about his or her capabilities to
perform a task.
–High self-efficacy individuals believe they can perform
well while low self-efficacy individuals doubt their
ability to perform.
• Authoritarianism
–The extent to which an individual believes that power
and status differences are appropriate within
hierarchical social systems like organizations.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–12
Personality Traits at Work (cont’d)
• Machiavellianism
–Individual behavior directed at gaining power and
controlling the behavior of others.
• Self-Esteem
–The extent to which a person believes she/he is a
worthwhile individual.
• Risk Propensity
–The degree to which an individual is willing to take
chances and make risky decisions.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–13
Emotional Intelligence
• Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
–The extent to which people are self-aware, can
manage their emotions, can motivate themselves,
express empathy, and possess social skills.
Self-awareness
Managing Emotions
Dimensions
of EQ
Motivating oneself
Empathy
Social skills
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9–14
Attitudes and Individual Behavior
• Attitudes
–Complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have
about specific ideas, situations, or other people.
• Cognitive Dissonance
–The mental discomfort that individuals experience
when their own attitudes are in conflict with their
intended behavior.
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9–15
Attitudinal Components
Affective
Component
How we feel toward
the situation
Cognitive
Component
Intentional
Component
Why we feel
that way
How we intend to
behave toward or
in the situation
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–16
Work-Related Attitudes
• Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction
–An attitude that reflects the extent to which an
individual is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work.
• Job Satisfaction and Work Behaviors
–Job satisfaction is influenced by personal, group, and
organizational factors.
• Satisfied employees are absent from work less often, make
positive contributions, and stay with the organization.
• Dissatisfied employees are absent from work more often, may
experience stress which disrupts coworkers, and are
continually looking for another job.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–17
Work-Related Attitudes (cont’d)
• Job Satisfaction and Work Behaviors
–High levels of job satisfaction do not
necessarily lead to high job performance.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–18
Work-Related Attitudes (cont’d)
• Organizational Commitment
–An attitude that reflects an individual’s identification
with and attachment to an organization.
• Organizational Commitment
and Work Behaviors
–Employee commitment strengthens with an
individual’s age, years with the organization, sense of
job security, and participation in decision making.
–Committed employees have highly reliable habits,
plan a longer tenure with the organization, and muster
more effort in performance.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–19
Affect and Mood in Organizations
• Positive Affectivity
–A tendency to be relatively upbeat and optimistic,
have an overall sense of well-being, see things in a
positive light, and seem to be in a good mood.
• Negative Affectivity
–A tendency to be generally downbeat and pessimistic,
tend to see things in a negative way, and seem to be
in a bad mood.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–20
Perception and Individual Behavior
• Perception
–The set of processes by which an individual becomes
aware of and interprets information.
• Selective Perception
–The process of screening out information that we are
uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs.
–If selective perception causes someone to ignore
important information it can become quite detrimental.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–21
Perception (cont’d)
• Stereotyping
–The process of categorizing or labeling people on the
basis of a single attribute (e.g., gender and race.)
–Stereotyping may cost the organization valuable
talent, violate federal anti-bias laws, and is unethical.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–22
FIGURE 9.3
Perceptual Processes
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–23
Characteristics and Processes
That Affect Perception
Characteristics
of the person:
• Salience
• Disposition
• Attitudes
• Self-concept
• Personality
Characteristics
of the object:
• Contrast
• Intensity
• Movement
• Repetition
• Novelty
Situational
characteristics:
• Selection
• Organization
• Stereotyping
• Halo
• Projection
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–24
Perception and Perceptual Processes
• Attribution
–A mechanism through which we observe behavior and
attribute a cause to it.
• How Behavioral Attributions Are Formed:
–Consensus
• Do other people in the same situation behave the same way?
–Consistency
• Does this person behave the same way at different times?
–Distinctiveness
• Does this person behave the same way in other situations?
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–25
Stress and Individual Behavior
• Stress
–A person’s response to a strong stimulus (i.e., a
stressor.)
• General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
–Stage 1 Alarm
• Panic, wondering how to cope, and a feeling of helplessness.
–Stage 2 Resistance
• Individual is actively resisting the effects of the stressor.
–Stage 3 Exhaustion
• Prolonged exposure to stress causes an individual to give up.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–26
FIGURE 9.4
The General Adaptation Syndrome
Stage 1
Alarm
Stage 2
Resistance
Stage 3
Exhaustion
Response to
stressful
event
Normal level of
resistance
Stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome
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9–27
Personality Types
• Type A personality
–Extremely competitive, aggressive, devoted to work,
have a strong sense of time urgency, impatient.
–Have a lot of drive and want to accomplish as much as
possible as quickly as possible.
• Type B personality
–Less competitive, less devoted to work, have a weaker
sense of time urgency.
