Brain regions activated more strongly during lucid dreaming
than in a normal dream. (Credit: MPI of Psychiatry)

“A secret theater of speechless monologue and
prevenient counsel, an invisible mansion of all
moods, musings, and mysteries, an infinite resort
of disappointments and discoveries. A whole
kingdom where each of us reigns reclusively alone,
questioning what we will, commanding what we
can. A hidden hermitage where we may study out
the troubled book of what we have done and yet
may do. An introcosm that is more myself than
anything I can find in a mirror. This consciousness
that is myself of selves, that is everything, and yet
nothing at all一 what is it?” - Dr. Julian Jaynes



Consciousness (text): “everything of which we
are aware at any given time – our thoughts,
feelings, sensations, and perceptions of the
external environment”
But what about the internal world of
introspection, imagination, planning,
reminiscence, etc?
A new approach is needed to begin to explain
human consciousness…



Consciousness as a fundamental property of
matter; human consciousness derives from a
succession of increasingly complex
awareness/“self-knowledge”
Consciousness as a property of all life forms: all
cells/organisms are “conscious” because they
modify their behavior to changing conditions
But what about the HUGE differences in the
conscious lives of
cells/bacteria/plants/animals and modern
humans?



Reflective consciousness: the unique ability among
modern (<3,000 yrs/post-syntactical language)
humans to create narratives in introspective mindspace based on symbolic representations of
rational and emotive interpretations of “reality”
Language/communication as an organ of
perception that builds consciousness
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xt3XwCV3Q
SY

“And this brings us to a very important part of the
problem — our sympathy and identification with
other living things. What-ever conclusions we may
hold on the matter, it is certainly a part of our
consciousness to ‘see’ into the consciousness of
others, to identify with our friends and families so
as to imagine what they are thinking and feeling.
And so if animals are behaving such as we would
in similar situations, so well are we trained in our
human sympathies that it requires a particular
vigor of mind to suppress such identifications
when they are not warranted. The explanation for
our imputing consciousness to protozoa is simply
that we make this common and misleading
identification. Yet the explanation for their
behavior resides entirely in physical chemistry, not
in introspective psychology.” - Jaynes


Reflective consciousness grants humans the ability
to extend their self-image from basic biological
imperatives, reactions, and physiological-based
perceptions into limitless “Others”
“Self-awareness – the consciousness of our own
persona over time, a sense of who we are, our
hopes and fears, as we daydream about ourselves
in relation to others. We do not see our conscious
selves in mirrors, even though that image may
become the emblem of the self in many cases…” Jaynes

. The chimpanzees in this experiment and the
two-year old child learned a point-to-point
relation between a mirror image and the body,
wonderful as that is. Rubbing a spot noticed in
the mirror is not essentially different from
rubbing a spot noticed on the body without a
mirror. The animal is not shown to be
imagining himself anywhere else, or thinking
of his life over time, or introspecting in any
sense — all signs of a conscious life.
 What
Is Consciousness?
 Circadian Rhythms
 Sleep
 Dreams
 Meditation and Hypnosis
 Psychoactive Drugs
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 Consciousness
 everything of which we are aware at any given time
 thoughts, feelings, sensations, and external environment
 Early
Psychologists
 saw consciousness as psychological in nature
 Today’s

Psychologists
think about consciousness in neurobiological terms due
to recent scientific advances
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 Altered
State of Consciousness
• a change in awareness produced by sleep, meditation,
hypnosis, or drugs
 Religious and Cultural Traditions
• often have supernatural explanations for altered states of
consciousness
• Many have rituals that intentionally induce altered states of
consciousness.
 There
may be a universal human need to
produce and maintain varieties of conscious
experiences.
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 Circadian
Rhythm
 regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily
functions and behaviors within a 24-hour cycle
 regulate all vital life functions
 More than 100 bodily functions and behaviors follow circadian
rhythms.
 Suprachiasmatic
Nucleus
• structure in the hypothalamus
• body’s biological clock
• controls timing of circadian rhythms
• signals pineal gland to secrete or suppress melatonin
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 The
ebb and flow of circadian rhythms is not
strictly biological.
• Photoreceptors in retinas respond to the amount of light
reaching the eye, affecting rhythms.
 Two
Important Circadian Rhythms
• body temperature
 sleep best when body temperature is lowest
 most alert when body temperature is at daily high point
• alertness
 follows a circadian rhythm separate from sleep/wakefulness cycle
 less alert between 2:00 and 5:00 p.m., 2:00 and 7:00 a.m.
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 Jet
lag and working during subjective night
disrupt circadian rhythms.
• can lead to sleep difficulty, reduced alertness,
memory deficits
• Melatonin supplements are helpful in alleviating
jet lag.
 Subjective
Night
• time during a 24-hour period when the biological
clock tells a person to go to sleep
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 Two
complementary theories have been
advanced to explain the need to sleep.
• restorative theory of sleep
 The function of sleep is to restore body and mind.
 Restoration of energy and the consolidation of memory do occur
during sleep.
• circadian theory of sleep
 Sleep evolved to keep humans out of harm’s way during the
night.
 also known as evolutionary or adaptive theory
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■ Stage 1: transition from waking
to sleeping; irregular waves with
occasional alpha waves
■ Stage 2: transition from light to
deeper sleep; sleep spindles
(waves with alternating periods
of calm and flashes of intense
activity) appear
■ Stage 3: deeper sleep; slowwave sleep begins when EEG
shows that 20 percent of brain
waves are delta waves
■ Stage 4: deepest sleep; Stage 4
sleep begins when 50 percent of
waves are delta waves
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

During REM, the brain is highly active.
Epinephrine is released into the system.
•
Blood pressure rises.
• Heart rate and respiration become faster and less regular.