–Less likely to experience personal stress or to come
into conflict with other people.
–Likely to have a balanced, relaxed approach to life.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–28
FIGURE 9.5
Causes of Work Stress
Organizational Stressors
Task
Demands
• Quick decisions
• Incomplete information for decisions
• Critical decisions
Physical
Demands
Role
Demands
Interpersonal
Demands
• Temperature extremes
• Role ambiguity
• Group pressures
• Poorly designed office
• Role conflict
• Leadership styles
• Threats to health
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
• Conflicting
personalities
9–29
Consequences of Stress
• Negative personal
consequences
–Behavioral—smoking,
alcoholism, overeating,
drug abuse.
–Psychological—sleep
disturbances,
depression.
–Medical—heart disease,
stroke, backaches,
ulcers, skin conditions.
• Negative work-related
consequences
–Poor quality work
output and lower
productivity.
–Job dissatisfaction, low
morale, and a lack of
commitment.
–Withdrawal through
indifference and
absenteeism.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–30
Individual Consequences of Stress
• Burnout
–A feeling of exhaustion that may develop when
someone experiences too much stress for an
extended period of time.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–31
Managing Stress
Regular Exercise
Stress
Management Strategies
for Individuals
Relaxation
Time Management
Support Groups
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–32
Stress Management Strategies
• Regular Exercise
–Reduces tension and stress, and improves selfconfidence and feelings of optimism.
• Relaxation
–Allows individuals to adapt
and deal with their stress.
• Time Management
–Reduces stress by prioritizing activities to accomplish
them in their order of importance.
• Support Groups
–Socializing away from work reduces stress.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–33
Creativity in Organizations
• Creativity
–The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or
to conceive of new perspectives in existing ideas.
• The Creative Individual
–Background experiences and creativity
–Personal traits and creativity
• Creative persons have personal traits of openness,
an attraction to complexity, high levels of energy,
independence, autonomy, strong self-confidence,
and a strong belief in their own creativity.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–34
Creativity in Organizations (cont’d)
• Cognitive Abilities and Creativity
–Most creative people are highly intelligent.
–They are both divergent and convergent thinkers, a
skill they use to see differences and similarities in
situations, phenomena, and events.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–35
The Creative Process
Preparation
Incubation
Insight
Verification
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9–36
The Creative Process
• Preparation
–Formal education and training is
used to “get up to speed.”
–Experiences on the job provide
additional knowledge and ideas.
• Incubation
–A period of conscious concentration
during which knowledge and ideas
mature and develop.
–Incubation is helped by pauses in
rational thought.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–37
The Creative Process (cont’d)
• Insight
–A spontaneous breakthrough in which the creative
person achieves a new understanding of some
problem or situation.
–Patterns of thought coalesce into a new understanding.
• Verification
–Determines the validity or truthfulness of the insight.
–Tests are conducted and prototypes are built to see
if the insight leads to the expected results.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–38
The Creative Process (cont’d)
• Enhancing Creativity in
Organizations
–Make creativity part of the
organization’s culture.
• Set goals for revenues from
creative products and services.
• Reward creative success; refrain
from punishing creative failures—
some ideas work out as expected,
others don’t.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–39
Workplace Behaviors
Types of Workplace
Behaviors
Performance
Behaviors
Withdrawal
Behaviors
Organizational
Citizenship
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9–40
Types of Workplace Behavior
• Workplace Behavior
–A pattern of action by the
members of an organization that
directly or indirectly influences
organizational effectiveness.
• Performance Behaviors
–The total set of work-related
behaviors an organization
expects an individual to display.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–41
Types of Workplace Behavior (cont’d)
• Withdrawal Behaviors
–Absenteeism
• Occurs when an individual does not show up for work when
expected for legitimate or feigned reasons.
• May be a symptom of other work-related problems.
–Turnover
• occurs when individuals quit their jobs for work-related or
personal reasons.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–42
Attitude–Behavior Relationships
General Attitudes
General Behaviors
Specific Attitude
Specific Behavior
Example
Example
Positive attitude
toward working hard
this morning
High work
performance during
morning hours
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–43
Types of Workplace Behavior (cont’d)
• Organizational Citizenship
–The behavior of individuals that makes a positive
overall contribution to the organization.
Determinants of
Organizational Citizenship
Individual’s
personality, attitudes,
and needs
Social context of
the workplace
(work group)
Organization’s
capability to reward
citizenship
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9–44
Types of Workplace Behavior (cont’d)
• Dysfunctional Behaviors
–Behaviors that detract from, rather than
contribute to, organizational performance.
• Absenteeism and turnover
• Theft and sabotage
• Sexual and racial harassment
• Politicized behavior
• Intentionally misleading others
• Spreading malicious rumors
• Workplace violence
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
9–45
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