Most vivid dreams occur during REM.
REM sleep may be critical to the consolidation of memories.
REM Rebound
• increase in REM sleep after REM deprivation
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
Infants and Young Children
• sleep the longest
• have largest percentage of REM and slow-wave sleep

Children from 6 to Puberty
• sleep best
• most consistent sleepers and wakers

Adolescents
• sleep patterns influenced by schedules
• Insufficient sleep may contribute to poor school performance.

Older Adults
• more difficulty falling asleep; sleep more lightly
• spend more time in bed, but less time asleep
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 Effects
of Sleep Deprivation
• difficulty concentrating
• impaired learning
• negative mood
 Effects
on the Brain
• decreased activity in temporal lobes during verbal
learning tasks
• increased activity in prefrontal cortex and parietal
lobes
 compensates for decreased temporal lobe activity
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 Parasomnia
 behaviors and physiological states that normally
occur only in the waking state take place during sleep
 Dyssomnia
• sleep disorder in which the timing, quantity, or quality
of sleep is impaired
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 REM
Dreams
• have a story-like quality
• more visual, vivid, and emotional than NREM dreams
 NREM
Dreams
• occur during NREM sleep
• less frequent and memorable than REM dreams
 Lucid
Dreaming
• set of techniques that enable dreamers to control the
content of dreams
• Lucid dreams about exercise actually seem to improve
heart function.
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 Freud
believed that dreams satisfy
unconscious sexual and aggressive desires.
• These desires are unacceptable to the dreamer and
must be disguised in symbolic forms.
• manifest content
 content of a dream as recalled by the dreamer
• latent content
 the underlying meaning of a dream
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 Activation-Synthesis
Theory
• Dreams are the brain’s attempt to make sense of
the random firing of brain cells during REM sleep.
 Evolutionary
Theory
• Vivid REM dreams enable people to rehearse
skills needed to deal with threatening events.
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
Techniques used to:
• Block out distractions and achieve an altered state of
consciousness
• Focus attention on an object, word, one’s breathing, or body
movements

Can be helpful for physical and psychological problems
• controlling emotions
• lowering blood pressure

Neuroimaging studies suggest that some areas of brain
may be permanently changed by long-term meditation
practice.
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 Procedure
through which a hypnotist uses
suggestion to change thoughts, feelings,
sensations, perceptions, or behavior in the
subject
 Some
people cannot be hypnotized.
 Viable
technique used in medicine, dentistry,
psychiatry
 Used
in surgical pain management
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 Any
substance that alters mood, perception, or
thought
• controlled substances
 approved for medical use
• illicit substances
 illegal
 Many
over-the-counter drugs are psychoactive.
• antihistamines, decongestants
 Certain
foods (such as chocolate) may alter
mood.
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 Psychoactive
drugs create a sense of pleasure
by increasing availability of dopamine in the
nucleus accumbens, a part of the brain’s limbic
system.
 How
drugs affect neurotransmission:
• Opiates mimic the effects of endorphins.
• Depressants act on GABA receptors.
• Stimulants mimic the effects of epinephrine.
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 Substance
Abuse
• continued use of a substance that negatively affects an
individual's work, education, and social relationships
 Physical
Drug Dependence
• User develops:
 drug tolerance
 becomes less affected by drug, needs more for same effect
 withdrawal symptoms
 physical and psychological symptoms that arise when use is discontinued
 Psychological
Drug Dependence
• a craving or irresistible urge for the drug’s pleasurable
effects
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 Speed
up activity in the central nervous system
• suppress appetite
• User feels more awake, alert, and energetic.
 Stimulants
•
•
•
•
include:
Caffeine
Nicotine
Amphetamine
Cocaine
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 Decrease
activity in the central nervous
system
• slow down bodily functions
• reduce sensitivity to outside stimulation
 Categories:
• Sedative-hypnotics
 alcohol
 barbiturates
 minor tranquilizers (benzodiazepines)
• Narcotics (opiates)
 morphine, heroin
 OxyContin, Vicodin
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
Alter and distort perceptions of time and space

Cause hallucinations
• have no basis in external reality

Magnify the mood of the user at the time the drug was
taken

Hallucinogens include:
• Marijuana
 impairs attention and coordination and slows reaction time
 smaller brain volume and a lower percentage of gray matter in the
brain’s cortex in users starting before age 17
 appears to permanently stunt the development of neurons in the
hippocampal regions of the brains of young users
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
LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
• Average “trip” lasts 10 to 12 hours
• Usually produces extreme perceptual and emotional changes
 visual hallucinations and feelings of panic
• Some users develop hallucinogen persisting perception disorder
(HPPD)
 visual cortex highly stimulated whenever individual shuts eyes
 chronic visual hallucinations when trying to sleep

Designer Drugs
• Attempt to mimic effects of other drugs without negative effects
• All are derived from amphetamine.
• STP (Serenity, Tranquility, Peace) and Ecstasy (MDMA)
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 Medical
Marijuana
 Psilocybin
 Ibogaine
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Reserved